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Ecology Unit 1

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Ecology Unit 1 What is Science? Ecology Unit 1 Vocabulary (vocab section of notebook) Scientific Method Control Variable Independent Variable Dependent Variable ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecology Unit 1


1
Ecology Unit 1
  • What is Science?

2
Ecology Unit 1 Vocabulary (vocab section of
notebook)
  1. Scientific Method
  2. Control
  3. Variable
  4. Independent Variable
  5. Dependent Variable
  6. Evidence

3
  • Science is the process of asking questions and
    seeking their answers to better understand the
    natural world.
  • Science can be separated into 3 major fields

4
Life Science
  • Biology (life)
  • Zoology (animals)
  • Botany (plants)
  • Ecology (ecosystems/environment)

5
Earth Science
  • Geology (earth)
  • Meteorology (atmosphere)
  • Astronomy (space)

6
Physical Science
  • Chemistry (matter)
  • Physics (forces and energy)

7
Important Science Skills
  • Two of the most important procedures/skills in
    all branches of science are OBSERVATION and
    INFERENCE.

8
Observation
  • Something we can sense (touch, see, taste, smell,
    hear)
  • Mr. Mount looks nice today.

9
Inference
  • A conclusion or prediction we make based on an
    observation(s).
  • He must have a hot date tonight.

10
  • What are some observations you can make about
    this room? Mr. Brownrigg? Mr. Mount?
  • What are some inferences you can make about them?

11
The Scientific Method
  • The scientific method is an organized,
    step-by-step approach to problem solving in
    science
  • There are 5 steps when you break it down to its
    simplest form.

12
Step 1 Question ?
  • The 1st step is to formulate a question based on
    observations.
  • Figure out what it is you want to know.
  • Research to find out if other studies have been
    done on your question.
  • Many research tools are available (scientific
    journals, books, periodicals, news media, and the
    internet)

13
Step 2 Hypothesis
  • After observing and researching your question you
    need to form a hypothesis.
  • Best guess/explanation as to the reasons for your
    observations.

14
Step 3 Experiment
  • Design an experiment to test your hypothesis.
  • Experiments must be fair (control, independent
    variable, dependent variable)
  • Experiments must also be repeatable.

15
Step 4 Collect Data
  • Data is information.
  • Record observations during your experiment.
  • When you record this information it makes it
    easier to stay organized and also to repeat your
    experiment later.

16
Step 5 Conclusion
  • When all of your data is collected you need to
    come up with a conclusion.
  • A conclusion is where you decide if your
    hypothesis was correct (supported) or not.
  • If it was not supported then you can test it
    again, or form a new one and design a new
    experiment.
  • Sometimes new questions come up during an
    experiment that can lead to the whole process
    starting again.

17
Theory
  • A scientific theory is a detailed explanation of
    a question that has withstood repeated testing.
  • Scientist use theories to provide a general
    explanation to similar questions.
  • Theories are often revised as technology improves
    and new observations are made.

18
Using Graphs
  • Graphs are used to help us organize and
    illustrate data collected during an experiment.
  • There are 3 main kinds of graphs
  • Line graphs
  • Bar graphs
  • Pie/circle graphs

19
Line Graphs
  • Line graphs are used to show the relationship
    between two variables (independent and
    dependent).
  • Many times line graphs show change over time.

20
Bar Graphs
  • Bar graphs are best used to show comparisons.
  • In a bar graph only the y-axis (vertical) is
    quantitative (has numbers).

21
Pie Graphs
  • Pie/circle graphs are best used to show
    percentages.

22
Being a Skeptic
  • In science it is important for conclusions to be
    valid (trustworthy).
  • Example 4 out of 5 dentists recommend sugarless
    gum.
  • Do we actually know how many dentists were asked?
    Was it 5 or 5000?
  • Which would be more valid?

23
Scientific Measurements
  • Many tools are used to make measurements in
    science.
  • What are some examples?

24
Making Precise Measurements
  • Measurements in science need to be precise (as
    correct as possible).
  • Which measurement is more precise? 2 cm, 3.4 kg,
    or 5.23 ml
  • 5.23 ml is more precise because it shows
    measurement to the nearest .01, whereas the
    others only show to the nearest .1 and 1.

25
Significant Figures
  • All of the measured places and one estimated
    place are considered significant figures.
  • What is the difference between measurements of
    186 grams and 186.0 grams?
  • 186.0 grams is more precise because it has more
    significant figures.

26
Rules for Sig Figs
  • 1. All nonzero digits are significant.
  • 2. Any zero located between nonzero digits is
    significant.
  • 3. Leading zeros Zeros to the left of all
    nonzero digits, are never significant.
  • 4. Trailing zeros Zeros to the right of all
    nonzero digits, are significant, if and only if a
    decimal point appears anywhere in the number.

27
Calculating using Sig Figs
  • When making calculations answers must be rounded
    off to the number of significant figures found in
    the least precise measurement.
  • Example To find the volume of a box that is
    12.82 cm long, 2.13 cm wide, and 1.86 cm high.
  • 12.82 X 2.13 X 1.86 50.790276
  • Answer must be rounded to 3 sig figsso 50.8 cm3
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