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CEP 432 Midterm Review

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Title: CEP 432 Midterm Review


1
CEP 432 Midterm Review
  • Harold A. Johnson
  • Michigan State University

2
  • 9/04/09 Class Session
  • Guiding Concept
  • Here vs. See vs. Do
  • Language Development Theory
  • Essential developmental progression from
    reflexive, to signal, to symbolic communicative
    behaviorsall driven by communicative needs and
    supported by an effective learning environment
  • Three theoretical perspectives re. how and why
    language is developed, i.e., Behavioral,
    Linguistic and Interactionist
  • Use of Interactionist perspective to guide our
    decision re. how to design and implement language
    assessment and intervention programs for our
    students.

3
  • 9/04/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 1 Functional Language Approach
  • Consistent with an Interactionist perspective re.
    language development
  • Focus upon the use of conversational exchanges as
    the essential context for both language
    assessments and interventions
  • Contrasts between the focus/strategies of
    traditional vs. functional approaches
  • Essential goal of a functional approach
  • Critical need to create an environment that
    supports and encourages language growth
  • Student first, identification of language goals
  • Teachers role as facilitator

4
  • 9/04/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 1 Functional Language Approach (cont.)
  • Essential indicators of the success of a
    language intervention program
  • Primacy of pragmatics, over other forms of
    language
  • Planning for generalization of language
    competencies outside of the school setting
  • Impact of context upon language learning and
    use
  • Use of daily activities, routines, scripts as
    assessment and intervention opportunities

5
  • 9/11/09 Class Session
  • Prevalence
  • Birth- 5 yrs 2005 U.S. 25 million children
  • 30,000 children with bilateral moderate, severe,
    or profound HL Incidence rate of roughly 1.11
    per 1,000
  • Functional Impact of HL
  • Deaf Rate of 0.81 per 1,000 67,000
  • Lot of Trouble Rate of 301 per 1,000
    260,000
  • Newborn infant screening for hearing loss
  • Use and impact of early intervention (IFSP) upon
    childrens level of performance by age three

6
  • 9/11/09 Class Session
  • Multihandicapped
  • Ch 2 - Language Impairements.ppt
  • Functional definition of a language problem
  • Owens language problems due to an individuals
    difficulty with one or more of these...perceive
    'xinteract communicate with others by
    attending, responding anticipating 'x via the
    use of signals and symbols that confirm to
    expected patterns of morphology, syntax, and
    semantics
  • Pattern of language problems demonstrated by
    students with different types of disabilities
  • Variables that determine the extent of language
    problems demonstrated by students who are d/hh
    and the resulting pattern of language problems
  • Impact of the disability vs. how others
    interact with individuals with disabilities

7
  • 9/11/09 Class Session
  • Students With Multiple Disabilities.ppt
  • deaf
  • Unique pattern of language problems demonstrated
    by each student vs. the common guiding
    assumptions that should be used with all
    students and the resulting instructional
    guidelines

8
  • 9/18/09 Class Session
  • Conversational Model.ppt
  • Frequency with which individuals have
    conversations throughout the day
  • Conversational tasks that must be sequentially
    accomplished during each conversation
  • Three types of conversational behaviors, i.e.,
    reflexive, signal, and symbolic when they occur
  • Three channels of conversational behaviors, i.e.,
    visual, motorical, and verbal
  • Culturally different patterns of conversational
    behaviors resulting communication breakdowns
  • Children with disabilities comprise groups of
    individuals who frequently do not use, or
    understand, the expected patterns of
    conversational behaviors resulting patterns of
    language comprehension and performance

9
  • 9/18/09 Class Session
  • Sociolinguistic/Functional Perspective
  • Language problems occur when there is a
    mismatch between the language comprehension and
    performance of parents and children
  • Sequence of problems experienced by many parents
    and their children who are disabled resulting
    language problems, i.e., passive learning style
    communication system vs. language, and
    instructional implications

10
  • 9/18/09 Class Session
  • Development of Communicative Competence
  • What, why and how language is developed and
    resulting instructional implications
  • Definition of Communicative Competence
  • communication competence can be defined as the
    extent to which an individual can both comprehend
    and convey information
  • communication competence can be measured through
    examination of the number of contexts (both
    physical and interpersonal), modalities,
    languages, topics, tasks, conversational repair
    strategies and languages that an individual can
    understand and convey communicative intent

11
  • 9/18/09 Class Session
  • Owens - Ch. 3 - Assessment of Preschool and
    School Aged Children with Language Impairments
  • Purpose of language assessments
  • document and understand what students
  • can do in their best context, then work to
    increase the use of existing skills in new
    contexts
  • are experiencing GREAT frustration in doing,
    then use best context to develop needed skill,
    and then work to increase the use of the new
    skill in new contexts
  • Normalists vs. criterion-referenced approach to
    tracking student progress
  • Restricted usefulness of normalists assessments
    why
  • Criterion-referenced approach relies upon an
    observational, or descriptive approach of the
    student's conversational use of language our
    observational studies
  • Accommodations used with high-stakes testing

12
  • 9/18/09 Class Session
  • Owens - Ch. 4 - Assessment of Preschool and
    School Aged Children with Language Differences
  • Grician Principles
  • Quantity Quality Relevance Manner
  • Impact of cultural/linguistic mismatch between
    teachers and their students
  • Integrated (all elements of language) vs.
    discrete point (one element of language) models
    of assessment
  • As teachers of students who are d/hh, we do not
    have to screen to find those students with
    language problems, we simply need to observe,
    understand, document, and effectively respond to
    the language problems (their vs. our perspective)
    of our students demonstrate.

13
  • 9/25/09 Class Session
  • Owens - Ch. 5 - Language Sampling
  • Impact of context upon language comprehension and
    performance
  • Identification and use of students best
    language use and learning context use to
  • identify what students can do
  • Establish what they need to do
  • Characteristics of a students best context
  • Language sampling in natural/representative
    vs. contrived interactional contexts
  • Use of evocative techniques within language
    sampling
  • Use of their topics to accomplish your language
    sampling tasks

14
  • 9/25/09 Class Session
  • Owens - Ch. 5 - Language Sampling (cont.)
  • Use of information from a childs caregiver to
    assist in the language sampling process
  • Impact of the sampling environment/context upon
    the resulting patterns of language comprehension
    and use
  • Use of low structure, high predictability
    context for language sampling, e.g., routinized
    events or routines
  • The need for the teacher to establish joint
    attention with the child and be
    attentive/responsive during language sampling
  • Differences between adult-to-child, vs.
    child-to-child interactions and the resulting
    impact upon language sampling

15
  • 9/25/09 Class Session
  • Owens - Ch. 5 - Language Sampling (cont.)
  • Consider the pragmatic function of the linguistic
    forms you are attempting to elicit. Use this
    information to structure the situation
  • Illocutionary functions are the intentions of
    each utterance. vs. the overall conversational
    task see p. 131, table 5.4 for a list of these
    functions
  • Assessment What the students can do where
  • Assessment What the students want to do,
    where, but are experiencing frequent and
    substantial difficulty accomplishing
  • Presuppositional Deictic Skills of students
    importance
  • Discourse Organization Assessment focuses upon
    how well/effectively the child accomplishes each
    of the conversational tasks.

16
  • 9/25/09 Class Session
  • Owens - Ch. 5 - Language Sampling (cont.)
  • Language function dictates language form
  • Students experiencing difficulty in effectively
    using a language form may not understand its
    language function
  • P. 138, table 5.6 Elicitation of Some Language
    Features
  • Transcription requirement for language sampling,
    but the lack of an established transcription
    protocol for nonverbal behaviors and/or sign
    languages
  • Guidelines for carrying out a language sample

17
  • 10/02/09
  • Ch. 6 of course text - Analysis Across Utterances
    Patterns by Communication Event"
  • Traditional analysis has focused exclusively on
    the utterance or sentence as the unit of
    analysis. p. 146
  • p. 146, Table 6.1 Types of Analysis Beyond the
    Utterance
  • To analyze language only at the utterance level
    is to miss many of a childs language skills,
    especially those aspects that govern cohesion and
    conversational manipulation. p. 146
  • i.e., focus upon language form/performance, vs.
    function/competence

18
  • 10/02/09
  • Ch. 6 of course text - Analysis Across Utterances
    Patterns by Communication Event" (cont.)
  • Childrens development and use of register
    shifts
  • Children with language difficulties often fail to
    make expected register shifts, either because
    they do not know when, or how such shifts should
    be made
  • Impact upon language competence
  • Language problems due to interlanguage/Code
    Switching mistakes and channel availability
  • Referential Communication i.e., to describe x
    in a way that y can understand
  • Presuppositional Skillsthis is how well the
    speaker/signer understands and then uses that
    understanding, to interact with the
    listener/looker in a way that they can
    understand
  • For most children, the receptive and expressive
    ability to consider a partners perspective is
    well established by age 10. (p. 149)

19
  • 10/02/09
  • Ch. 6 of course text - Analysis Across Utterances
    Patterns by Communication Event" (cont.)
  • Both referential and presuppositional skills
    requires adherence to the Grician Principles
  • Deitics linguistic elements that must be
    interpreted from the perspective of the speaker
    in order to be understood as the speaker
    intended. (p. 150)
  • Cohesion....next sentence relates to the
    previous sentence
  • Coherence....all of the sentences relate to the
    same topic and/or conversational task/goal

20
  • 10/02/09
  • Ch. 6 of course text - Analysis Across Utterances
    Patterns by Communication Event" (cont.)
  • 4 categories of conversational behavior, i.e.,
  • active conversationalist /
  • passive conversationalist -/
  • inactive communicator -/-
  • verbal noncommunicator /-
  • Use of backchannel during conversations
  • Culturally specific patterns of turn taking and
    topic establishment behaviors
  • Concepts of topic maintenance vs. topic shading
    vs. "discontinuous discourse
  • Developmental progression of topics discussed and
    topic establishment

21
  • 10/02/09
  • Ch. 6 of course text - Analysis Across Utterances
    Patterns by Communication Event" (cont.)
  • Differential patterns of language required to
    maintain a topical discussion over multiple turns
  • Communication breakdowns
  • Who initiates vs. who repairs
  • Language use, problems and intervention goals
    strategies
  • Repair strategies
  • Language use, problems and intervention goals
    strategies
  • Developmental progression
  • Latency of Contingencyimpact and causes

22
  • 10/02/09
  • Ch. 6 of course text - Analysis Across Utterances
    Patterns by Communication Event" (cont.)
  • Patterns of conversational language problems
    demonstrated by students
  • rule-of-thumb concerning what constitutes a
    language problem frequency/degree to which x
    frustrates child in understanding or being
    understood
  • Impact of interruptions/over speech upon
    language use
  • Strategies to facilitate the development of turn
    taking skills

23
  • 10/9/09 Class Session
  • Traditional Language Intervention Work in Deaf
    Education
  • Kretschmer-lang intervention methods.ppt
  • Language intervention techniques have mirrored
    our understanding of language development use,
    i.e., historical focus upon language form, most
    recent focus upon language function as the
    determiner of form
  •  MI - EHDI Presentation - Functional Model of
    Language Intervention w Families.ppt
  • Bromwich six levels of parent/child interactions
  • Strategies that should be used to establish an
    effective language learning environment for
    children who are d/hh

24
  • 10/9/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 9 - A Functional Intervention Model
  • A functional language intervention model
    attempts to target language features that a child
    uses in the everyday context, such as the home or
    the classroom, and to adapt that context so that
    it facilitates the learning of language. (p.
    242)
  • p. 243 Table 9.1 Comparison of Traditional and
    Functional Intervention Models
  • Key principles of a functional intervention model
  • Generalization variables
  • The best way to determine need is through
    environmental observation. If, for example, a
    child frequently requests items in the
    environment but is generally ineffective, then
    requesting might be chosen as a target. (p. 250)
  • our observational study

25
  • 10/9/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 9 - A Functional Intervention Model (cont.)
  • Impact of frequency of need/use upon the
    development of x language skill
  • Students need to not only learn x, but also
    when and why to use x
  • Use of content vs. function words in language
  • Mumas instructional strategies what, where, and
    why to use
  • Because a young child lacks metalinguistic
    awareness, rule explanation is not a viable
    clinical tool. An SLP must structure the
    environment so that linguistic regularities are
    obvious. (p. 251)
  • Use of contrast training to assist
    generalization of students developing language
    skills

26
  • 10/9/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 9 - A Functional Intervention Model (cont.)
  • Method of TrainingKey information to keep in
    mind
  • Successful use of the language taught in
    intervention programs depends, in part, on the
    expectations of these significant others in the
    childs environment. (p. 255)
  • Intervention must not simply focus upon the
    student, but also the individuals who interact
    with the student
  • Need for students to learn the cues of when
    they should use x language skills
  • Students should be taught to both recognize and
    use natural contingencies in all their language
    intervention work.
  • Impact of frequent topical changes upon both
    comprehension and language development
  • Guidelines for language facilitators

27
  • 10/16/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 10 Manipulating Context
  • Categories of speech acts and their impact upon
    language development
  • Developmental progression of illocutionary
    functions tables 7.5 7.6, p. 182-183
  • Implications
  • If language function drives language forms
  • Then language intervention efforts should be
    designed to foster the students development of
    increasingly sophisticated language functions
  • manipulating the context to foster the
    students development of speech acts,
    illocutionary functions, conversational tasks
  • the more direct the teaching, the less the
    learning the more the student may avoid
    interactions with you
  • Nine techniques for manipulating the linguistic
    context to foster language development

28
  • 10/23/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 11 Specific Intervention Techniques
  • Linguistic forms should be taught within the
    context of the functional purpose they serve to
    accomplish, e.g., why we use adjectives,
    prepositions, conjunctions, etc.
  • Interventionestablishing a learning
    environments, i.e., both physical and
    interpersonal, in which students have the
    opportunity and need to observe, comprehend, use
    increasingly effective forms of communicative
    behaviors to accomplish their increasingly
    complex language speech acts, illocutionary
    functions, conversational tasks.
  • Students must demonstrate x language skills in
    face-to-face interactions before you expect them
    to demonstrate the same language skill via
    reading or writing.

29
  • 10/23/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 11 Specific Intervention Techniques (cont.)
  • NarrationIntervention
  • Focus upon helping students to understand how
    stories are structured via story telling,
    scripts, plays . READING to students and
    pointing out the cues, e.g., pictures, headings,
    punctuation marks, etc., used to infer meaning
    the constant need to check for comprehension
  • build on students topical knowledge and
    interests
  • develop their desire/ability to recognize
    repair com. Breakdowns expect to understand
  • give them both reasons and opportunities to
    read increasingly formal reading material

30
  • 10/23/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 11 Specific Intervention Techniques (cont.)
  • Students expecting story cohesion and learning
    to recognize cohesion cues \
  • Semantics
  • Word meanings form relationships with other
    words that help categorize and organize not only
    the language system but also cognitive processes,
    particularly for older children. (p. 299)
  • categories of words/concepts/meanings that do
    vs. do not go together- See p. 304 for examples
  • an increasingly rich vocabulary
  • Use of graphic organizers to assist students in
    making the conceptual links between words

31
  • 10/23/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 11 Specific Intervention Techniques (cont.)
  • Vocabulary learning by students who are d/hh and
    the empirical evidence concerning which
    instructional strategies improve vocabulary
  • The role of letter-to-sound recognition in
    vocabulary development
  • At its core, word meaning consists of concepts
    or knowledge of the world. Words do not name
    things, but rather refer to these concepts.
  • What is lacking in the experiences of students
    who are d/hh that impedes the development of such
    conceptual knowledge?

32
  • 10/23/09 Class Session
  • Ch. 11 Specific Intervention Techniques (cont.)
  • New words/word meaning must be linked with
    students current words/word meaning
  • all learning occurs from old information to new
    information
  • Four strategies for vocabulary development
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