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Unit Two


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Title: Unit Two

Unit Two
  • Smart Cars

Teaching Objectives
  • Students will be able to
  • understand the main idea and structure of the
  • learn some techniques in expository writing
    (definition, quotes, a mixture of facts and
    opinions, etc.)
  • grasp the key language points and grammatical
    structures in the text
  • Learn how to write resume

Lead-in Activities
  • I. Getting to know various types of automobiles

Concept Car
Mini Car ????
Pickup Car ?? (????)
Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) ??????
Off-Road Vehicle ???
Sports Car ??
Classic Car ???
Smart Car ????
  • Cars in China
  • Dream machines
  • June 2nd 2005 BEIJING AND SHANGHAIFrom The
    Economist print edition
  • China is not yet an auto-culture in the
    mould of the United States. But it may only be a
    matter of time.

A country that once ran on two wheels
nowadays depends on four. After the US and
Japan, China is the worlds biggest car
manufacturer. Car ownership has quadrupled in
the past decade, and shows no signs of slowing.
In China's bigger cities, the rivers of bicycles
once one of the most vivid images of urban China
have been replaced with streets jammed with
cars, most of them, terrifyingly, in the hands
of novice drivers.
Driving or not driving?
II. Group Discussion
  • List as many reasons
  • as possible to illustrate
  • why you want to drive
  • a car.
  • (Group 1,3,5,6)
  • List as many reasons
  • as possible to illustrate why you dont want
    to drive a car.
  • (Group 2,4,6,8)

Each group leader will report your discussion
result to the class.
  • What can we do to solve the problems of our
    present cars

What are smart cars?
  • The broad purpose of Smart Cars is to
    improve current levels of automobile safety,
    traffic congestion, mobility, and environmental
    efficiency through the use of advanced technology
    for automobiles. In others, technology that is
    simple in theory is used to help cars perform
    better which benefits people and the environment.

Smart Cars
Michio Kaku
  1. Background information
  2. Text Organization
  3. Language Points
  4. Text Analysis
  5. Useful Expressions
  6. Word Study
  7. Writing Strategy
  8. Assignment

1. Background information
  • 1.Automobile industry The automobile industry is
    one of the most important industries in the
    world, affecting not only economies but also
    cultures. It provides jobs for millions of
    people, generates billions of dollars in
    worldwide revenues, and provides the basis for a
    multitude of related service and support
    industries. Automobiles revolutionized
    transportation in the 20th century, changing
    forever the way people live, travel, and do

2. Global Positioning System (GPS)
Space-based radio-navigation system,
consisting of 24 satellites and ground support.
GPS provides users with accurate information
about their position and speed, as well as the
time, anywhere in the world and in all weather
(No Transcript)
  • 3. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)
  • ??????
  • Advanced electronics, communications, and
    computer systems that increase the efficiency and
    safety of highway transportation. Originally
    known as Intelligent Vehicle/Highway Systems
    (IVHS), these technologies can provide real-time
    information exchange between drivers and the
    roads, giving rise to the terms smart cars and
    smart highways.

Some useful expressions about the road
  • Highway ??,??
  • Expressway ????
  • Light rail (elevated railway) ??
  • Outer-ring road ???
  • Inner-ring road ???
  • Elevated road / overpass ???

2. Text Organization
Parts Para. Main Ideas
I 1-3
II 4-9
III 10-12
New technology will have a dramatic impact
on cars and highways in the 21st century
With the aid of advanced technology, smart
cars will be so designed that they can help
eliminate traffic accidents, determine their own
precise locations and warn of traffic jams
GPS and telematics will make it possible
to build smart highways, which will benefit us in
more than one way
Understanding the Text
  • Questions for Part One
  • What will happen to cars and roads in the 21
  • Why dose the author say the key to tomorrows
    smart cars will be sensors?
  • What is the main idea of this part?

Understanding the Text
  • Questions for Part Two
  • What are the functions of smart cars?
  • What is the function of GPS?
  • What is the main idea of this part?

Understanding the Text
  • Questions for Part Three
  • What are the prospects of applications of GPS?
  • What hopes do promoters of the smart highway
    have for its future?
  • What are the advantages of smart highways?
  • What is the main idea of this part?

3. Language
  • Para.2 (line 4)
  • The automobile industry ranks as among the most
    lucrative and powerful industries of the
    twentieth century
  • rank to have a particular position in a list of
    people or things that have been put in order of
    quality or importance
  • rank as/among rank as one of
  • e.g. Today's match ranks as one of the most
    exciting games that these two have ever played.
  • We rank among the safest countries in
    the world.
  • Other cities that rank as among the
    most expensive are Los Angeles, Chicago and San

3. Language
  • Para.2(Line 7)
  • Sales of the automobile industry stand at
    about a trillion dollars
  • stand (at) linking verb to be at a particular
    level or amount
  • e.g. The death toll for the previous 24 hours
    stood at 96.
  • ??24?????????96??
  • The unemployment rate now stands at 7.3
  • ???????7?3?
  • The score stands at 20 to 1. ???20 ?1
  • The temperature stands at 90 degrees F.
  • ?????90????

3. Language
  • Para. 4 (Line 18)
  • Fully half of these fatalities come from
    drunk drivers.
  • fully at least. ??,??
  • e.g. Fully half of the volunteers did
    not appear.
  • ????????????.
  • The civil war lasted fully four
  • ??????????

3. Language
  • Para.5 (Line 26)
  • the computer would sound an immediate warming.
  • sound to produce a sound
  • e.g. The sirens sounded, warning of a
  • sound a warning / alarm inform people of a
  • e.g. The plan hopes to sound an early
    warning to teenagers about the dangers of

3. Language
  • Para.7 (Line 38)
  • While the computer revolution is
    unlikely to cure the problems,
  • cure to solve a problem, or improve a bad
  • e.g. Attempts to cure unemployment have so
  • failed.
  • cure a cold/ patient
  • a bad habit ????
  • an evil ????
  • an ailing economy ???????

3. Language
  • Para.7 (Line 41)
  • can locate your car precisely at any moment and
    warn of traffic jams.
  • warn to tell someone that something bad or
    dangerous may happen, so that they can avoid it
    or prevent it
  • warn somebody about something
  • e.g. Travelers to Africa are being warned
    about the danger of HIV infection.
  • warn (somebody) of something
  • e.g. Salmon farmers are warning of the
    severe crisis facing the industry.
  • warn somebody (not) to do something
  • e.g. I warned you not to walk home alone.
  • Motorists are being warned to avoid the
    centre of London this weekend.

Text Analysis
  • Functions brought by Advanced technology
  • drunk electronic sensors
  • driving warning radars
  • sleepy driving monitoring
  • camera

eliminate traffic accidents
Paras 4-6
warn of traffic jams
  • sensors in cars tuned to radio signals from
    Navistar for traffic jams

Para 7
  • rotations in the steering wheel and position on
  • time taken for signal from satellite to arrive

determine cars precise locations
Paras 8-9
Guessing the meaning
  • Read the text again to provide definitions for
  • blind spot (Para. 5)
  • Global Positioning System (Para. 7)
  • atomic clock (Para. 7)
  • telematics (Para. 11)
  • automated driver (Para.12)

Guessing the meaning
  • blind spot
  • Global Positioning System

a blind spot must be a portion of the road
behind a car, which a driver can not observe from
the rear-view mirror.
it is a service linked with a satellite, with the
function of determining your location on the
earth to within about a hundred feet.
Guessing the meaning
  • atomic clock
  • telematics
  • automated driver

it vibrates at precise frequency , according to
the laws of t the quantum theory.
the branch of information technology which deals
with the long-distance transmission of
computerized information.
(sentences directly following the term give a
detailed explanation.)
Useful Expressions
  • 1. ??????????
  • 2. ??/???????
  • 3. ??????????
  • 4. ?????????????????.

Do not bother to mention them in the newspaper
fully half of the fatalities
The computer would sound an immediate warning.
Two of the most frustrating things about driving
a car are getting lost and getting stuck in
Useful Expressions
  • 5. ???????
  • 6. ?????????
  • 7. ?????????
  • 8. ??? / ???? / ??? / ???

have positive effect
on heavily trafficked road
have great hopes for its future
manufacturing industry / automobile industry /
tourist industry/ serving industry
Useful Expressions
  • 9. ??????????????
  • 10. ????
  • 11. ????
  • 12. ???????
  • 13. ???????????????

The life-threatening hazard is grossly
navigational capability
be bunched into groups
environmental boon/ (time-saving boon)
The computer revolution is unlikely to cure
these problems
Word Study
  • eliminate
  • in the air
  • alert
  • convert
  • incorporate
  • correlate

  • eliminate
  • (1) to completely get rid of something that is
    unnecessary or unwanted ????????
  • eliminate something/somebody from something
  • Fatty foods should be eliminated from the
  • Many infectious diseases have been
    virtually eliminated.
  • (2) usually passive to defeat a team or
    person in a competition so that they no longer
    take part in it ??
  • Our team was eliminated in the first round.

  • Some other expressions
  • eliminate the false and retain the true ????
  • select the superior and eliminate the inferior

  • ????
  • eliminate the need for ?????
  • eliminate the possibility ?? ???
  • eliminate the risk ????
  • eliminate the problem

  • in the air
  • (1) prevalent ??????
  • There was a sense of excitement in the
  • (2) to be going to happen very soon ????
  • Change is in the air.
  • (3) not yet decided uncertain ????
  • Our plan is still (up) in the air.
  • on (the) air
  • broadcasting on radio or television
  • off (the) air
  • no longer broadcasting on radio or

  • alert
  • (1) vt. to notify of approaching danger or
    action warn
  • alert ab. to do sth. ?????
  • alert sb, to sth. ??????
  • The doctor alerted me to the dangers of
  • The radio alerted the citizens to prepare
    for the hurricane.
  • (2) adj. watchful quick in thinking brisk or
    lively in action ??? ??????
  • He is an alert boy. ??????????
  • Parents must be alert to the symptoms of
    the disease.
  • ?????????????????

  • (3) n. a warning to be ready for possible
  • on alert ready to take action to deal with a
    dangerous situation (??????)?????
  • on full alert / high alert ????
  • All our border points are on full alert.
  • on the alert (for / against) paying attention
    to what is happening and read to react quickly if
    necessary (??????)????,??
  • Staff have been warned to be on the alter
    for bombs.

  • convert
  • to change something into a different form of
    thing, or to change something so that it can be
    used for a different purpose or in a different
  • convert water into ice. ?????
  • convert a forest into farmland. ???????
  • convert assets into cash. ????????
  • convert feet into meters. ????????
  • convert an old house into a new one ???????
  • convert the building into a school. ???????
  • convert some Hong Kong dollars into American

  • incorporate
  • (1) to deliberately include something as part
    of a group, system, plan etc
  • incorporate something into/in something
  • We will incorporate your suggestion in the
    new plan.
  • ????????????????
  • (2) to include sth. as a part or as a quality
  • The architect has incorporated Egyptian and
  • Renaissance themes in the building's
  • Our electrical equipment incorporates all
    the latest
  • safety features
  • ???????????????????

  • correlate
  • if two or more facts, ideas etc correlate or
    if you correlate them, they are closely connected
    to each other or one causes the other
  • correlate with/ to
  • Poverty and poor housing correlate with a
    shorter life expectancy.
  • Electricity sales are closely correlated to
    economic growth.

  • correlation ???
  • the positive correlation between cigarette
    smoking and the incidence of lung cancer
  • ????????????
  • the negative correlation between age and
    normal vision.
  • ??????????????

Writing Strategy
  • How to write a resume
  • A resume is a concise business-style
    report that displays your job qualifications to a
    prospective employer. Typically, information is
    grouped under six headings. (P69)
  • Headings
  • Employment Objective
  • Education
  • Employment Experience
  • Professional Interests
  • References

How to write a resume
  • Some tips
  • Keep your resume brief and to the point
  • Try to fit your resume on one page. Use two
    pages only if your experience is extensive
  • Avoid personal pronouns (dont use I)
  • If you are using the chronological format, list
    your most recent experience
  • If you are using the skills format, begin with
    your strongest and most relevant experience

Writing Assignment
  • Situation You are going to apply for a job as a
    part-time tutor for computer studies, English or
    other subjects. You are asked to supply a resume.
  • Task Write a resume setting forth relevant facts
    of yourself.
  • Time to finish in one week

Exercise for Unit 2
  • Directions For each of the following sentences
    there are four choices marked A, B, C and D.
    Choose the ONE answer that best completes the
  • Although he has had no formal education, he is
    one of the _______ businessmen in the company.
  • A. shrewdest B. sternest
  • C. nastiest D. alertest

  • 2. Because Edgar was convinced of the accuracy of
    this fact, he ______ his opinion.
  • A. struck at B. strove for
  • C. stuck to D. stood for
  • 3. The sick man was _______ to be operated for
    detachment of the retina (??).
  • A. pointed B. poisoned
  • C. poised D. poked
  • 4. The person who ______ this type of approach
    for doing research deserves our praise.
  • A. manufactured B. generated
  • C. originated D.

  • 5. With prices _____ so much, it is difficult for
    the school to plan a budget.
  • A. vibrating B. fluctuating
  • C. fluttering D. swinging
  • 6. A lot of old people had difficulty in _______
    the old currency into the new.
  • A. conveying B. converting
  • C. convicting D. conversing
  • 7. The new factory was built for the _______ of
    European furniture.
  • A. manifest B. maneuver
  • C. manual D. manufacture

  • 8. They are considering buying the house before
    the prices ______.
  • A. start up B. make up
  • C. cut up D. go up
  • 9. The Indonesian government alerted people _____
    the danger of another tsunami.
  • A. of B. at
  • C. to D. for
  • 10. He made a _____ mistake but refused to admit
  • A. great B. gorgeous
  • C. gigantic D. gross

  • 11. The French pianist who had been praised very
    highly _______ to be a great disappointment.
  • A. turned up B. turned in
  • C. turned out D. turned down
  • 12. The establishment of the Peoples Republic of
    China begins a new _____ in history.
  • A. satellite B. sanction
  • C. episode D. epoch
  • 13. When I said goodbye to her, she _______ the
  • A. saw me at B. set me off
  • C. sent me to D. showed me to

  • 14. Everyone dreams of finding employment with a
    _______ business.
  • A. lubricate B. lucrative
  • C. imaginary D. imaginative
  • 15. Please be careful when you are drinking
    coffee in case you _____ the new carpet.
  • A. crash B. pollute
  • C. spot D. stain
  • 16. Illness tends to be _______ with a rise in
  • A. complied B. conformed
  • C. correlated D. coincided

  • 17. The government is trying its best to _______
  • A. diminish B. emigrate
  • C. preclude D. eliminate
  • 18. The opposition ______ another attack on the
  • A. molded B. mounted
  • C. mopped D. mourned
  • 19. They are going to _______ the new plan with
    the old.
  • A. incorporate B. intrigued
  • C. merge D. unify

  • 20. The date of the dinner party is still
  • A. on the air B. on airs
  • C. in the air D. in the open air
  • 21. By moving the radar around slowly in circles,
    we can ________ the surroundings.
  • A. explore B. expose
  • C. exploit D. expand
  • 22. These areas rely on agriculture almost
    ________, having few mineral resources and a
    minimum of industrial development.
  • A. frequently B. respectively
  • C. incredibly D. exclusively

  • 23. Both parties promised to ______ the contract
    to be signed the following day.
  • A. keep with B. tangle with
  • C. adhere to D. devote to
  • 24. The young man came to the party with a large
    ____ of red roses in his hand.
  • A. bump B. bunch
  • C. bulk D. burden

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