A blue whale is the largest mammal on earth. An adult blue whale is the length of over three Greyhound buses, weighs more than a fully loaded 747 and has a heart the size of a Volkswagon Beetle. It is so large that it takes at least three minutes for it - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 41
About This Presentation
Title:

A blue whale is the largest mammal on earth. An adult blue whale is the length of over three Greyhound buses, weighs more than a fully loaded 747 and has a heart the size of a Volkswagon Beetle. It is so large that it takes at least three minutes for it

Description:

A blue whale is the largest mammal on earth. An adult blue whale is the length of over three Greyhound buses, weighs more than a fully loaded 747 and has a heart the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:247
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: LenE159
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: A blue whale is the largest mammal on earth. An adult blue whale is the length of over three Greyhound buses, weighs more than a fully loaded 747 and has a heart the size of a Volkswagon Beetle. It is so large that it takes at least three minutes for it


1
  • A blue whale is the largest mammal on earth. An
    adult blue whale is the length of over three
    Greyhound buses, weighs more than a fully loaded
    747 and has a heart the size of a Volkswagon
    Beetle. It is so large that it takes at least
    three minutes for it to make a turn of 180
    degrees.

2
  • Many people draw a strong parallel between blue
    whales and our schools, businesses and even
    communities. It just seems to take forever to
    change direction.

3
  • But a school of sardines consisting of a greater
    mass than a blue whale can turn almost instantly.
    How do they do it? Is it ESP? CB radio? The
    Internet

4
  • If you take a careful look at a school of
    sardines, you'll see that the fish appear to be
    swimming in the same direction. In reality, there
    will always be a small group of sardines swimming
    against the flow causing friction with the rest
    of the school.

5
  • But when this dedicated group of committed
    sardines reaches a critical mass of only 15 to
    20 percent, they induce the rest of the school to
    suddenly turn and follow their leadership! Isn't
    that what happened with our attitudes towards
    drinking and driving, and to our feelings about
    smoking?

6
  • They were changes of direction induced by a small
    group of people who were truly committed to
    change, to go against the flow, to cause
    discomfort, and to challenge the normal
    direction.
  • That's why we're Committed Sardines.

7
WHAT IS EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP?
  • Over 350 definitions in the literature
  • Most agree on
  • Leadership is a group function it occurs only in
    the process of 2 or more people interacting.
  • Leaders intentionally seek to influence the
    behavior of other people.
  • Robert Owens

8
AUTHORITY
  • The power to influence thought and behavior
  • Power
  • The ability for A to get B to do what B would
    normally not do

9
What is The Purpose of Supervision?
  • To assist the organization in reaching its goals
  • How does that translate to Education?

10
What is The Purpose of Educational Supervision?
  • to help increase the opportunity and the
    capacity of schools to contribute more
    effectively to students academic success.
  • Sergiovanni

11
Principles of Scientific ManagementFrederick
Taylor - 1900-15
  • 1. Eliminate the guesswork of rule-of-thumb
    approaches to deciding how each worker is to do a
    job by adopting scientific measurements to break
    the job down into a series of small, related
    tasks
  • 2. Use more scientific, systematic methods for
    selecting workers and training them for specific
    jobs.

12
Principles of Scientific Management
  • 3. Establish the concept that there is a clear
    division of responsibility between management and
    workers, with management doing goal setting,
    planning, and supervising, and workers executing
    required tasks.
  • 4. Establish the discipline whereby management
    sets the objectives and the workers cooperate in
    achieving them.
  • -Frederick Taylor

13
TAYLORS PRINCIPLES
  • TOP-DOWN
  • AUTHORITARIAN
  • TIME-MOTION STUDIES
  • RIGID DISCIPLINE ON THE JOB
  • LITTLE INTERACTION BETWEEN WORKERS
  • INCENTIVE PAY SYSTEMS
  • EFFICIENCY EXPERTS

14
Henri Fayol
  • Focused attention on the manager not the worker
  • Clearly separated the processes of administration
    from other operations within the organization
  • Emphasized the common elements of administration
    in different organizations
  • Believed a trained administrative group was
    essential to improving the operations of an
    organization

15
Fayols Functions of Administration
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Commanding (Leading)
  • Coordinating
  • Controlling (Evaluating Results)

16
Max Weber
  • Hope lied in the establishment of well run
    bureaucracies that would be
  • Fairer
  • More Impartial
  • More Practicable
  • More rational
  • More Efficient
  • More Impersonal

17
Webers Principles of Administration
  • A division of labor based on functional
    specialization
  • A well-defined hierarchy of authority
  • A system of rules covering the rights and duties
    of employees
  • A system of procedures for dealing with work
    situations
  • Impersonality of interpersonal relations
  • Selection and promotion based only on technical
    competence

18
HUMAN RELATIONS SUPERVISION
  • ELTON MAYO - WESTERN ELECTRICS HAWTHORN PLANT
  • IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF
    LIGHTING AND THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKERS?
  • FINDINGS
  • OTHER SIMILAR EXPERIMENTS
  • CONCLUSION - HUMAN VARIABILITY IS AN IMPORTANT
    DETERMINANT OF PRODUCTIVITY

19
HUMAN RELATIONS SUPERVISION
  • EMPHASIS - HUMAN AND INTERPERSONAL FACTORS IN
    ADMINISTRATION
  • Morale
  • Group Dynamics
  • Democratic Supervision
  • Personnel Relations
  • Behavioral Concepts of Motivation

20
HUMAN RELATIONS SUPERVISION
  • Problems
  • Misunderstanding of intent
  • Belief that happy teachers would increase
    productivity
  • Led to laissez-faire supervision in schools
  • Supervisors afraid to supervise - public nature
    of personnel actions in schools
  • Reaction - Neoscientific

21
NEOSCIENTIFIC SUPERVISION
  • Accountability
  • Control
  • Efficiency
  • Impersonal - Standardized tests as a measure of
    teacher competence

22
RECAP - HOW ARE TEACHERS TREATED?
  • SCIENTIFIC
  • Heavily Supervised
  • HUMAN RELATIONS
  • laissez-faire
  • NEOSCIENTIFIC
  • Impersonal Technical

23
HOW ARE TEACHERS VIEWED?
  • a lack of faith and trust in the individual
    teachers ability and willingness to display as
    much interest in the welfare of the school and
    its programs as that presumed by administrators,
    supervisors, and the public.
  • Sergiovanni Starratt

24
HUMAN RESOURCES SUPERVISION
  • Grew out of dissatisfaction with other concepts
    and practices.
  • Represents a high regard for human needs,
    potential and satisfaction.
  • Leadership is neither patronizing or directive
    but supportive in meeting the goals of the
    organization.

25
Douglas McGregor - Theory X
  • 1. Average people are by nature indolent-they
    work as little as possible.
  • 2. They lack ambition, dislike responsibility,
    prefer to be led.
  • 3. They are inherently self-centered,
    indifferent to organizational needs.
  • 4. They are by nature resistant to change.
  • 5. They are gullible, not very bright, ready
    dupes of the charlatan and demagogue.

26
IS THIS THE CASE WITH TEACHERS?
  • Do they do minimal work?
  • Do they take initiative?
  • Are they defensive and self-centered
  • Are they preoccupied with maintaining the status
    quo?

27
Douglas McGregor - Theory Y
  • 1. If it is acceptable to them, employees will
    view work as natural and as acceptable as play.
  • 2. People at work will exercise initiative,
    self-direction, and self-control on the job if
    they are committed to the objectives of the
    organization.
  • 3. The average person, under proper conditions,
    learns not only to accept responsibility on the
    job but to seek it.
  • 4. The average employee values creativity - that
    is, the ability to make good decisions - and
    seeks opportunities to be creative at work

28
  • Do Theory X Teachers result from Theory X
    Supervisors?
  • Is this a self-fulfilling prophecy?

29
TRUE OR FALSE
  • WHAT GETS REWARDED GETS DONE
  • WHAT IS REWARDING GETS DONE
  • WHAT IS GOOD GETS DONE

30
(No Transcript)
31
Maslow
32
The Human Relations Supervisor
  • Adopts shared decision-making practices
  • To increase teacher satisfaction
  • Which in turn
  • Increases school effectiveness

33
The Human Resources Supervisor
Adopts shared decision-making practices To
increase school effectiveness Which in
turn Increases teacher satisfaction
34

THE EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF OUR SOCIETY
ARE PRESENTLY BEING ERODED BY A RISING TIDE OF
MEDIOCRITY THAT THREATENS OUR VERY FUTURE AS A
NATION AND A PEOPLE. WHAT WAS UNIMAGINABLE A
GENERATION AGO HAS BEGUN TO HAPPEN OTHERS ARE
MATCHING AND SURPASSING OUR EDUCATIONAL
ATTAINMENTS. IF AN UNFRIENDLY POWER HAD
ATTEMPTED TO IMPOSE ON AMERICA THE MEDIOCRE
EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE THAT EXISTS TODAY, WE
MIGHT WELL HAVE VIEWED IT AS AN ACT OF WAR. AS IT
STANDS, WE HAVE ALLOWED THIS TO HAPPEN TO
OURSELVES.
35
  • 1. DO YOU RECOGNIZE THIS STATEMENT?
  • 2. WHERE IS IT FROM?
  • National Commission on Excellence in Education.
    A Nation at Risk The Imperative for Educational
    Reform.(1983)
  • 3. HOW DO YOU REACT TO THE ABOVE STATEMENT?
  • Do You Believe That Schools Should be
    Restructured?
  • How? What Should They Be Like?

36
Industrial Age Learning Assumptions
  • Children are in deficit mode and schools will
    fix them
  • Learning takes place in the head, not the body as
    a whole
  • Everybody learns, or should learn, in the same
    way
  • Learning takes place in the classroom, not the
    world
  • There are smart kids and dumb kids

37
Industrial Age School Assumptions
  • Schools are run by specialists who maintain
    control
  • Knowledge is inherently fragmented
  • Learning is primarily individualistic and
    competitive
  • Experts can save us
  • Dont open the door to the community
  • Any change can be handled quickly, efficiently,
    and linearly.

38
Restructuring Influences
  • Political
  • American youth lag behind other countries
  • Economic
  • American youth are unprepared for the technical
    demands of the workplace
  • Cognitive Research
  • How the brain works
  • Multiple Intelligence Learning Styles
  • Constructivist Learning Theory Research
  • How students actively produce knowledge
    understanding
  • The science of teaching

39
Restructuring Influences
  • Philosophy Sociology
  • Knowledge is a social, political, cultural
    construct
  • Knowledge is tentative - open to change
  • Research in Academic Disciplines
  • NCTM AAAS
  • Curriculum Theory Research
  • Identifies and attempts to remove cultural,gender
    and class bias from the curriculum
  • Pluralism Inclusion
  • Multiculturalism, Bilingual, Special Education

40
Restructuring Influences
  • Research on Assessment
  • Performance and Authentic
  • Research on Professional Practice
  • Teachers are pretty smart and should be utilized
  • Research on Second-Order Change
  • Systemic Change
  • Cultural Change

41
Educational Thinkers View Learning as the Study
of a Living System, not the Study of a Machine
  • Learning centered rather than teacher centered
    learning
  • Encourage variety, not homogeneity
  • Understand world of interdependence and change
    rather than fact and right answers
  • Schools need to constantly explore theory-in-use
  • Reintegrating education within walls of social
    relationships that link community
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com