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Title: Bringing Sisyphusian Tenacity to Work: Building Capacity and Competence through Collaboration and Confidence


1
Bringing Sisyphusian Tenacity to
WorkBuildingCapacity and CompetencethroughCo
llaboration and Confidence
Research without (Southern) Borders May 22. 23.
2003, Ottawa, Canada
  • Andreas Steigen, Director
  • Centre for Studies of Environment and Resources
  • University of Bergen, Norway

2
National Policies and StrategiesMinistry of
Foreign Affairs, January 1999
  • Strategy for strengthening research and higher
    education in the context of Norways relations
    with developing countries
  • Strengthening of research and higher education
    and use of research-based knowledge in the South
  • Support for international research
  • Research and commissioned studies as a basis for
    Norwegian South policy
  • Coordination and integration

3
Strengthening of research and higher education
and use of research-based knowledge in the South
  • The objective of Norwegian research assistance
    and support for competence- and capacity-building
    in the South is
  • to improve the developing countries ability to
    carry out research and higher education on the
    basis of the countries own needs and their
    ability to make use of existing research results

4
Support for research and higher education through
NORAD
  • The objectives of NORADs support to research and
    higher education in the South are
  • to promote conditions that advance and encourage
    the development and use of research-based
    knowledge,
  • to contribute to the development of universities
    and other relevant institutions for higher
    education and research in their capacity as key
    institutions for teaching, research and the
    dissemination of knowledge, and as contributors
    to development.

5
Cooperation with Norwegian institutions on
support for higher education and training
  • The purpose of support for higher education and
    training in cooperation with Norwegian
    institutions is
  • to strengthen competence and capacity in key
    subject areas of strategic importance to
    recipient countries and where the Norwegian
    institutions have particular expertise and
    competence.

6
Collaboration between research institutions in
Norway and in developing countries
  • The purpose of cooperation between research
    institutions in Norway and corresponding
    institutions in the South is
  • to help to build up research competence in
    developing countries,
  • to promote South-South collaboration,
  • to promote a dialogue with research institutions
    in the South as part of an integrated Norwegian
    South policy.

7
Support for international research
  • Through contributions to international research
    institutions and multilateral organizations whose
    activities include research, the Foreign Ministry
    will
  • contribute to the development, dissemination and
    application of knowledge of global significance
    and of particular relevance to development in the
    South in the struggle against poverty, e.g. by
    improving agricultural systems, food security,
    the environment, health and social welfare,
  • help to ensure that international research
    institutions emphasize cooperation with
    developing countries in order to increase
    research capacity in the South.

8
The Foreign Ministry will make efforts to ensure
that, in addition to scientific quality,
international research gives priority to
  • research that is significant for and relevant to
    the poorest ,
  • research that is interdisciplinary, socially
    oriented and promotes international coordination
    measures,
  • research that promotes a womens perspective and
    gender equality , including ways in which women
    can be integrated into the process of
    development,
  • research that helps to strengthen national
    research capacity and competence in the South
    through cooperation between international and
    national research institutions,
  • the use of knowledge and the adaptation of
    research to local conditions in developing
    countries,
  • the use of research results in the operational
    activities of multilateral organisations .

9
Research and commissioned studies as a basis for
Norwegian South policy
  • The overriding objective of support to Norwegian
    development research is
  • to contribute to the long-term development of
    knowledge that can serve as a basis for the
    formulation of an integrated Norwegian South
    policy and for planning and follow-up of
    Norwegian development assistance through
    bilateral and multilateral channels in terms of
    management and governance.

10
The instruments
11
SIU (Centre for International University
Cooperation) is a Norwegian centre of expertise
whose objective is to promote the participation
of Norwegian educational and research
institutions in international cooperation. SIU
organises the joint efforts of its member
institutions, and it manages and develops
programmes and support functions for
international cooperation.
12
NUFU - EQUAL PARTNERSHIPS FOR MUTUAL BENEFITS
NUFU is an acronym for the Norwegian Council
for Higher Educations Programme for Development
Research and Education.
The overriding goal of the NUFU programme is to
contribute to building competence in research and
higher education in developing countries.
13
Equal and long term collaboration
  • Cooperation based on institutional partnership
  • Activities and projects initiated by individual
    researchers
  • Assessments, reviews, quality assurance, and
    reporting by the participating institutions
  • External evaluation of projects by NUFU
  • NUFU itself evaluated in 2000 by the Dutch agency
    NUFFIC
  • NUFU is successful, playing a significant role
    an important and strategic tool for academic
    development collaboration
  • Uniqueness of NUFU
  • Supporting long-term academic, reciprocal
    collaboration in partnership between universities
    and colleges in Norway and developing countries

14
Strategy of the University of BergenDevelopment
related education and research
  • The strategic plan 2000-2005
  • Two main priorities
  • Marine research
  • Internationalisation,
  • especially collaboration with institutions in the
    third world in education and research

15
UoB Strategic main initiatives
  • The University of Bergen will uphold its
    international profile and especially strengthen
    its research collaboration with countries in the
    third world.
  • This collaboration shall purposely reflect UoBs
    responsibility for research in a global
    perspective.

16
UoB Strategic initiatives
  • UoB shall give priority to collaboration with
    institutions in developing countries.
  • This collaboration shall be formalised at
    different levels, be mutual and be organised in
    projects, exchange programmes, and research
    education.
  • Institutional building in developing countries
    will be supported

17
UoB International bilateral agreements
  • Europe (17)
  • USA (11)
  • Canada (3)
  • South America (8)
  • Africa (6)
  • Asia (19)
  • Australia (5)

18
UoB NUFU portfolio
  • 2002 - 2007 - 19 NUFU - projects (94 mill. NOK)
  • Africa 13, Asia 5, Middle East 1
  • Health 10, Natural Sciences 4, Social Sciences 4,
    Arts 1
  • 1991 - 2001 - 22 NUFU - projects (153 mill. NOK)
  • Africa 14, Asia 6, Middle East 1, Central
    America 1
  • Health 9, Natural Sciences 5, Social Sciences 6,
    Arts 2

19
Other funding sources
  • NORAD scholarship programme
  • especially designed courses with special
    relevance
  • UoB arrangements
  • The quota programme (Join our courses!)
  • The guest researcher programme
  • The strategic funding programme (seed money)
  • Special funding from the Office of International
    Relations
  • Earmarked funding from departments/centres/faculti
    es/university
  • Then NORAD, NFR, EU, UNDP, UNEP, NGOs,

20
The Mak/UiB collaboration as per May 2003
  • Compiled by
  • by Livingstone Luboobi and Andreas Steigen

21
The University of Bergen a brief description
  • 7 faculties
  • 17 000 students
  • 2 500 faculty and staff
  • City university
  • Learning networks
  • Main priorities
  • Marine research
  • North-south research

22
Makerere University a brief description
  • 20 faculties/institutes/schools
  • 32 000 students
  • Day, evening, external study programmes.
  • 5 000 faculty and staff
  • City university
  • Learning networks
  • East African centres in
  • Library science
  • ICT

23
The University of Bergen a brief history
  • 1825 Bergen Museum
  • 1873 Leprosy bacterium discovered by Dr Armauer
    Hansen
  • 1907 Sundt Chair of Zoology
  • 1948 Formal opening
  • Faculties of Medicine, Mathematics and
  • Natural Science, Arts
  • 1970 Faculties of Dentistry, Social Sciences
  • 1980 Faculties of Psychology, Law
  • 1986 UNIFOB
  • 1986 - 1990 4 centres for Sustainable
    Development
  • 1990 Bertelsmann Prize
  • 2002 Three Centers of Excellence granted

24
Makerere University a brief history
1922 - Uganda Technical College, 14 students in
Carpentry, Building and Mechanics. Soon offering
courses in Medical Care, Agriculture, Veterinary
Sciences and Teacher Training. 1937 Makerere
starts to offer post-school certificate courses.
1949 - College for the whole of Eastern Africa,
with courses leading to General Degrees of the
University of London. June 29, 1963 - University
of East Africa established, degrees of the
University of East Africa were instituted. July
1, 1970 - Makerere became an independent national
University of the Republic of Uganda, offering
undergraduate and postgraduate courses leading to
its own awards.
25
A short history of the Mak/UoB collaboration - I
  • 1988 Prof. Endre Lillethun visits Makerere
  • Application to NUFU for capacity building in
    Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics
  • 1991-1995 NUFU Project 39/91 Basic Science for
    Technological Development in Uganda (Phase I)
  • Change in top executive at Makerere
  • 1996-2001 NUFU Project 39.2/91 Basic Science for
    Technological Development in Uganda (Phase II)
  • 1997 Professor Livingstone Luboobi project
    coordinator at Makerere
  • 1998 Professor Andreas Steigen project
    coordinator at UoB
  • Frame Agreement signed
  • Nature, Society and Water project starts
  • 2000 VC John Ssebuwufu bestowed an Honorary
    Doctorate at UoB

26
A short history of the Mak/UoB collaboration - II
  • 2002 NUFU
  • Essential Nutrition and Child Health in Uganda A
    Research Project to Promote Innovative
    Community-based and Clinical Actions.
  • Research in Basic Sciences at Makerere and
    Collaborating Universities to Promote
    Technological Development.
  • 2002 Agreement for the co-operation of the
    Libraries at Makerere and UoB is signed
  • 2002 Agreement for the co-operation of the
    Finance Dept. Makerere and Economy Budget Dept.
    UoB is signed
  • 2002 Collaboration between the DICTS at Makerere
    and the IT Department at UoB.
  • 2002 Collaboration in developing a computerised
    data base for personnel at Makerere has started
  • 2003 Change in top executive at Makerere.

27
The Frame Agreement - I
  • Article 1 Areas of co-operation
  • 1.1 This agreement shall be considered an element
    in the strategic work at MU and UoB by giving
    priority to collaboration projects between
    scientists from the two academic institutions.
    There shall be mutual information on ongoing and
    new international activities, and scientists may
    be invited to participate in ongoing and future
    research projects if funding can be provided.

28
The Frame Agreement - II
  • Article 2 Research and teaching
  • Article 3 Exchange of staff
  • Article 4 Exchange of graduate students
  • Article 5 Funding and finance
  • Article 6 Annex
  • Article 7 Management and administration of the
    collaboration
  • Article 8 Disputes, time frame, termination, and
    ratification

Signed in Kampala, 18th of November 1999
29
Present facilities at Makerere
  • UoB - coordinator
  • UoB Offices - seminar room
  • all expenses covered by Makerere
  • Secretary
  • Administrator of student affairs (funding 50/50)
  • Office equipment
  • LAN and Internet connection
  • Boat
  • Cars
  • Driver (funded by Makerere)

30
Research Project Activities 1
  • Nature, Society Water
  • Lake Victoria - History of Man and Water
  • A comprehensive interdisciplinary study in
  • Fresh Water Ecology
  • Social sciences
  • History
  • Law
  • Total number of students and researchers
    involved 14
  • Funding
  • Norwegian Research Council (NFR)
  • UoB, Makerere, NORAD

31
Research Project Activities 2 a
Research in Basic Sciences at Makerere and
Collaborating Universities to Promote
Technological Development. Subprojects
  1. Analysis and Application of Anthocyanin Pigments
    from Flowers, Fruits and Vegetables
  2. Chemotaxonomic Investigation of the Fatty Acids
    Composition in Different Organs of Various Fish
    Species/Populations from Lake Victoria and
    Evaluation of their Industrial Applications in
    Uganda
  3. Environmental Chemistry
  4. Enhancing and Sustaining Pedagogical Quality in
    Science and Mathematics Teacher Education at
    Makerere University
  5. Capacity building and joint research in
    Industrial and Financial Mathematics
  6. Joint research in Statistics, Mathematical
    Modelling in Epidemiology and Numerical Analysis
  7. Materials Science (to be phased out)
  8. Environmental Physics Light and Life in African
    Environments
  9. Environmental Physics Solar Energy project

32
Research Project Activities 2 b
  • Production
  • 1991-2001 18 PhD ( 6 UoB), 44 Master, 7
    Bachelors
  • 2002- 5 PhD (16 registered), 3 Master
  • Papers, Seminars, Courses,
  • Number of staff involved (2002- )
  • Makerere 10 , UoB 13
  • Funding
  • NUFU
  • UoB, Makerere

33
Research Project Activities 3
  • Essential Nutrition and Child Health in Uganda A
    Research Project to Promote Innovative
    Community-based and Clinical Actions.
  • Started 2002
  • Master and PhD students in Bergen
  • Funding
  • NUFU
  • UoB, Makerere, NORAD

34
Research Project Activities 4
  • Network in Pathology
  • Started 2003
  • Master and PhD students in Bergen
  • Funding
  • NUFU
  • UoB, Makerere, NORAD

35
Administrative projects - 1
  • HURIS Human Resource Information Systems
  • Collaboration within the following major areas
  • The Human Resource Information System
  • The Human Resource Policy Development
  • Business Process Re-engineering
  • Human Resource Development
  • People involved Makerere 8, Bergen 12
  • Funding Each university has paid its own cost

36
Administrative projects - 2
  • FINIS the financial information system
  • Collaboration within the following areas
  • Facilitating the implementation of the FINIS
    project by sharing experiences
  • Learning from best practices
  • Training in implementing financial systems
  • People involved Makerere 10, Bergen 8
  • Funding Each university pays its own costs

37
Administrative projects - 3
  • LIBIS - The Library Information System
  • Collaboration areas
  • Inter-library Loan
  • Practical training
  • Technical support in development and
    implementation of a Digital Science Library at
    Makerere
  • Development of a Science Library at Makerere
  • Exchange of literature
  • People involvedMakerere 7, Bergen 6
  • Funding Each university has paid its own costs

38
Administrative projects - 4
  • DICTS Directorate for ICT Support
  • Collaboration areas
  • web design
  • networking
  • training and experience exchange
  • People involved Makerere 4, Bergen 2
  • Funding Most of the costs have so far been on
    the MU side. Both universities have paid their
    own costs.

39
How many are involved?
  • Researchers and administrative staff 95
  • Total estimate when students and candidates are
    involved 150

40
Student exchange
  • An Agreement on Student Exchange and Joint
    Degrees is being prepared and will be signed in
    June 2003
  • Problem areas
  • Credit transfer
  • Mutual acceptance of joint degrees
  • Definition of a Joint degree
  • Increasing student interest
  • Disciplines involved (so far)
  • Psychology, geography, political science, social
    anthropology, sociology, law, gender studies,
    medicine, ecology, zoology, botany
  • Exchange within the NUFU projects chemistry,
    physics, mathematics, science education,
    environmental science, medicine

41
Agreement on Student Exchange and Joint Degrees
-1
  • Topics
  • Student exchange
  • Student admission
  • Credit transfer
  • Services for exchange students
  • General programme admission
  • Joint degrees
  • Issues agreed upon regarding joint degrees

42
Student Exchange
  • 2. Credit Transfer
  • 2.1) Under the Frame Agreement Mak and UiB shall
    mutually recognise credits awarded at the other
    institution.
  • 2.2) In cases where there is substantial overlap
    between courses there shall be a deduction in
    credits corresponding to the overlap.
  • 2.3) The department responsible for the students
    study programme at the home institution shall
    accept the study plan at the host university
    before departure. This includes credit
    recognition.

43
Joint Degrees
  • A Joint Degree is a Master or PhD degree awarded
    at both universities in a sandwich programme
    and/or in joint research programmes between the
    two universities.
  • The principles on which joint Master and PhD
    degrees rest, are that
  • ? There is a matching Master degree at either
    University in the ordinary degree system.
  • ? Candidates shall fulfil the requirements,
    equivalent or additional, of the two universities
    for the registration and/or graduation of
    students at both universities.
  • ? A candidate for joint degree should preferably
    participate in a joint research project going on
    between the two universities.

44
Upcoming Joint Master Programmes
  • Joint Master in Water Studies
  • Water Studies, Integrated management of fresh
    water resources and wetlands (Makerere)
  • This is linked to the master at UoB in
  • Water Studies, Integrated coastal zone management
    (UoB)
  • (Planned to start September 2003)
  • Joint Master in Computer Science
  • Preliminary discussions started

45
Collaborations in the pipeline
  • Nile Basin Research Programme
  • Philosophy
  • Music
  • Dance and drama
  • Archaeology
  • Psychology
  • Gender studies
  • Social anthropology
  • Collaboration with University of Gambia and others

46
Experiences Gained - 1
  • In addition to the achievements indicated above,
    this should be noted
  • Joint supervision of Masters/Ph.D. students
    under the NUFU projects has made the
    collaborations between the various departments at
    Makerere and the corresponding departments at
    Norwegian universities strong and sustainable
  • The members of staff at Makerere who received
    support for their Masters degrees in the first
    phase of the NUFU programme, did their PhDs in
    the second phase. Now they are involved in
    collaborative research

47
Experiences Gained - 2
  • At the beginning the collaboration was between
    academic departments of Makerere and UoB. Now the
    collaboration has spread to include
    administration, finance, ICT, and libraries.
  • In the beginning, it was difficult for Makerere
    to raise funds for collaboration since there were
    no budget lines for collaborative activities. At
    present both the administration and the finance
    departments are actively involved in the
    collaboration. Budget lines for such
    collaboration have been established.
  • Despite changes of project coordinators and top
    executives at both Universities during the last
    10 years, the collaboration has grown stronger.
    This is attributed to good governance of the two
    Universities.

48
Problems solved (almost)
  • Communications and web pages
  • Budgeting and accounting procedures
  • Quarterly accounts and budgets
  • Banking
  • Exchange rates
  • Insurance procedures (AIG in Kampala)
  • Purchasing (expensive scientific equipment has to
    be paid in advance from Bergen before shipped to
    Makerere)
  • Repair and services mostly in Uganda
  • Transport - field work - boat
  • Library services
  • Visa are issued very quickly

49
Pending Problems
  • Clearance through customs
  • Optimal use of money (autumn-spending)
  • Detailed budgets
  • Exploding number of students
  • Student registration and housing
  • Course and curriculum descriptions
  • To little media exposure

50
How to make it work
  • Mutualism in collaboration
  • Building self-confidence in partners
  • Not aid, but cooperation in research and
    education
  • Completing the international network
  • Indicate benefits for all
  • Patience, persistence and long time involvement
  • Friendship and transparency
  • Gender issues
  • Natural selection of partners
  • Substitute partners when necessary
  • In three words
  • Commitment, dedication and loyalty
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