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United States Government

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Title: Our Government Author: Cobb County School District Last modified by: Cobb County School District Created Date: 8/11/2007 7:54:01 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: United States Government


1
United States Government
  • Mrs. Brown/Mrs. McNutt
  • August 2007

2
?? Essential Questions ??
  • How does the government in my country work?
  • What are my duties as a citizen of my country?

3
Vocabulary to Learn
  1. Government
  2. Democracy
  3. Checks and Balances
  4. Legislative Branch
  5. House of Representatives
  6. Senate
  7. Congress
  8. Executive Branch
  9. Judicial Branch
  10. Veto
  1. Vote
  2. Campaign
  3. Jury
  4. Patriotism
  5. President
  6. Laws
  7. Election

4
Constitution
  • The PREAMBLE of the Constitution is the
    introduction
  • The preamble talks about wanting to set up a fair
    form of government and to make sure people had
    certain freedoms for themselves and future
    Americans (YOU!)
  • The Constitution lays out our government and
    explains how our government will work
  • Three Branches
  • System of Checks and Balances
  • Rules for Voting
  • Bill of Rights (describes our freedoms)

5
Three Branches of Government
  • Legislative
  • Two parts Senate and House of Representative
    (together called Congress)
  • Executive
  • President, Vice President, and Cabinet
  • Judicial
  • Supreme Court and federal court system

6
Three Branches of Government
7
Legislative Branch
8
Legislative Branch
  • Senate
  • Two senators from each state
  • 100 Senators
  • Elected every 6 years
  • To be a senator a person must be at least 30
    years old, a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years,
    and have fulfilled the requirements for residency
    in the state that person wishes to represent

9
Who am I? Your Georgia Senator!!!
10
Legislative Branch
  • House of Representatives
  • Larger than the Senate
  • Number of representatives for each state depends
    on the population of each state (larger states
    receive more representatives)
  • One representative for every several hundred
    thousand people (693,000 as of 2007)
  • States with only one representative Alaska,
    Delaware, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont,
    and Wyoming
  • State with the most representatives California
  • 435 Representatives
  • Serve for 2 years
  • To be a Representative a person must be at least
    25 years old, a U.S. citizen for at least 7
    years, and when elected, is always an inhabitant
    of that state in which he shall be chosen

11
Who am I?? Your Representative!!
12
Duties of the Legislative Branch
  • Makes the laws
  • Makes laws controlling trade between states and
    between theUnited States and other countries
  • Makes laws about taxes and borrowing money
  • Approves the making of money
  • Can declare war on other countries
  • Decide if a government official should be put on
    trial before the Senate if s/he commits a crime
    against the country
  • Say yes or no to any treaties the president makes
  • Approving any people the president recommends for
    jobs, such as cabinet officers, Supreme Court
    justices, and ambassadors
  • Can hold a trial for a government official who
    does something very wrong

13
Executive Branch
14
Executive Branch
  • The President is the head of the executive branch
    and plays a large role in making Americas laws.
  • In order to be elected, one must be at least 35
    years old. Also, each candidate must be a
    natural-born U.S. citizen and have lived in the
    U.S. for at least 14 years
  • The only officials chosen by the entire country
  • Serves a term of four years
  • The most one President can serve is two terms,
    for a total of eight years
  • Has a cabinet
  • Advise the President
  • Includes the Vice President and 15 other
    executive departments
  • Heads of the executive departments (called
    secretaries) must be approved by majority vote
    from the Senate
  • Presidential Cabinet

15
Duties of the Executive Branch
  • Approve the laws that Congress creates
  • Can veto a bill
  • He can propose a bill, but a member of Congress
    must submit it for him
  • Serves as the American Head of State (meaning
    that he meets with the leaders of other countries
    and can make treaties with them)
  • The Chief of the Government (that means that he
    is technically the boss of every government
    worker)
  • Head of the U.S. military. He can authorize the
    use of troops overseas without declaring war

16
Judicial Branch
17
Judicial Branch
  • Hears cases that challenge or require
    interpretation of the laws passed by Congress and
    signed by the President (example Zelman vs.
    Simmons-Harris)
  • Consists of Supreme Court and lower federal
    courts
  • Serve for life or until they voluntarily resign
    or retire
  • Number of justices is determined by Congress
    (currently one Chief Justice and eight associate
    justices)

18
Duties of the Judicial Branch
  • Determines which laws apply to any given case
  • Determines whether a law is unconstitutional
  • Has sole power to interpret the law and to apply
    it to particular disputes
  • May nullify laws that conflict with a more
    important law or constitution
  • Determines the disposition of prisoners
  • Has power to compel testimony and the production
    of evidence
  • Enforces uniform policies in a top-town fashion
    via the appeals process, but gives discretion in
    individual cases to low-level judges
  • May rule only in cases of an actual dispute
    brought between actual petitioners
  • Policies its own members
  • Is frequently immune to arbitrary dismissal by
    other branches

19
Summarizing the Duties of the Three Branches
  • Legislative Branch
  • Writes and enacts laws
  • Enacts taxes, authorizes borrowing, and sets the
    budget
  • Usually has sole power to declare war
  • May start investigations, especially against the
    executive branch
  • Often appoints the heads of the executive branch
  • Sometimes appoints judges
  • Ratifies treaties
  • Executive Branch
  • Sometimes may veto laws
  • May refuse to enforce certain laws (risking
    impeachment by the legislature)
  • May refuse to spend money allocated for certain
    purposes
  • Wages war (has operational command of the
    military)
  • Makes decrees or declarations (for example,
    declaring a state of emergency) and promulgates
    lawful regulations and executive orders
  • Often appoints judges
  • Has power to grant pardons to convicted criminals
  • Judicial Branch
  • Determines which laws apply to any given case
  • Determines whether a law is unconstitutional
  • Has sole power to interpret the law and to apply
    it to particular disputes
  • May nullify laws that conflict with a more
    important law or constitution
  • Determines the disposition of prisoners
  • Has power to compel testimony and the production
    of evidence
  • Enforces uniform policies in a top-town fashion
    via the appeals process, but gives discretion in
    individual cases to low-level judges
  • May rule only in cases of an actual dispute
    brought between actual petitioners
  • Policies its own members
  • Is frequently immune to arbitrary dismissal by
    other branches

20
Checks and Balances
  • Checks and Balances
  • A system that gives each branch of government
    different powers so that each branch can check
    the authority of others
  • Make sure no branch of government gets too much
    power
  • The three branches work together as EQUAL partners

21
Checks and Balances
22
Checks and Balances
  • Congress may pass laws........but the President
    can veto them.
  • The President can veto laws.......but Congress
    can override the veto with a 2/3 vote.
  • The President and Congress may agree on a
    law..........but the Supreme Court can declare a
    law unconstitutional.
  • The President can appoint Judges and other
    government officials.......but Senate must
    approve them.
  • Supreme Court judges have life terms.......but
    they can be impeached .

23
Your Government Project
  • DirectionsYou are to create a project that
    shows the three branches of government. Be as
    creative as you can! Some ideas include, but are
    not limited to posters, mobiles, collages, etc.
    Take time to think of a wonderful idea! Here is
    what you need to include in your project
  • 1. The names of the three branches of government
  • 2. What the duties are for each of the three
    branches (at least three duties for each branch)
  • 3. Information on the members of each group,
    including
  • number of members
  • how many members
  • where the members come from
  • the minimum ages of the members
  • the minimum number of years a member must be a
    U.S. citizen
  • how long a member is allowed to serve per term
  • 4. The name of the building where each branch
    works
  • 5. Any other information you would like to share
  • You will be graded on your creativity, the
    accuracy of your information, how neat and
    organized your project is, and how well you used
    your time (your work habits).
  • Please see the attached rubric to find out exact
    details on how you will be graded. This project
    will count for two quiz grades, so do your best!!

24
Bills Become Laws
  • Lets see how a bill becomes a law!

25
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 1
26
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 2
27
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 3
28
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 4
29
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 5
30
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 6
31
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 7
32
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 8
33
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 9
34
How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 10
OR
THEN
35
Filibuster
  • Filibuster
  • Sometimes, senators try to defeat a bill by
    filibustering. This is when a senator or senators
    give long speeches in an effort to delay any
    measure, motion, or amendment before the Senate.
    (There is no limit to the amount of time the
    Senate can debate a bill.) The tactic is often
    used by the minority side, or the side that
    opposes the bill that would likely pass if it
    came to a vote. The thinking is that the majority
    side will withdraw the bill or give in on key
    points after enduring hours of dull speeches. In
    the Senate, a process called cloture ends a
    filibuster and forces a vote. To use cloture, a
    senator must file a cloture motion that has been
    signed by 16 senators, and at least 60 senators
    must vote in favor of cloture. Filibusters aren't
    allowed in the House of Representatives because
    there is a limited amount of time a bill can be
    debated in the House.

36
SCHOOLHOUSE ROCK!
  • How a Bill Becomes a Law

37
What are the jobs of the United States Citizens?
  • The people vote to choose the leaders of the U.S.
  • The people pay taxes for the work the government
    does.
  • The people serve in the army, navy, and air force
    to help protect our country.
  • The people tell the leaders what kind of laws
    they want by writing letters to their leaders.

38
How do citizens affect change?
Voting
Political Campaign Participation
Organized Protests
Petitions
Running for Public Office
39
Organized Protests
40
Voting
  • A citizen must be the age of 18 or older.
  • Must be registered in order to vote.
  • An election is how the people of the U.S. choose
    their leaders.

41
Political Campaign Participation
  • A government in which the people elect leaders
    and tell them what kind of laws they want is
    called a Democracy.
  • You do not have to be 18 years old to help in a
    political campaign.

Republican
Democrat
42
Running for Public Office
  • 1-Travel the country
  • Discussing things that are on peoples mind
  • 2-Gather a staff
  • To help you write speeches, arrange tv
    interviews, research issues
  • 3-Raise money
  • Hold money raisers and take donations
  • Some campaigns cost up to 200,000,000
  • 4-Make a formal declaration
  • This lets everyone know that you are officially
    in the election
  • 5-Take part in the primaries
  • Primaries are party elections that take place
    between Jan. and July in each state

43
Public Office Continued. . .
  • 6-Get your partys nomination at the national
    convention
  • Winning most of the primaries ensures that youll
    be nominated as the partys choice to run for
    president
  • 7-Now its a race to the finish
  • Be seen everywhere, especially in states where
    your opponent has a lot of support. Be prepared
    for tough questions on live TV
  • 8-Its election day
  • The first Tuesday after the first Monday in
    November
  • 9-At the White House

44
In SummaryHow does the Government affect me??
  • Check out this website, lets find out the
    answer!!

45
Bill of Rights
46
Bill of Rights
  • When the Constitution was made, some men wouldnt
    agree to the Constitution without the Bill of
    Rights.
  • The Bill of Rights contains amendments to the
    Constitution.
  • These rights protect our freedoms as citizens of
    the Unites States.
  • Traditionally, the Bill of Rights contains our
    first ten amendments to the Constitution.
  • However, there are many more amendments that have
    been made to our Constitution.

47
Bill of Rights
  • 1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, and
    assembly
  • 2. Right to bear arms
  • 3. Troops may not be quartered in homes in
    peacetime

48
Bill of Rights
  • 4. No unreasonable searches or seizures
  • 5. Grand jury indictments are required to
    prosecute a person for a serious crime No double
    jeopardy
  • 6. Right to a speedy, public trial

49
Bill of Rights
  • 7. Jury Trials
  • 8. No excessive bail or fines no cruel and
    unusual punishment
  • 9. Unlisted rights are not necessarily denied
  • 10. Powers to the states
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