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AMERICA IN THE MODERN AGE

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Title: AMERICA IN THE MODERN AGE


1
AMERICA IN THE MODERN AGE
  • WORLD WAR II
  • THE COLD WAR
  • THE KOREAN WAR

2
  • SSUSH19 The student will identify the origins,
    major developments, and the domestic impact of
    World War II, especially the growth of the
    federal government.
  • b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
    and the internment of Japanese- Americans,
    German-Americans, and Italian-Americans.
  • c. Explain major events include the lend-lease
    program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the
    fall of Berlin.
  • d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by
    rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of
    women in war industries
  • e. Describe Los Alamos and the scientific,
    economic, and military implications of developing
    the atomic bomb.

3
SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic
and international impact of the Cold Waron the
United States.
  • a. Describe the creation of the Marshall
    Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman
    Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the
    containment policy.
  • b. Explain the impact of the new communist
    regime in China, the outbreak of the Korean War

4
1. How did the United States national crisis in
the 1930s and WWII lead to changes in the
political, social, economic and cultural identity
of the USA? 2. What impact did the Cold war have
the USA?
Essential questions
Vocabulary
  • Lend-Lease Act
  • Allies
  • Winston Churchill
  • Stalingrad
  • The Italian campaign
  • D-Day
  • Douglas Macarthur
  • Midway
  • Battle of the Coral Sea
  • Kamikaze
  • Wagner Act
  • National Labor Relations Act
  • Manhattan Project
  • Harry Truman
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Hiroshima
  • Nagasaki
  • Dwight Eisenhower
  • Hitler
  • Nazi
  • Huey Long
  • Court Packing Bill
  • Neutrality Act
  • President Roosevelt
  • A. Philip Randolph
  • War Production Board
  • Rosie the Riveter
  • Old age insurance

5
WORLD WAR II
6
RISE OF DICTATORS
  • Three (3) events that led to their rise
  • Great Depression in Europe following WWI.
  • Anger over the Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany
  • Strong sense of nationalism
  • Desire that all peoples with like languages and
    cultures should be together in one country.

7
BENITO MUSSOLINI
  • Leads the Fascist Party of Italy to power in
    1922.
  • Outlaws all political parties except Fascists.
  • Takes control of press, schools, religion.
  • Invades Ethiopia with no interference by the
    League of Nations.

8
ADOLF HITLER
  • Head of the Nazi Party in Germany- 1933
  • Blames Jews for German problems and calls for the
    creation of the Aryan Race.
  • Blond haired, blue-eyed Germans
  • Creates a totalitarian state in which Nazi Party
    controls all of the govt., schools, and religion.

9
JAPAN
  • Hirohito- Emperor of Japan.
  • Militarists dominate the government.
  • Hideki Tojo- War Minister.
  • 1932- Seizes Manchuria in China.
  • 1936- leaves the League of Nations and invades
    rest of China.

10
JOSEPH STALIN
  • Succeeds Lenin upon his death in 1922.
  • Had all of his political opponents killed.
  • Govt. takes control of all aspects of economy.
  • Signs pact with Germany to stay out of war.
  • Later joins with Allies after Germany attacks
    Russia

11
WINSTON CHURCHILL
  • Becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1940.
  • Noted for his stirring speeches and bulldog
    confidence.
  • Leads Britain against Nazi aggression.
  • Pressures for the United States to enter the war.

12
FDR-ELECTION OF 1936
  • Franklin Roosevelt up for a second term
  • His New deal is very popular but it is not
    working
  • Depression has not turned around
  • Thinks war is inevitable but America is
    isolationist in the 1930s
  • Roosevelt wins all but 2 states

13
THE BEGINING OF THE WAR
  • 1935 Germany rearms.
  • 1936 Germany takes the Rhineland.
  • 1937 Germany, Italy, Japan form the Axis Powers.
  • 1938 Germany seizes Sudetenland and Austria.
  • 1939 Germany invades Czechoslovakia.

14
EUROPEAN RESPONSE
  • Britain and France adopt appeasement policy at
    Munich Conference to let Hitler have what he has
    taken.
  • America adopts Neutrality Acts.
  • Soviet Union signs Nazi-Soviet Pact to agree not
    to attack each other.
  • September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland.

15
EUROPEAN RESPONSE
  • September 3, 1939 Britain and France declare war
    on Germany.

16
THE WORLD AT WAR
  • Hitler uses blitzkrieg lightning war against
    Europe.
  • Spring, 1940 Germany invades Denmark, Belgium,
    and France.
  • June, 1940- France falls to the Nazis.
  • Hitler presides over the surrender in the same
    railroad car as the 1918 Armistice.

17
Neutrality Acts 1935, 1936, 1937
  • When the President proclaimed the existence of a
    foreign war, certain restrictions would
    automatically go into effect
  • Prohibited sales of arms to belligerent nations.
  • Prohibited loans and credits to belligerent
    nations.
  • Forbade Americans to travel on vessels of nations
    at war in contrast to WW I.
  • Non-military goods must be purchased on a
    cash-and-carry basis ? pay when goods are
    picked up.
  • This limited the options of the President in a
    crisis.
  • America in the 1930s declined to build up its
    forces because it was isolationist

18
1939 Neutrality Act
  • In response to Germanys invasion of
    Poland.
  • FDR persuades Congress in special session to
    allow the US to aid European democracies in a
    limited way
  • The US could sell weapons to the European
    democracies on a cash-and-carry basis.
  • FDR was authorized to proclaim danger zones which
    US ships and citizens could not enter.
  • Results of the 1939 Neutrality Act
  • Aggressors could not send ships to buy US
    munitions.
  • The US economy improved as European demands for
    war goods helped bring the country out of the
    1937-38 recession. America becomes the Arsenal
    of Democracy.

19
LEND-LEASE
  • 1941 proposal to Congress by Roosevelt.
  • British running short on money.
  • United States greatly increased its production of
    military equipment so that it could be leant to
    the British and the Allies.
  • 7 billion dollars used to build airplanes,
    ships, and tanks.

20
AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR
  • July, 1941- America freezes Japanese assets for
    aggression in the Pacific.
  • November, 1941- negotiations between the U.S and
    Japan fail.
  • Sunday, December 7, 1941- Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
    bombed by Japanese planes at 755 a.m.
  • 19 ships and 150 planes destroyed.

21
AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR
  • December 8, 1941 President Roosevelt formally
    asks Congress to declare war on Japan.
  • December 11 Germany and Italy declare war on
    America.

22
War Mobilization
  • How does America get ready for war?
  • Whats it like on the home front?
  • How do the people left at home help win WWII?
  • How does the role of women change during the war?

23
Buy, Buy, Buy, Buy a BondIt Will Lead to
VICTORY!
24
Rosie, the Riveter
25
Womens Army Air CorpsPilots, Womens Army
Corps. Army Nurses
26
Get Your Ration Cards
27
S..t..r..e..t..c..h That Food!
28
Japanese-American Boy Scout Troop in an
Internment Camp
29
Navaho Code Talkers
30
Segregated Units
31
WARTIME ALLIANCES
  • ALLIES
  • United States
  • Britain
  • France
  • Soviet Union
  • AXIS
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Japan

32
BATTLES IN THE PACIFIC
  • Battle of Midway June 4-7, 1942- America
    sinks 4 Japanese aircraft carriers.
  • Turning Point of the war for America in the
    Pacific

33
European Theater1942-1945
Marshal Georgy Zhukov Soviet Field Marshal
General Dwight D. Eisenhower Supreme Allied
Commander
34
INVASION OF ITALY
  • July, 1943- Island of Sicily invaded.
  • Mussolini flees Italy for Germany.
  • Caught by his own people and executed.
  • Italian army surrenders, but German army
    continues to fight.
  • June, 1944- Allies march into Rome.

35
BATTLE FOR RUSSIA
  • July, 1942- Battle of Stalingrad.
  • Russians destroy their own cities so Germans
    would have nothing to conquer.
  • July, 1943- Battle of Kursk
  • Germans forced to withdraw.

36
D-DAY
  • Operation Overlord- invasion of France via
    English Channel.
  • Gen. Eisenhower leads
  • June 6, 1944- Beaches of Normandy, France are
    invaded by 3 million Allied troops.
  • Aug. 25, 1944- Paris liberated.

37
EAST MEETS WEST
  • April 26, 1945- Russian and American troops meet
    at the Elbe River.

38
WAR IN THE PACIFIC
  • Japan severely weakened by U.S. forces.
  • Island Hopping Campaign- Feb.- March, 1945-
    America captures Japanese controlled islands
  • Philippines, Iwo Jima
  • Kamikaze- Japanese suicide runs w/ planes.

39
Iwo Jima-More US Marines earned the Medal of
Honor on Iwo Jima than in any other battle in US
History.
40
General MacArthur and the Philippines
I Will Return!
41
YALTA CONFERENCE
  • Meeting of the Big Three in Feb., 1945.
  • Agreements made
  • Germany divided into 4 zones.
  • Germany would pay for war and lose military.
  • Created United Nations
  • Stalin demands Poland to be pro-Russian.
  • Soviet Union agrees to enter the war against
    Japan after the defeat of Germany.

42
DEATH OF HITLER
  • July, 1944- Assassination attempt by German
    generals. Hitler survives.
  • Soviet forces invade Berlin.
  • Hitler marries long-time girlfriend, Anna Braun
  • April 30, 1945- they commit suicide in bunker by
    swallowing cyanide capsules.
  • Bodies burned by German soldiers.

43
DEATH OF ROOSEVELT
  • Election of 1944
  • Roosevelt defeats Thomas Dewey for a 4th term.
  • 63 years old, very sick with influenza, high
    blood pressure, and congestive heart failure.
  • April 12, 1945- suffers a stroke at Warm Springs,
    Georgia.
  • April 15, 1945- State Funeral

44
HARRY S. TRUMAN
  • Becomes President on death of Roosevelt.
  • out of the loop on war-time planning.
  • Orders drop of Atomic Bomb to save American
    lives.

45
THE END OF THE WAR
  • June, 1944- D-Day
  • May 8, 1945- Germany surrenders (V-E Day)
  • Manhattan Project at Los Alamos
  • August 6, 1945- Atomic Bomb dropped on
  • Hiroshima (70,000 killed)
  • Nagasaki (40,000 killed)

46
THE END OF THE WAR
  • August 14, 1945- Japan surrenders (V-J Day)

47
THE COLD WAR- a war fought with words, threats,
espionage but not weapons of mass destruction
48
The Iron Curtain
  • Soviet Union controls nations of Eastern Europe,
    each with a pro-Moscow Communist government.
  • 1946-1947- Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
  • 1948- Czechoslovakia
  • Churchill calls this the, Iron Curtain.
  • Germany split into East Germany (pro-Soviet) and
    West Germany (Independent).

49
UNITED NATIONS
  • Created in 1945.
  • Member nations agreed to bring all disputes to.
  • Any nation can belong.
  • 5 Permanent members
  • United States
  • Great Britain
  • Soviet Union
  • China
  • France

50
TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • 1947- Soviet Union threatens Greece and Turkey.
  • United States would send 400 million in aid to
    Greece and Turkey to help stop the Communists.
  • It must be the policy of the United States to
    support free people who are resisting outside
    pressures.

51
MARSHALL PLAN
  • Plan by Secretary of State George Marshall to
    rebuild post-war Europe.
  • Believed that by helping these people, it would
    avoid Communist threats
  • Between 1948-1952 the United States would give
    12 billion in aid to Western Europe.
  • Aid offered to Eastern Europe, but turned down.

52
BERLIN BLOCKADE
  • Berlin divided into 4 zones
  • United States, Great Britain, France, Soviet
    Union.
  • Stalin cuts off all highway and rail traffic in
    June, 1948.

53
Berlin Airlift
  • Ordered by Harry Truman in June, 1948.
  • Daily food drops into Berlin.
  • Planes land every 4 minutes at the airport.
  • Ends in May, 1949.
  • 1 year and 2 months.
  • 277,804 flights.
  • 2,325,809 tons of food and supplies.

54
OPPOSING ALLIANCES
  • NATO
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • United States and nations of Western Europe.
  • Created in April, 1949.
  • Warsaw Pact
  • Military organization of the Communist Nations.
  • Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany,
    Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania.
  • Created in May, 1955.

55
ELECTION OF 1948
  • Democrats
  • Harry S. Truman
  • Republicans
  • Thomas Dewey
  • Dixiecrats
  • Strom Thurmond
  • Truman travels the country by train- whistle
    stop campaign.
  • Dewey leads in the polls the entire campaign.
  • First use of Gallup Polls.
  • Dewey Defeats Truman headline
  • Truman wins

56
The War on Communism
  • Truman takes it upon himself to stop communism
    from spreading around the world.
  • Called the containment policy
  • Many 3rd world nations susceptible to the ideals
    of communism.

57
The Korean War
  • 1950-1953

58
Korean Peninsula
  • Korean peninsula divided into north and south at
    38th Parallel after WWII.
  • Peoples Republic of Korea (Communist North) led
    by Kim Il Sung.
  • Republic of Korea (Capitalist South) led by
    Syngman Rhee.

59
KOREAN WAR
  • June 25, 1950- Invasion of South by communist
    North.
  • U.N. forces led by Gen. MacArthur push into the
    North.
  • Chinese help communist North to push back south
    of the 38th.

60
Gen. MacArthur Fired
  • Douglas MacArthur openly criticizes Truman for
    the handling of the war.
  • Wants to invade China.
  • April, 1951- MacArthur is recalled and relieved
    of duty.
  • Replaced by Mathew Ridgeway.

61
End of the War
  • War ends in July 27, 1953.
  • Armistice signed with the border staying at the
    38th Parallel.

62
Election of 1952
  • Republicans
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • I like Ike.
  • Former WWII general
  • Democrats
  • Adlai Stevenson
  • Eisenhower wins in a landslide.
  • First Republican elected to Presidency in 20
    years.
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