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The Mongol Empire


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Title: The Mongol Empire

"Total war" is a conflict of unlimited scope in
which a belligerent engages in a total
mobilization of its available resources (human,
industrial, agricultural, military, natural,
technological, or otherwise) in order to entirely
destroy a rival, or remove its rival's capacity
to continue resistance. In a total war, there is
less differentiation between combatants and
civilians than in other conflicts, and sometimes
no such differentiation at all, as nearly every
human resource, civilians and soldiers alike, can
be considered to be part of the belligerent
Your essay will be evaluated in accordance
with the following criteria
  • Introduction (20).
  • Does the introduction contain a clearly defined
    thesis stating your line of arguments?
  • Does the introduction provide 2-3 specific points
    as proof of the thesis to be defended in the body
    of the essay?
  • 2. Analysis and specific examples (50).
  • Do you analyse (rather than narrate) the 2 -3
    points mentioned in the introduction?
  • Do you support your arguments with specific
    examples drawn from 3 sources?
  • Are the sources properly quoted?
  • 3. Structure, grammar, style (30).
  • While the content of the essay forms the basis of
    the assignment, poor essay organization, spelling
    errors, and faulty punctuation can and will have
    a negative impact on your grade.

single-spaced page)
  • A response paper is your chance to communicate in
    writing your personal viewpoint and expertise as
    they relate specifically to a book, film,
    article, etc.
  • The artifact alone, has no meaning it is given
    meaning by you, the writer. In other words, a
    response paper is your own interpretation of a
    source and should demonstrate how well you
    understand the concepts and values of the
    historical episode in question.
  • Hence, your ultimate objective is to indicate how
    well and to what degree your source (film, book,
    article) reflects historical reality.

Film review template (1 single-spaced page) In
your opinion, what part or theme of Luc Bessons
film The Messenger The Story of Joan of Arc is
most historically accurate? Thesis In my
opinion, the film The Story of Joan of Arc
(1999) most accurately shows Joans rise as an
inspiring military commander. This part of the
film is largely grounded in historical reality
because English victories in the One-Hundred
Years War created a particular psychological
environment, in which the French government could
hope but for a miracle. And Joan of Arc (played
by Mila Jovovich) delivered such a miracle by
lifting the morale of the French army,
effectively turning the tide of the war.
Argument 1 The film follows the rise of
Joans ascension to military glory although it
skips some details. For example, in the film,
after she experienced a vision, she asked her
relatives to take her to see the King. In
reality, she asked the local garrison commander,
who tried to deter her with sarcastic response
(I-29). Nevertheless, the film accurately
portrays that during her meeting with Charles VII
she made an announcement about a military
reversal near Orléans several days before
messengers arrived to report it (II-78-79). Given
the distance of the battle's location, Joan could
have known about the French defeat only by Divine
revelation, and this convinced the King take her
Argument 2 The scene, where upon her arrival
Joan effectively turned the longstanding
Anglo-French conflict into a religious war, is
also historically accurate. For example, Charles'
advisers were worried that unless it was
established that she was not a heretic or a
sorceress Charles' enemies could easily make
the allegation that his crown was a gift from the
devil. Hence, the King ordered background
inquiries and a theological examination, which
verified her morality (III/111-112). This was
enough for Charles, but the commission of priests
requested that he put Joan to the test. The test
for the truth of her claims would be the raising
of the siege of Orléans II/136. Argument 3
Although in reality Joan arrived to Orléans after
the French captured the bastion before her
arrival (I/111-112), she did lead the charge the
next day, effecting the capture of the second
bastion called Saint-Jean-le-Blanc. The scene of
the brutal hand-to-hand combat is historically
accurate as confirmed by the old French
chronicles and contemporaries, who acknowledged
Joan as the heroine of the engagement, in which
she was wounded by an arrow (III/91-106). Summary
The film correctly portrays Joan of Arc as a
semi-legendary figure, who came from an obscure
village, rose to prominence as a successful
military leader, and became Frances most beloved
national heroine.
BibliographyI. Kelly DeVries, Joan of Arc A
Military Leader (1999). II. Richard
Famiglietti, Royal Intrigue Crisis at the Court
of Charles VI 13921420 (1987). III. Edward
Lucie-Smith, Joan of Arc (1976).
Quiz sample In your opinion, what were the
connections between the Punic Wars and Roman
imperialism?AnswerImperialism is
conventionally understood as state expansion at
the expense of its neighbors, effecting the
creation of a large multinational domain ruled
from a metropolitan center (III/88-89). In this
context, the Punic Wars propelled Rome to
political and economic domination of the
Mediterranean region. Romes territorial
expansion entailed ruthless economic exploitation
of the subjugated nations, which included
looting, indemnities and contributions, and
enslavement of thousands of people. By the late
2nd century, Rome had evolved into the center of
a huge multicultural dominion, whose populations
were expected to labor for their Roman masters
(II/34). Since war brought enormous wealth to
Rome, desire for more generated further
conquests. Thus, after the Punic Wars, Rome
invaded Greece and Asia Minor (I/97-103). Hence,
Rome had effectively become an empire, thriving
on conquest and slave-economy. Although it was
not immediately apparent, war severely undermined
the traditional social fabric of Rome, making the
gap between the rich and poor unbridgeable. War
also created conditions for the emergence of
strongmen who would dominate Roman politics for
centuries to come.
Bibliography I. Phil Andros. Roman
conquests (1983).II. Don Nardo. The Roman army
an instrument of power (2004).III. Silver
Shumpeter. Making and breaking an empire, in
Denis Liter, ed. War in the ancient world (1967).
Major ThemesSociety, economy, and warfare
Origins of a conflictStrategies of
warLeadershipFighting menRecruitment,
supplies, finances, technologyNon-combatantsSoci
al changeWar culture and memory
Bibliography I. Phil Andros. Roman
conquests (1983).II. Don Nardo. The Roman army
an instrument of power (2004).III. Silver
Shumpeter. Making and breaking an empire, in
Denis Liter, ed. War in the ancient world (1967).
Philip IV d. 1314
Louis X d. 1316
Philip V d. 1322
Charles IV d. 1328
Philip VI (nephew of Philip IV)
Edward III
Capetian France, 14th century
The Hundred-Years War, 1338-1453
Cost of armor and warhorse
  • For an earl 103 pounds
  • For a knight 16 pounds
  • Milanese plate armor 8 pounds
  • Warhorse of an earl 20-100 pounds
  • Warhorse for a knight 7-30 pounds

Rates of pay (1 pound 20 shillings 240 pence)
  • Earl 146 pounds annually
  • Knight 36 ps
  • Man-at-arms 18 ps
  • Hobelar, mounted archer, foot-soldier 9
  • Archer 4 shillings
  • Earl in England 400 pounds annually
  • Baron 200 pounds
  • Laborer 2 pounds annually
  • Master mason 6 shillings
  • Master carpenter 5 shillings

Englands state revenue
  • Ordinary (royal land taxation, payments from
    towns, administration, and justice)
    30,000-50,000 pounds per year
  • Extraordinary (Parliament taxation) 100,000
    pounds per year
  • Clerical (Church grants) 60,000-80,000 pounds
    per year
  • Indirect taxes (customs, wool subsidies, wine
    sale) 90,000 pounds per year
  • Loans from the Dutch bankers in 1337-1340
    410,000 pounds per year
  • Total 730,000 pounds

Cost of war in England
  • 1287 (Scottish and Welsh campaigns) 98,421
    pounds 9,300,000 days pay for a foot-soldier
  • 1338-1340 (One Hundred Years War) 400,000
  • 1359-1360 (wage for soldiers alone) 133,000
  • 1369-1375 (cost of war) 670,000 pounds

single-spaced page)
  • A response paper is your chance to communicate in
    writing your personal viewpoint and personal
    learning as they relate specifically to the book,
    essay, paper, article, etc. The text, the
    artifact alone, has no meaning it is given
    meaning by you, the writer. In other words, a
    response paper is your own interpretation of a
    given source and should demonstrate how deeply
    you have thought about the concepts, values, and
    attitudes of the period or historical episode in
    question. When analyzing the source, keep in mind
    that its author tries to make a point, to promote
    an idea, a set of beliefs or values. Hence, you
    should concentrate upon two objectives
  • 1. Telling what you think these ideas are.
  • 2. Reflecting on these points, positions, and
    values and indicating whether they correspond
    with your understanding of the historical event
    or episode in question.
  • Important Note Essay organization, style, and
    grammar are a crucial part of the assignment and
    will be graded accordingly.

Response paper sample
Battle of Neretva is a 1969 a Yugoslav partisan
film. The film was directed by Veljko Bulajic and
depicts a massive Axis offensive against the
Yugoslav Partisans in 1943. The offensive was
also known as the Fourth Enemy Offensive and
occurred in the area of the Neretva-River in
Bosnia-Herzegovina. While the film is based on
the true events of World War II and the battle
scenes are superb, the producer leaves out
several important issues. Thus, the film conveys
the impression that all the partisans as well as
their enemies were ideologically motivated.
However, as in many civil wars and revolutions,
the majority of the population in wartime
Yugoslavia held no rigid political loyalties.
Instead, they were forced to survive as best they
could and their allegiances shifted according to
the situation. For example, the Chetniks, who are
portrayed as the inveterate enemies of the
Partisans, were not a single unified force, but
initially fought alongside the Partisans against
the Germans and then joined the Germans against
the Partisans (I-132-34). Bosnia-Herzegovina
especially represented a contentious mix of
political ideologies, ethnicities and religious
beliefs including nationalism and communism,
Serb and Croat, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and
Muslim and consequently, the war there was
particularly cruel. The film crafts a fascinating
narrative of rival radical ideologies,
particularly between the multinational vision of
the Communist Partisans versus the xenophobic
nationalism of the Serbian Chetniks and the
Croatian Ustaše. Although the film emphasizes the
battle against the Partisans and the Axis powers
(Germany and Italy), for Bulajic its local
dimension the conflict between the citizens of
the former Yugoslavia is just as, if not more,
important (II- 235-36). As Commissar Stole says
hatred between the same people is the most

The film correctly shows that the Partisans
fought for much more than mere survival from
the beginning Tito envisioned the war against the
Axis powers mutating into a revolutionary
struggle and turning Yugoslavia into a communist
state (II- 276). Although most Serbs initially
joined the Partisans to survive the Ustaše
genocide, the Partisan leadership from the
beginning emphasized the importance of social
revolution that would change the countrys
political and socio-economic landscape. In other
words, the unique conditions of Axis occupation
and the bitter ethnic and ideological conflicts
engendered the revolutionary movement united in
its primary objectives (I-57-61). Regrettably,
the film does not stress the background of the
Partisan leadership and in my opinion, this issue
is very important. The KPJs long experience as
an underground political movement meant years of
recruitment through cultural groups, sports
clubs, schools, and unions (I-87-9). This fact
alone helps explain why the Partisans were much
better organized not only to fight large-scale
battles, but also create the so-called free
zones the Neretva basin was but one in which
they set up the small replicas of the future
socialist society, later superimposed upon the
entire Yugoslavia (II 256-59). The Partisans
never viewed the armed struggle against the Axis
powers from a purely military prospective, but
were determined to transform this struggle into a
political battle aimed at building a genuinely
multinational socialist society. Overall,
however, the film does offer a realistic
portrayal of the brutality of warfare in
Bibliography I. Tomasevich, Jozo. War
and Revolution in Yugoslavia,1941-1945
Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford,California
Stanford University Press, 2001.II. Pavlovic,
Stevan K. Hitlers New Disorder The Second World
War in Yugoslavia. London Hurst Company, 2008.
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Short essay sample. Why, in your opinion,
did the Prague Spring take place in
Czechoslovakia and not in other East European
countries? Be specific.In my opinion, there
were several factors that made the Prague
Spring a unique episode. First, in contrast to
other Soviet satellite-states, Czechoslovakia was
an industrialized country and hence, the Soviet
socialist model undermined the national
economy, particularly in Bohemia and Moravia.
Popular opinion, therefore, was squarely behind
those politicians who advocated economic reforms,
which in turn spurred demands for political
reforms as well. Second, some prominent members
of the Czechoslovak communist party such as
Alexander Dubcek endorsed these initiatives and
challenged President Antonín Novotný. In March
1968, when Novotný resigned, his successor Ludvik
Svoboda also gave consent to the reforms. So
encouraged, Dubcek declared the party's mission
was "to build an advanced socialist society on
sound economic foundations ... a socialism that
corresponds to the historical democratic
traditions of Czechoslovakia. Consequently, it
was a combination of economic factors and the
rise of reform-minded communist politicians that
facilitated the Prague Spring.
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