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TWO AMERICAS: THE USA AND CANADA COMPARED TO LATIN AMERICA

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Title: TWO AMERICAS: THE USA AND CANADA COMPARED TO LATIN AMERICA


1
TWO AMERICAS THE USA AND CANADA COMPARED TO
LATIN AMERICA
  • 1750 1914

2
REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS
  • Revolution
  • A popular idea, means to an end
  • A way to restructure society
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Relocating sovereignty in the people
  • Traditional monarchs
  • Claimed a "divine right" to rule
  • Derived from God, unquestionable
  • Monarch unanswerable to people
  • Constitutional Limitations
  • Aristocracy, Enlightenment challenged king
  • Glorious Revolution of 1688
  • Made the monarch responsible to the people
  • John Locke's theory of contractual government
  • Authority comes from the consent of the governed
  • Freedom and equality
  • Demands for freedom of worship
  • Freedom of expression, assembly
  • Demands for political and legal equality

3
TYPES OF REVOLUTIONS
  • Aristocratic Revolution
  • Aristocracy fights to preserve privileges
  • Often against royal absolutism
  • Rarely for other classes rights
  • Usually ends with constitution, limits on
    monarchy
  • Early revolt of creoles in Americas was an
    example
  • Bourgeois (liberal) Revolution
  • Middle class seeks rights equal to nobility
  • Extension of franchise, ability to hold office
  • Issues of taxation often involved
  • Reforms limited and rarely radical, franchise
    limited
  • American (1776), French (1789)
  • Latin American Revolutions (1820s)
  • La Reforma in Mexico (1850s)
  • Mass revolutions
  • Most of society effected and involved
  • Often goals are quite radical
  • Methods to achieve are often quite violent
  • Nationalist Revolutions

4
REFORM
  • Often system allowed change without radical
    means, violence
  • Reform was a theme of 1750 1914
  • Bourbon reforms in Spanish colonies
  • Pombals reforms in Portugal, Brazil
  • Jacksonian Democracy 1820s
  • La Reforma of Benito Juarez 1850s
  • Reform movements
  • Increased, responsive democratic representation,
    institutions
  • Expansion of male suffrage was the key issue
  • One of the hallmarks of a democratic society
  • Very successful in US, Canada
  • Less so in Latin America,
  • White male suffrage expanded
  • Mestizo, mulatto, Indian suffrage limited
  • Abolition of slavery
  • Abolition movement was very successful
  • Other forms of coercive labor replaced them
  • Racial, social equality did not follow
  • Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico were last to emancipate

5
THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
6
EMERGENCE OF IDEOLOGIES
  • Conservatism
  • Resisted change, opposed revolutions
  • Importance of continuity, tradition, aristocracy
  • Edmund Burke
  • Viewed society as organism that changed slowly
    over time
  • American Revolution natural, logical outcome of
    history
  • French Revolution violent and irresponsible
  • In the US Alexander Hamilton, some Federalists
  • In Latin America
  • Centralized Government was the issue
  • All power should exist in one person, one
    institution
  • Monarchy, church was at heart of conservatism
  • Liberalism
  • Welcomed controlled change as an agent of
    progress
  • Strongly middle class, support economic reform,
    education to help industrialization
  • Wanted to reform political structure, increase
    electorate slightly
  • Championed freedom, equality, democracy, written
    constitutions
  • Limits on state power, interference in individual
    freedoms
  • In the US US Constitution, Jeffersonian
    Democracy, Progressives

7
ECONOMIC EXPANSION IN U.S.A. CANADA
  • The United States
  • Slow to start few laborers, little capital
  • Cotton and Textiles began revolution
  • British craftsmen started cotton textile industry
    in New England, 1820s
  • Southern cotton was going to England, diverted to
    New England factories
  • New England most resembled Old England conditions
  • Civil War led to explosion of steel, iron,
    armaments, clothing, food production
  • Developed electrical, transportation industries
  • US Railroads
  • Integrated national economy by late 19th century
  • 200,000 miles of railroad in US by 1900
  • Economic stimulus
  • 75 percent of steel went to railroads
  • Supported other industries especially retail,
    transport along lines
  • Encouraged immigrant labor, farmers to settle
    along tracks, in West
  • Capital
  • British capital
  • Crucial for early development of U.S., Canadian
    industries
  • Foreign capital supported textile, iron and
    steel, railroads

8
LATIN AMERICAN DEPENDENCE
  • Colonial legacy
  • Large landed elites, ranching
  • Peonage system, debt labor
  • Limited ability to trade except primary goods
  • Spain, Portugal never encouraged industries
  • Limited success at industrialization
  • 1820 1850 Economic Stagnation
  • Wars of independence had disrupted economy
  • Most wealth tied to land, agriculture
  • Export of primary, unfinished goods especially
    guano, coffee, hides
  • Too many unsolved social problems retarded
    industrialization
  • Economic growth part of 2nd Industrial Revolution
  • Change grew out of liberalizing effects, reforms
    in late century
  • Entrepreneurs, intellectuals, landowners brought
    in foreign investments
  • Facilitated by new technologies (railroads,
    steamships)
  • Great Boom driven by exports
  • Demand for rubber, copper, tin, silver, beef,
    bananas, oil, coffee, cocoa
  • Capital intensive development of primary product
    exports
  • Trade increased by almost 50 from 1870 1880

9
THE FIRST WORLD WARS
  • 1750 - 1765
  • War of Austrian Succession
  • France, Spain, England, Portugal, Dutch, Russia,
    Sweden in wars
  • Rise of Prussia as a great power, England as a
    super power
  • Showed balance of power doctrine at its fullest
  • Colonial Wars French and Indian Wars
  • Battles fought around the world
  • Colonies changed hands, colonials effected
  • English, French contest for North America
  • France lost influence in North America, Caribbean
  • England emerges as worlds super power
  • British navy rules seas unopposed
  • Acquires former French North American colonies
  • Acquires preeminent influence in India
  • Acquires right to supply slaves to Spanish
    Americas
  • Spain, Portugal, Dutch no longer great powers
  • American Revolution 1776 1783
  • British colonists revolt, inspired by
    Enlightenment
  • American ships ranged seas attacking English

10
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Tension between Britain, American colonies
  • Legacy of Seven Years' War
  • British debt, North American tax burden
  • Colonists increasingly independent minded
  • Colonial protest
  • Over taxes, trade policies, Parliamentary rule
  • Colonial boycott of British goods
  • Attacks on British officials Boston Tea Party,
    1773
  • Political protest over representation in
    Parliament
  • Continental Congress, 1774
  • British troops, colonial militia skirmished at
    the village of Lexington, 1775
  • The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776
  • Thirteen united States of America severed ties
    with Britain
  • Declaration inspired by Enlightenment, Locke's
    theory of government
  • The American Revolution, 1775-1781
  • British advantages strong government, navy,
    army, loyalists in colonies
  • American advantages European allies, George
    Washington's leadership
  • Weary of a costly conflict, British forces
    surrendered in 1781
  • Building an independent state Constitutional
    Convention, 1787

11
WAR OFAMERICANINDEPENDENCE
12
HAITIAN REVOLUTION
  • Saint-Domingue
  • Rich French colony on western Hispaniola
  • Society dominated by small white planter class
  • 90 percent of population were slaves
  • Horrendous working conditions
  • Large communities of escaped slaves (maroons)
  • Ideas of Enlightenment reached educated blacks
  • Free blacks fought in American war
  • Widespread discontent
  • White settlers sought self-governance
  • Gens de couleur sought political rights
  • Slaves wanted freedom
  • Slave revolt began in 1791
  • Factions of white settlers, gens de couleur,
    slaves battled each other
  • French troops arrived in 1792 British, Spanish
    intervened in 1793
  • Slaves conquer whole island including Spanish
    part
  • Whites driven into exile, executed
  • Toussaint Louverture (1744-1803)
  • Son of slaves, literate, son of Enlightenment

13
INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
  • Latin American colonial society rigidly
    hierarchical
  • Social classes peninsulares, creoles, mestizos,
    slaves, indigenous peoples
  • Creoles sought to displace the peninsulares but
    retain their privileged position
  • Mestizos form the largest part of population,
    wanted rights
  • All other classes had no influence, few rights
  • Mexican independence
  • Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1807 weakened
    royal control of colonies
  • 1810 peasant revolt in Mexico led by Hidalgo,
    defeated by conservative creoles
  • 1821 Mexico briefly a military dictatorship,
    then in 1822 a republic
  • Southern Viceroyalty of New Spain split into
    several independent states in 1830s
  • Simon Bolivar to 1822
  • Led independence movement in South America
  • Inspired by George Washington, took arms against
    Spanish rule in 1811
  • Creole forces overcame Spanish armies throughout
    South America, 1824
  • Bolivar's effort of creating the Gran Colombia
    failed in 1830s
  • Jose de San Martin to 1825
  • Led independence movements in Bolivia, Argentina,
    Chile
  • United efforts with Bolivar
  • Brazilian independence

14
THE NEW AMERICAN MAP
15
LATIN AMERICA
  • Old Problems confront new realities
  • Leaders came from Enlightenment spoke of
    equality, freedom
  • No allowance freedom of religion
  • Slavery ended but not exploitation of poor,
    Indians
  • Equality was too threatening to elite
  • Democracy uncommon, rich men voted
  • Old color distinctions did not disappear rapidly,
    easily, or at all
  • Political fragmentation
  • Political instability after independence
  • Creole leaders ruled but had little experience
    with self-government
  • White minority dominated politics
  • Peasant majority was without power
  • Political instability aggravated by division
    among elites
  • Constant argument between centralizing and
    federalizing pressures
  • Conflicts between farmers, ranchers, indigenous
    peoples common
  • Intense fighting in Argentina, Chile modern
    weapons against native peoples
  • Colonists had pacified most productive land by
    1870s
  • Caudillos, Caudillism, Politics and the Church
  • Military leaders who held power after
    revolutionary era

16
MEXICO INSTABILITY FOREIGN INTERVENTION
  • Mexican Republic under Santa Anna
  • Until his death dominated Mexico
  • Saw himself as a Latin Napoleon
  • Constantly in debt to foreigners
  • Revolt of Texas led to conflict with US
  • Mexican American War 1846 1848
  • Mexico lost 1/3 of its territory
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • US expanded to Pacific and annexed Texas
  • The French Intervention
  • Benito Juarez
  • Liberal Indian President of Mexico
  • He started a liberal revolt
  • La Reforma which was powerful
  • Conservatives turned to French for support
  • French troops land
  • French install an Austrian emperor on throne
  • Backed emperor with French troops, French money
  • US demanded French withdrawal in 1867

17
THE UNITED STATES
  • Jacksonian Democracy
  • Expansion of electorate to include poorer,
    western Americans
  • By 1820s all adult white men could vote and hold
    office
  • Constant tension between states rights, federal
    powers
  • Rapid westward expansion after the revolution
  • Britain ceded lands east of Mississippi to US
  • 1803, US purchased France's Louisiana Territory
  • By 1840s, coast-to-coast expansion was claimed as
    manifest destiny
  • The Mexican-American War, 1845-1848
  • Conflict with indigenous peoples followed
  • 1830, Indian Removal Act forced eastern Indians
    to move west of Mississippi
  • Thousands died on the "Trail of Tears" to
    Oklahoma
  • Stiff resistance to expansion Battle of Little
    Big Horn, 1876, Sioux victory
  • U.S. massacre at Wounded Knee, 1890, ended Indian
    Wars
  • An Era of Compromise Avoided Conflict 1820-1854
  • North had the population, dominated House of
    Representatives
  • South wanted to preserve slavery but would lose a
    vote in House
  • Missouri Compromise in 1820 admitted one slave,
    one free state
  • South able to block abolition of slavery in
    Senate

18
AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
  • War not just an American domestic conflict
  • France, UK nearly intervened for South
  • Both dependent on Southern cotton
  • Both provided aid to Southern blockade runners
  • France and Mexico 1863 - 1867
  • Revolution ousted Santa Anna Juarez new leader
  • Mexico owed Europeans money
  • Europeans occupy Veracruz, ignored Monroe
    Doctrine
  • France set up a puppet regime under Austrian
    emperor
  • Austria, Prussia, Russia supported North
  • Saw Southern secession as revolt against
    legitimacy
  • Poland 1863 Three nations suppressed rebellion
  • Three nations warned France, UK not to get
    involved
  • Russian fleets anchored in Northern ports
  • US bought Alaska in 1867 to repay Russia for
    support
  • Prussia observed Union military
  • Learned from Northern art of war, rebuilt army
  • Increased use of railroads as instrument of war
  • Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address

19
U.S.A. IN MAPS
20
CANADIAN DOMINION
  • Independence came without war
  • Autonomy and division characterized Canadian
    history
  • Distance from England, isolation in north and
    interior led to self-government, autonomy
  • Always a contest between English speaking, French
    speaking groups
  • Immigrants and Amerindians dominated in the
    interior
  • Eastern Canada (Quebec, Ontario, Maritime
    Provinces) dominate Canada
  • French Quebec taken by Britain after the Seven
    Years' War
  • Quebec Act was a large cause of war with American
    colonies
  • British authorities made large concessions to
    French Canadians
  • After 1781, many British loyalists fled United
    States to seek refuge in Canada
  • The War of 1812 unified Canada against U.S.
    invaders
  • Anti-U.S. sentiments due to US invasions,
    pillaging
  • Created sense of unity among French and British
    Canadians
  • 1830s
  • Increased Irish, English, Scottish, German
    immigration
  • Tensions between French, growing English
    population
  • Metis Rebellion French Indians rebel in west
  • 1840-1867, British granted home rule to Canadians
  • Dominion of Canada created in 1867

21
CANADA IN IMAGES
22
MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1911- 1920
  • The Revolution (1910-1920)
  • Middle class joins peasants, workers overthrow
    Diaz
  • Class Factions
  • 1910-1914 all rebels vs. Diaz and Huerta
  • 1914-20 Carranza, Obregon vs. Zapata, Villa
  • Regional Revolutions North, South, Yucatan
  • Course of the Revolution
  • Liberal Middle Class Leaders
  • Francisco Madero rules at first
  • Seeks middle class constitutional democracy
  • Opposes land reform landless peasants attack
    large landowners
  • Peasant armies win pitched battles against
    government troops
  • General Huerta, army side with landowners, kills
    Madero
  • Venustiano Carranza
  • Organizes coalition with Villa, Zapata, Obregon
  • US troops sent by Wilson support Carranza, Huerta
    resigns
  • Peasant, Common Rebels
  • Pancho Villa led northern rebels, especially
    landless peasants
  • Emiliano Zapata initiates land reform in the
    Southern areas he controls

23
IMPERIALISM
  • Motives of imperialism
  • Modern imperialism
  • Refers to domination of industrialized countries
    over subject lands
  • Domination achieved by trade, investment,
    business activities
  • Two types of modern colonialism
  • Colonies ruled and populated by migrants
  • Colonies controlled without significant
    settlement
  • Economic motives of imperialism
  • American, British Investors made personal
    fortunes
  • Expansion to obtain raw materials
  • Colonies were potential markets for products
  • Political motives
  • Strategic purpose harbors, supply stations
  • Overseas expansion used to defuse internal
    tensions
  • Tools of empire
  • Transportation technologies supported imperialism
  • Steam-powered gunboats reached inland waters of
    Africa and Asia
  • Railroads organized local economies to serve
    imperial power
  • Western military technologies increasingly
    powerful

24
U.S. IMPERIALISM
  • Westward Expansion, Manifest Destiny precede
    overseas imperialism
  • Americans push west after American revolution
  • Drove Indians from land
  • US purchases Louisiana from France
  • Opened up West to settlement
  • Americans saw it as God-given right to occupy
    continent
  • The Monroe Doctrine and Latin America
  • 1823 proclamation by U.S. president James Monroe
  • Opposed European imperialism in the Americas
  • Justified American interventions in late 19th,
    20th century
  • Used doctrine to tell France to withdraw from
    Mexico in 1867
  • United States purchased Alaska from Russia in
    1867
  • Hawaii became a protectorate in 1875, formally
    annexed in 1898
  • Tended to leave area open only for American
    investments, loans
  • The Mexican American War 1846 1848
  • US annexation of Texas set off conflict with
    Mexico
  • US defeats Mexico, annexed 1/3 of Mexican
    territory
  • Settlement of Far West, Pacific Coast, Great
    Basin follows
  • 1867 1898

25
MANIFEST DESTINYWhat one painting can tell us
26
MAP OF AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
27
EMPIRES IN THE PACIFIC
28
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
  • Process advocated with Enlightenment, Methodism
  • Ideas of equality of men becomes widespread
  • Philosophes attacked slavery, slave trade
  • Methodism, spreading in 18th, 19th centuries
    condemned slavery
  • William Wilberforce campaigned to end slavery,
    slave trade all his life
  • Process expanded by Revolutions, Womens
    Movements
  • Many revolutionaries advocated ending slavery
  • Many revolutionary governments abolished slavery
    (France)
  • Haitian slave revolt scares American slave
    holders
  • Women advocated end to slavery as a corollary to
    gender equality
  • Process realized by the British and Americans
  • British parliament outlawed slave trade
  • US ended slave trade in 1808 (had internal slave
    trade)
  • British, US navies enforce ban
  • British emancipate slaves in 1833 throughout
    their empire
  • Civil Wars, Emancipations and Manumissions
  • Latin American revolutions abolish slavery during
    revolutions
  • US abolished slavery through Force of Arms, Civil
    War
  • Emancipation Proclamation 1863

29
CHANGES IN WESTERN SOCIETY AFTER 1850
  • The US and Canada
  • Until Industrial Revolution, Americas similar
  • After Revolution, Canada and US differed
  • Both tended to become more like European models
  • Class structure changed significantly
  • Changes for workers
  • Better wages
  • Decrease of working hours
  • Rise of leisure time
  • Increased health, physical risks
  • Growth of white collar work force
  • Managerial
  • Entrepreneurial
  • Bureaucratic workers of government
  • Secretarial, office workers
  • Growth of blue collar work force
  • Industrial
  • Technical
  • Miners

30
AMERICAN MULTI-RACIAL SOCIETIES
  • The United States
  • By late 19TH century
  • United States was a multicultural society
  • Dominated by white elites
  • Native peoples had been pushed onto reservations
  • Dawes Act, 1887 encouraged natives to farm
    marginal land
  • Slaughter of buffalo threatened plains Indians'
    survival
  • Children sent to boarding schools, lost native
    language, traditions
  • Freed slaves often denied civil rights
  • Northern armies forced South to undergo
    Reconstruction
  • After Reconstruction, a violent backlash
    overturned reforms
  • South segregated blacks denied opportunities,
    political rights
  • American women's movement had limited success
  • "Declaration of Sentiments" issued by American
    feminists in 1848
  • Sought education, employment, and political
    rights
  • Migrants
  • 25 million Europeans to America from 1840-1914
  • Hostile reaction to foreigners from "native-born"
    Americans
  • Newcomers concentrated in districts like Little
    Italy and Chinatown

31
NEO-EUROPEAN CONTRASTS
  • Neo-Europes
  • Defined Settler colonies which came to resemble
    European societies
  • In all practical purposes they were part of the
    Western World
  • Argentina, Chile, Uruguay
  • Indians were killed off or died off
  • European percentage of population above 90
  • Many of the developments common to Italy occurred
    in these states
  • Canada
  • Ethnic diversity beyond dominant British and
    French populations
  • Significant minority of indigenous people
    displaced by whites
  • Blacks
  • Free after 1833 but not equal
  • Former slaves, some escaped from United States
  • Chinese migrants came to goldfields of British
    Columbia, worked on railroad
  • Late nineteenth and early twentieth century,
    waves of European migrants
  • Northwest Rebellion
  • Led by the métis, descendents of French traders
    and native women
  • Conflict between natives, métis, and white
    settlers in west, 1870s and 1880s
  • Louis Riel, leader of western métis and
    indigenous peoples

32
LATIN AMERICAN SOCIETY
  • Latin American societies
  • Organized by ethnicity and color, legacy of
    colonialism
  • European descendants dominate all aspects of
    state, economic, social life
  • Europeanization of all aspects, classes,
    activities of society
  • Bipolar society
  • Male vs. Female
  • Elite vs. Masses
  • White vs. Colored (Mixed, Black, Indian)
  • Urban vs. rural
  • Castes
  • Legally abolished by revolutions but de jure is
    not de facto
  • Stigma of color and former status prevented much
    change
  • Liberal reforms, Positivism sacrificed legal
    rights, color for economic wealth, profit
  • Large-scale migration in nineteenth century
    brought cultural diversity
  • Small number of Chinese in Cuba assimilated
    through intermarriage
  • East Indians in Trinidad, Tobago preserved
    cultural traditions
  • European migrants made Buenos Aires "the Paris of
    the Americas
  • Most cultural diverse society was Brazil with
    Europeans, Blacks, Indians, mixed
  • Male domination

33
WOMEN IN SOCIETY
  • Active in Revolutions, Change but limited results
    1750-1914
  • Women served as auxiliaries to men, would not
    press changes
  • Women tended to lack mass support
  • From legislators
  • From other women
  • Female revolutionaries
  • Tended to put class interests above gender issues
  • Favored social reform, economic relief
  • Initially very influential in French Revolution
  • Women belief that their place was at home, with
    children
  • Restoration of Conservative elite often limited
    any gains by women
  • Post-Revolutionary Era Womens Rights
  • Industrialization radically altered working
    womens roles publicly and privately
  • Women moved into the work force in great numbers
  • Women began to earn some money, independence,
    began to organize
  • Women often still held responsible for home,
    children, family too
  • Political activism, issues resurrected by middle
    class, upper class women
  • Learned to publish and to organize promoted
    education
  • Political activism tended towards

34
CULT OF DOMESTICITY
  • Gender and Social Changes produced Industrial,
    Agriculture Revolutions
  • Decreased death rate from child birth
  • Women tend to have fewer children as more survive
  • Death of women in child birth raises live span of
    women over that of men
  • First time in history women began to live longer
    than men
  • 19TH Century Social Ideal
  • Common to West, similar traditions in non-Western
    cultures
  • Women were expected to take care of family
  • Children, home were more important
  • Women expected to have children, look after the
    family
  • Public roles of women limited
  • Industrial Revolution changes, threatens ideal
  • Women acquire a public role
  • Women admitted to work force in great numbers
  • Acquired purchasing power, influence
  • Acquired increased independence from husbands
  • Extra income helped family, increased family
    health
  • Reality Was
  • Female workers not treated same as males

35
WESTERN CONSUMERISM AND LEISURE
  • Countries
  • United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia,
    New Zealand
  • France, Germany, Scandinavia, Netherlands,
    Belgium, Austria, Italy
  • In Americas
  • Elite of Latin America tended to share western
    identity, pursuits
  • Elite culture confined to cities, larger
    countries
  • Did not apply to Indians, Blacks
  • Mestizos tended to copy if they had money
  • Increased production created demand
  • Popular consumption increases
  • What was once luxury is now necessity
  • Increased advertisements by industry
  • Increased demand
  • Increased expenditure on luxuries
  • Product crazes arise
  • Bicycle
  • Sewing Machine
  • Mass produced clothing
  • Mass Leisure Culture

36
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
  • Malthusian Economics
  • Predicted human population always outpaced food,
    supplies
  • Only natural disasters, wars, famine keep
    population low
  • Did not figure in technology, inventions, science
  • Key Characteristics
  • Population
  • Increased from 900 million (1800) to 1.6 billion
    (1900)
  • In Europe, Asia, North America, South America
  • Scientific, medical advances
  • Increase life span, infant survival rate
  • Decrease death rate, death of mother during
    childbirth
  • New hygiene
  • Food supply increases
  • Lightly, uninhabited areas brought under
    cultivation
  • World trade allows for foods to reach areas
    quicker
  • Staples in world trade due to refrigeration,
    canning, ships
  • Agronomy, animal husbandry increase yields,
    variety, quality
  • Fruits of the Columbian Exchange
  • Many nations begin to export quantities of wheat,
    meat

37
FROM PEASANTS TO FARMERS
  • The process, while social, began with technology,
    science
  • Agronomy and animal husbandry replaced herding
  • Selective breeding, splicing, experimentation
  • Crop varieties, fertilizers to enrich soil
  • Farming machinery introduced
  • Thrashers, reapers, seed drills, tractors
  • Muscle , animal power replaced by machines
  • Barbed wire was a revolution
  • Transport, preservation made export possible
  • Trains, ships with large holds
  • Grain silos, refrigerator ships, canning, food
    processors
  • Subsistence Agriculture becomes commercial
    farming
  • Western Europe
  • US, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay
  • Australia, New Zealand, parts of India, China,
    Japan
  • On the other hand, in some countries
  • Peasants went from masters of their own work
  • To hands for someone elses work, or someone
    elses work hands
  • Russia, Eastern Europe, Africa, parts of Latin
    America, SE Asia

38
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
  • Commercial agriculture was a revolution 1750
    1914
  • Cash crops
  • Commercial crops grown for profitable export
  • Old American Crops Coffee, Sugar, Cocoa, Cotton
  • Often luxuries or non-necessities with high
    profit margins
  • Two bottlenecks (natural hindrance to profitable
    production)
  • Many are labor intensive solution slavery,
    paid agricultural workers
  • Many require extensive processing, preservation
    to be useful solution technology
  • Commercial agriculture is heavily damaging to the
    environment, soil
  • First arose during 16th century colonialism
  • Caribbean, Brazilian, SE Asian plantations
  • Latin American haciendas, rancheros
  • First export crops sugar, hides, wool, spices
  • Expanded in 18th century
  • British North American colonies added tobacco,
    indigo, rice
  • Asia added tea, coffee, opium, cloves
  • Americas added cocoa, coffee
  • Industrial Revolution made additional possible
    more
  • Cotton (seeds) rubber, oil (synthesizing)

39
DOMESTIC MIGRATION
  • Industrialization
  • Drew migrants from countryside to urban centers
  • By 1900, In Europe and Anglo-North America
  • 50 percent of population of industrialized
    nations lived in towns
  • More than 150 cities with over 100,000 people
  • Urban problems
  • Shoddy houses, fouled air, inadequate water
  • By late 19th century
  • Governments passed legislation to clean up cities
  • Passed building codes, built sewer systems
  • Internal Migration
  • Settlement of Frontiers by population centers
  • Existing populations expand into plains, prairies
  • Facilitated by railroads, technology
  • Examples
  • Westward Movement in USA, Canada, Australia
  • Settlement of Siberia by Russia
  • Great Trek by Afrikaaners
  • Chinese settlement of Yangtze, west, Manchuria

40
TRANSCONTINENTAL IMMIGRATION
  • Reasons for immigration
  • Factors pushing people to immigrate
  • Failed revolutions, nationalisms led losers,
    minorities to immigrate
  • Severe economic, social conditions, repressions
    in Italy, Slavic lands
  • Overpopulation drove many to immigrate
  • Contract labor immigration in India, China,
    Indonesia
  • Factors pulling people to immigrate
  • Better economic opportunities abroad
  • Gold Rushes, free land, recruitment by settler
    nations
  • From Europe 1800-1920
  • 60 million Europeans migrated
  • Canada, US expanded populations, settled
    interiors
  • Germans brought sophisticated technology, culture
    to US
  • Jews, Catholics transformed US through migration
  • Eastern Europeans opened Canadian interior, made
    it a grain basket
  • Italians transformed Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay,
    Chile
  • Asian Immigration
  • Chinese Immigration
  • Businessmen allowed to settle in French, British
    port cities

41
MIGRATION TO THE AMERICAS
  • Industrial migrants to United States and Canada
  • In 1850s
  • 2.3 million Europeans migrated to US, Canada
  • Mostly Irish, German, English
  • Number increased after from 1870s to 1920s
  • Immigrant labor replaced slave labor
  • Contributed to U.S. industrial expansion
  • Provided labor in factories, on railroads
  • Union soldiers were 1/5 immigrants
  • 1852-1875
  • 200,000 Chinese migrated to California
  • Worked in mines and building railroads
  • Provided domestic labor in West
  • 1875 1920
  • S. European Italians, Greeks to USA
  • E. European Poles, Ukrainians, Czechs, Slovaks,
    Jews to US, Canada
  • N. European Scandinavians to Canada
  • Latin American
  • Migrants mostly worked on agricultural
    plantations

42
BRAZIL
  • Interactions
  • War Home of Portuguese royal family during
    Napoleonic Wars, Uruguay independence
  • War Triple Alliance war against Paraguay in
    1870s
  • Diplomacy Through negotiations extended borders
    against weaker states
  • State Structure
  • 1750 Portuguese crown colony, governors
    appointed by Lisbon, landed elite ruled
  • 1820-1888 Empire of Brazil, monarchy, social
    structure based on slavery, entrenched regional
    elites
  • Centralist vs. liberal argument dominated
    politics many revolts by elites, poor in
    outlying regions
  • 1888 Empire abolished over slavery issue,
    federal republic declared, repaid slaveholders
    for slaves
  • Heavy influence of military, regional elites,
    wealthy elite in government rebellions, military
    coups
  • Social and Gender
  • 1750 Plantation casted society with minority
    whites, majority black population slaves, poor
    rural
  • Slave Trade, Slavery abolished in 1888 by decree
    of Princess Regent
  • 1888 Society with whites, blacks, mixed
    populations remained casted
  • Society dominated by the landed, generally white
    elite poor rural blacks were landless
    proletariat
  • Middle class began to grow in cities with rise of
    industry, export workers were Italian, immigrant
  • Cultural
  • Ruling population thoroughly Europeanized blacks
    retained many African traditions
  • Catholicism is the only unifying force and it is
    a syncretic blend many traditional African
    beliefs

43
BRAZIL EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC
44
PERU
  • Interactions
  • Trade
  • Exploitation of export commodities stiffened
    competition among military strongmen
  • Expansion of silver production, wool production
    for export
  • 1840s - 1880s rise of export of guano (bird
    dung) as fertilizers for Europe massive state
    revenues
  • Copper mines, rubber production begun with
    American finance capital
  • War
  • Wars of Independence led by Jose de San Martin
    and Simon Bolivar
  • Peru one of last colonies to achieve independence
  • War of the Pacific with Chile, allied to Bolivia
    to control nitrate, copper rich area of Atacama
    Desert
  • Chileans victorious, occupy whole coast of Peru
  • During which Chinese rebel, Indians rebel in
    highland military coup leads to civil war
  • State Structure
  • After independence
  • Driven by conflict between rival military
    caudillos
  • Constant conflict between liberals (local
    autonomy, reforms), centralists (centralized
    state control)
  • 1895 New era of democratically elected rulers
  • Modernized administration suppressed worst of
    Indian tributes foreign interests bought up by
    government
  • Expansion of educational opportunities

45
MAP OF PERU
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