Renewable Common-Pool Resources: Fisheries and Other Commercially Valuable Species - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Renewable Common-Pool Resources: Fisheries and Other Commercially Valuable Species PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 70ebfd-NmVhO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Renewable Common-Pool Resources: Fisheries and Other Commercially Valuable Species

Description:

Renewable Common-Pool Resources: Fisheries and Other Commercially Valuable Species Growth rate (replacement) and size of the fish stock/pool Too Small/Low Stock Size ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:30
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 16
Provided by: DonP158
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Renewable Common-Pool Resources: Fisheries and Other Commercially Valuable Species


1
  • Renewable Common-Pool Resources Fisheries and
    Other Commercially Valuable Species

2
Growth rate (replacement) and size of the fish
stock/pool
  • Too Small/Low Stock Size
  • Lower growth rate as fish cant hook up and
    reproduce
  • Birth (replacement) less than death/harvest
  • Growth rate declines species becomes extinct
  • Too Large Stock Size
  • Food sources (plankton, biomass, other fish) too
    small to support large of fish
  • Growth rate declines

3
Schaffer model Relationship between the Fish
Population and Growth
4
How do we use this to manage the fisheries
(prevent extinction)
  • Compare
  • Open Access Fishery (Tragedy of the Commons)
  • Everyone who has a boat can harvest as many fish
    as they can catch profitably
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)
  • What is the largest stock of fish that can be
    sustained from one year to the next (harvest
    growth rate at max stock size)
  • Economically Efficient
  • Given costs/benefits what is the efficient
    harvest

5
3 Possible Solutions
  • 1. Open (unregulated) Fisheries (Ec)
  • Catch until total costs exceed revenues (up to
    zero profits) gt ATC(Q) TotRev(Q) PQ
  • 2. Maximum Sustainable Yield(MSY) (Em)
  • Largest harvest that can be sustained every
    year (harvest replacement rate)
  • Biologist solution
  • 3. Economically Efficient (Eo)
  • Maximize Economic Value (MC(Q) MR(Q)

6
FIGURE 14.2 Efficient Sustainable Yield for a
Fishery
7
Policy Options
  • Command and Control (Regulation)
  • Set Quota for number of fish that can be caught
  • Ignores differences in costs/efficiency of
    fishermen
  • Can lead to over capacity (too many boats, too
    big)
  • Discarded catch/by-catch issues
  • Tradable permits (ITQs)
  • Determine optimal harvest and number of
    licenses to be issued
  • Divide quota/target by number of license fish
    caught per license
  • Auction or grandfather licenses
  • Allow owners to trade (one-year, or multi-year)
  • Multi-species/by-catch
  • Taxes
  • Per unit tax on the fish caught

8
  • Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs)
  • An efficient quota system will have the following
    characteristics
  • The quotas entitle the holder to catch a
    specified volume of a specified type of fish.
  • The total amount of fish authorized by the quotas
    should be equal to the efficient catch level for
    that fishery.
  • The quotas should be freely transferable among
    fishermen.

9
  • Taxes also raise the real cost of fishing, but do
    so in an efficient manner.
  • Unlike regulations, the tax can lead to the
    static-efficient sustainable yield allocation
    because the tax revenues represent transfer costs
    and not real-resource costs.
  • Transfer costs involve the transfer of resources
    from one part of society to another.
  • For the individual fisherman, however, a tax
    still represents an increase in costs.

10
  • Taxes also raise the real cost of fishing, but do
    so in an efficient manner.
  • Unlike regulations, the tax can lead to the
    static-efficient sustainable yield allocation
    because the tax revenues represent transfer costs
    and not real-resource costs.
  • Transfer costs involve the transfer of resources
    from one part of society to another.
  • For the individual fisherman, however, a tax
    still represents an increase in costs.

11
FIGURE 14.7 Effect of Regulation
12
  • Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs)
  • An efficient quota system will have the following
    characteristics
  • The quotas entitle the holder to catch a
    specified volume of a specified type of fish.
  • The total amount of fish authorized by the quotas
    should be equal to the efficient catch level for
    that fishery.
  • The quotas should be freely transferable among
    fishermen.

13
TABLE 14.1 Countries with Individual
Transferable Quota Systems
14
  • Subsidies and Buy Backs
  • One of management options to reduce overcapacity.
  • Payments used to buy out excess fishing capacity
    are useful subsidies, but if additional capacity
    seeps in over time, they are not as effective as
    other management measures.

15
  • Marine protected areas and marine reserves are
    areas that prohibit harvesting and are protected
    from other threats such as pollution.
  • Marine protected areas are designated ocean areas
    within which human activity is restricted.
  • Marine reserves protect individual species by
    preventing harvests within the reserve boundaries.
About PowerShow.com