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BALKANIZATION OF AMERICA The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States

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Title: BALKANIZATION OF AMERICA The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States


1
BALKANIZATION OF AMERICA The Korean Immigrant
Churches in United States
The History of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Timeline
The Growth of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Number - Distribution - Growth Process -
Reason of Growth
The Effect of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Situation of the U.S. - Social Functions -
Formation of Large Communities - Fragment of
the U.S.
Yonghwan Lee Pratt
2
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The History of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Timeline
3rd Wave
2nd Wave
1st Wave
4th Wave
1st Wave
3
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The History of Korean Immigration (Timeline)
- 1882 -US and Korea signs 1st Treaty. -
November 2, 1886 - US approved Korean
Immigration. - November 5, 1902 - Korean emperor
Kojong recognized the approval of Korean
Immigration to US.
  • 1903 1905 - "First Wave" (Image)
  • - 7,843 Korean immigrants came to Hawaii (6,701
    men, 677 women, and 465 children)
  • - They spread to various plantations.
  • - Some formed a self-governing village.
  • - Most adjusted to the new environment but the
    ones who couldnt either went back to Korea or
    to the mainland US.
  • - January 13, 1903 -102 Korean Immigrants (56
    men, 21 women, and 25 children) came to Hawaii on
    the SS Gaelic.
  • - Each person had different reasons for
    immigrating but all shared a common goal to earn
    money and live a better life.
  • - This was a test case to see if the Koreans were
    good workers and had courteous attitudes.
  • - They worked in plantations.
  • - February 26, 1903 - Evening bulletin in Hawaii
    reported "They appear to be hard workers, yet
    they are paid the least would work ten hours
    from dawn to sunset for sixty-nine cents a day."
  • - 1912 1924 - "Second Wave" (Image)
  • - 951 Korean "picture brides" immigrated to
    Hawaii.
  • Reasons for the picture brides Before the
    second wave, the number of Korean men outnumbered
    Korean women.
  • The Korean men insisted on marrying Korean women
    only. Therefore they had to send pictures of
    themselves and have arranged marriages.
  • - There were nearly 5,000 bachelors and most of
    them remained as bachelors.
  • - Immigration of Koreans stopped because of the
    Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924.
  • - Oriental Exclusion Act resulted because of the
    anti-Japanese feelings at that time.

4
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The History of Korean Immigration (Timeline)
  • - 1924 1960s - "Third Wave" (Image)
  • - However, the US allowed the Korean students to
    come to US and study here.
  • - Immigrants came after the liberation of Korea
    from Japan.
  • American solders that were stationed in Korea
    married Korean girls they were called
    "War-Brides" or "Peace-Brides".
  • Korean WAR - 1950 1953

- 1965 Present - "Fourth Wave" (Image) -
Korean Immigrants came with different skills. -
About 1,200,000 Korean Immigrants now resides in
US. - 1965 -Immigration Act of 1965. - Since
1968, when the law was actually implemented,
Koreans have become one of the fastest growing
Asian groups in the United States, surpassed only
by Filipino immigration
5
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The History of Korean Immigrant Churches -
The Growth of Korean Immigrants
6
The U.S. Bureau of the Census
Korean Population
7
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The History of Korean Immigrant Churches -
The Growth of Korean Immigrants
Koreans live in large metropolitan areas and a
great majority of them live in the suburbs.
Ninety-six percent of Koreans in the United
States are found in metropolitan areas, while, in
contrast, 80 of the general population resides
in metropolitan areas. Korean immigration to the
United States since 1965 has typically been an
urban-to-urban migration, from large urban
centers of South Korea to the large metropolitan
areas of the United States. Although Koreans
generally live in metropolitan areas, they are
especially concentrated in the largest areas. The
largest number of Koreans is found in the
Southern California metropolitan region called
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange-San
Bernardino-Ventura, CA Consolidated Metropolitan
Statistical Area(CMCA). More than a quarter
million(257,975) Koreans living in this
five-country area constitute nearly one-fourth of
Koreans in the United States. The next largest
area of Korean concentration is the area
encompassing New York City and surrounding
metropolitan areas of New York, Northern New
Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. More than
170,000 Koreans live here and constitute
approximately 16 of the Koreans in the United
States. Forty percent of all Koreans in the U.S.
are found in these two metropolitan areas, each
of which has at least 10,000 Koreans.
8
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Growth of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Number
9
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Growth of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Number
Missionary work in Korean immigrant society was
rather easy because there were about 400
Christians and 30 missionaries among initial
Korean immigrants of 8,000. As a result, Korean
immigrant society in the states was built based
on the spirit of Christianity, and the
relationship between churches and social group
has been very close. This was unique phenomenon
that one couldnt see in other immigrant society
neither Japanese nor Chinese. Enormous numbers of
Korean immigrants have come to the states since
1965 when the new immigration law was enacted.
Many churches were built wherever Korean
immigrants went to, and then there are thousands
of Korean churches now in the states. Korean
immigrants are praised as People of
Faith. According to a survey done at California
in 1980, 69.9 of Korean immigrants were related
to churches. And 67.8 of them are quite young
people, 83.5 of them go to churches at least
once a week, and 25.8 of church goers do
volunteer work at churches. Compared to this,
Chinese and Japanese immigrant churches are not
that active as well as there are few churches.

10
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Distribution of Korean Immigrant Churches
- 1903
11
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Distribution of Korean Immigrant Churches
- 1950
12
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Distribution of Korean Immigrant Churches
- 1967
13
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Distribution of Korean Immigrant Churches
- 1980
14
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Distribution of Korean Immigrant Churches
- 1991
15
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Distribution of Korean Immigrant Churches
- 2001
16
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Distribution of Korean Immigrant Churches
- 2002
17
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Distribution of Korean Immigrant Churches
- 2003
18
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Growth of Korean Immigrant Churches -
20012003 - the Recent Distribution
19
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Growth of Korean Immigrant Churches -
The reason of Growth
20
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Growth of Korean Immigrant Churches -
The reason of Growth
Korean immigrant churches serve several practical
functions for Korean immigrants, which is
indispensable to their adjustment in the U.S. Two
of these practical functions contribute to Korean
ethnic attachment. One is the fellowship
function. Many Korean immigrants attend ethnic
church to maintain social interactions and
friendship networks with fellow Koreans. 23.6
of the church going respondents indicated
fellowship or meeting friends as the primary
motive for attending church. All Korean immigrant
churches have a fellowship hour after Sunday
service, which usually lasts between half and one
hour. The other practical function of Korean
immigrant churches, which contributes to Korean
ethnic attachment, is maintenance of the Korean
cultural tradition. Korean churches help to
preserve Korean culture in several different ways
such as teaching Korean language.
21
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Effect of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Process of the Growth
22
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Effect of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Process of the Growth
At the first time, Korean Immigrant Churches
Services started to rent from American existing
churches However, as those grew so fast, they
bought the American Churches.
23
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Effect of Korean Immigrant Churches -
Big Communities through the churches
24
The Korean Immigrant Churches in United States
The Effect of Korean Immigrant Churches
Christian churches are the most important Korean
ethnic organizations in New York as well as in
other American cities. The significance of
Christian congregations is evidenced by the fact
that more than 75 of New York Citys Korean
immigrant families are affiliated with a Korean
church and that the vast majority (80 of them)
attend church once or twice a week. The presence
of approximately 600 Korean churches, including a
Korean Catholic church with 6,000 members, 40
other religious organizations, and 30 theological
schools in the New York area further demonstrate
the importance of Christian life among Korean
immigrants in the region. (the below photo New
York Korean Church, Queens)
- The Role of Korean Immigrant Churches
Historically, Korean American churches have
played the most important religious, cultural,
and economic roles for Korean immigrants. Today,
churches are increasingly called upon to share a
leadership role in the American community and
meet the diverse and changing needs of a global
society There is a growing number of Korean
Americans who are American-born and whose first
language is English.
- Big Communities through the Churches
Since most Korean American financial and human
resources are funneled into its churches, these
organizations are ideally positioned to address
the community's challenges and changes.
- The Future of Korean Immigrant Churches
The time is ripe for all those within and outside
of Korean ethnic churches to examine the
challenges of Korean American churches today and
find new ways for the church to become a
contributing organization in multiethnic America.
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