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career orientation and career guidance in Finland

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Title: career orientation and career guidance in Finland


1
career orientation and career guidance in Finland
  • Jukka Lerkkanen
  • 220413 Jyväskylä, Finland

2
Key features of the current guidance provision in
Finland
  • Careers information, guidance and counselling
    services are provided mainly by two established
    public service systems
  • Student counselling within the public educational
    system,
  • Information, guidance and counselling services
    run by the public labour administration and
    complementing school-based services (Employment
    and Economic Development Offices)
  • Public Employment Services (PES) are mainly
    targeted at clients outside the education and
    training institutions.

3
Finnish guidance and counselling system
Ministry of Culture and Education Ministry of
Employment and the Economy
COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS
UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOLS
VOCATIONAL COLLEGES
UNIVERSITIES OF APPLIED SCIENCES
UNIVERSITIES
EMPLOYMENT OFFICES Vocational guidance and career planning
Educational and vocational information services
Employment exchange services

CENTRE FOR INTER-NATIONAL MOBILITY CIMO Euroguidance Finland
4
Features of the Finnish education system
  • Equal opportunities for education irrespective of
    age, domicile, sex, economic situation or mother
    tongue
  • Instruction free of charge
  • Centralised steering of the whole - local
    implementation
  • Education system almost entirely publicly funded
  • Guidance practitioners competences are defined
    in legislation

5
THE EDUCATION SYSTEM OF FINLAND
3)
1) An additional 10th year is voluntary giving
pupils an opportunity to improve their grades and
clarify their career plans. 2) Vocational upper
secondary education and training Is arranged in
vocational schools (including at least six months
of on-the-job learning) and in the form of
apprenticeship training. Adults can obtain
vocational upper secondary qualifications also
in competence tests. 3) The Ministry of Culture
and Education has granted permission for
post-graduate degree programmes for some
universities of applied sciences. 4) Vocational
start is an optional year after comprehensive
education since 2007.
5 4 3 2 1
4
UNIVERSITIES OF APPLIED SCIENCES
3 2 1
UNIVERSITIES
SPECIALIST VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS
WORK EXPERIENCE
FURTHER VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS
2)
3 2 1
3 2 1
VOCATIONAL UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION and TRAINING
GENERAL UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION

WORK EXPERIENCE
1)
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6
C o m p u l s o r y
e d u c a t i o n
BASIC EDUCATION
PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION
AGE
SCHOOL YEARS
6
National guidelines for guidance provision and
career education - comprehensive and secondary
education
  • A strategic and operational plan for the guidance
    provision
  • Regular evaluation of produced services
  • A holistic approach
  • Student counsellor, every teacher and principal
    are delivering counselling services
    (responsibilities)
  • Multi-professional cooperation expert groups

7
Goals of the current curriculum guidelines
  • Guidance and counselling activities are to
    constitute a continuum lasting the duration of
    basic education.
  • It is the task of all teachers
  • The parent or other guardian must be given
    opportunities to confer (discuss) about issues
    related to pupils studies and choices by meeting
    collectively with the teacher, study counsellor,
    and pupil.
  • In addition to preventive activities, guidance
    and counselling implemented at the school should
    especially support those pupils who have
    difficulties with studies or who are in danger of
    dropping out.

8
Goals of the curriculum guidelines
  • The principles and division of labour among the
    different players in guidance and counselling
    activities are to be defined in the local
    curriculum.
  • The curriculum must include a description of how
    cooperation with the local labour market and
    business community is implemented at the level of
    the entire schools activity.
  • Classroom visits by labour market
    representatives, visits to workplaces, project
    work, the use of different sectors informational
    materials, and an introduction-to-working-life
    periods make up the central part of this
    cooperation.
  • The instruction in the different subjects is to
    include modules that connect the knowledge and
    skills provided the subject to the demands and
    possibilities of working life.

9
GUIDANCE IN EDUCATIONAL SECTOR (Kasurinen 2008)
  • CURRICULUM GUIDELINES
  • psycho-social support and student welfare
    services
  • counselling of study skills and learning
  • career counselling
  • TRANSITION

FOLLOW-UP
TO FURTHER EDUCATION
Upper secondary school
Flexible options
Comprehensive education
INDIVIDUAL STUDY PATH
Vocational school
TO WORK LIFE OR FURTHER EDUCATION
1 6 9
Class teachers
Guidance counsellors Group advisers
Choices. decision making
COOPERATION WITH WORKING LIFE
10
The Three HILLS -model for implementing CG
services psycho-social support and student
welfare services, counselling of study skills and
career counselling
11
Support on personal and social issues
  • Psycho-social support
  • - life situation and life history of the student
  • self knowledge and self-esteem of the student
  • life management experiences
  • student welfare services
  • multi-professional cooperation

12
Educational guidance
  • learning and study process
  • individual study plans
  • counselling and support when planning studies and
    choosing courses
  • learning methods and strategies
  • students are aware of their strengths and
    weaknesses as students

13
Career guidance
  • educational and occupational plans
  • career development
  • plans for the future
  • knowledge of working life
  • studying and working abroad
  • promote students skills for planning and
    realising life long learning
  • skills to use different tools to search
    information

14
Guidance at different educational levels
  • Pre-primary education at the age of six (97, aim
    is foster his/her social skills)
  • Basic education
  • Goals and division of labour are set in the
    national curriculum
  • All teachers contribute guidance and couselling
    all though their basic education
  • at schools and class teachers
  • Class-based lessons in guidance and counselling
    at grades 7-9

15
Basic education
  • Guidance counsellors
  • Teaching, providing information, attending
    meetings and giving guidance about studying,
    working life and further education
  • Visits to educational institutes and companies
  • Parent-school meetings
  • Joint nationwide online application system (95
    go on to secondary education)
  • Student welfare team
  • Lessons 2,5 hours during 7-9 grades
  • Special needs education
  • Preparatory training for immigrants
  • Additional basic education (10th grade)
  • Preparatory training Vocational start, Youth
    workshops

16
Secondary level education
  • General upper secondary schools
  • Goals set by a national curriculum, leading to a
    matriculation exam and qualifying students for
    further studies
  • 50 go on to universities, 50 take up other
    studies or employment
  • Guidance counsellors at schools and group
    advisers
  • One compulsory course (38h) and one optional
    course (38h) in guidance and counselling about
    subject choices, further studies, careers and
    other life plans.
  • The guidance and counselling services at the
    Employment and Economic Development Offices

17
Secondary level education (1)
  • Vocational education and training
  • Initial vocational education or apprenticeship
    training or a compentence-based qualification
    degree gives opportunity to apply to higher
    education
  • Guidance counsellors at schools, teachers and
    workplace instructors, 60h course of guidance and
    counselling
  • Guidande counsellor Credit prior skills, ILP,
    Guide the choices and further education,
    multiprofessional studen welfare work, training
    peer-tutors, active regional network with other
    guidance counsellors, social services and the
    Employment and Economic Development Offices

18
Secondary level education (2)
  • Vocational education and training
  • On-the-job learning, skills demonstrations, a
    final project and studies in entrepreneurship
  • Intial vocational qualification and national
    matriculation exam
  • Special needs education in regular vocational
    institutes part of mainstream classes or special
    needs groups or both or in Vocational Special
    Needs Institutions.

19
Higher education
  • Tertiary education divided into
  • - Universities (academic, research-based)
  • Universities of applied sciences (professionally
    oriented)
  • National joint application system, entrance exams
  • Student counselling services, welfare services
  • Study affairs secretaries or counsellors in
    charge of the planning, co-ordination and
    development of CG, editing of study guides and
    training tutors
  • Careers and recruitment services Employment
    advisers and counsellors

20
Adult education
  • Liberal adult education in folk high schools,
    adult education centers and summer universities
  • General adult education in adult high schools and
    folk schools
  • Vocational education and training for adults is
    provided in vocational institutes, in workplaces
    and virtual learning environment.
    Competence-based qualification includes practical
    work assignments and written or oral assignments
  • The key objective in the GC is to help design
    individual study plans, improve study skills and
    advise in the choice of subjects

21
Training of guidance practitioners at schools
  • Master in Education (300 cr), major in guidance
    and counselling teacher qualification
  • Teacher qualification 60 credits of guidance
    and counselling
  • Vocational teacher qualification 60 credits of
    guidance and counselling
  • Multiform training available
  • In-service training provided within the field

22
Guidance in legislation (1)
  • Acts for comprehensive, upper secondary and
    vocational education
  • Pupils and students are entitled to have
  • educational and vocational guidance during every
    working day at school

23
Guidance in legislation (2)
  • Decrees for comprehensive education,
  • upper secondary and vocational education
  • student counsellors take care of vocational and
    educational guidance
  • cooperation with working life possibility to
    have time for work experience
  • guidance and counselling in classrooms,
    possibility to have personal counselling

24
Guidance and counselling at Public Employment
Services (PES)
  • Centres for Economic Development, Transport and
    the Environment
  • Coordination and development
  • Employment and Economic Development Offices
  • Target groups unemployed, citizens which plan a
    career move, citizens who are studying

25
In charge of guidance and counselling at PES (1)
  • Employment advisers and counsellors help
    jobseekeres and employers find one another.
    Group-based training in job-seeking and
    education.
  • EURES-advisors
  • Education advisers via national telephone
    service, email and Internet

26
In charge of guidance and counselling at PES (2)
  • Vocational guidance psychologists mapping the
    clients situation and finding a suitable
    vocational field with discussion and
    psychological assessment
  • Higher education advisers guiding and counselling
    students who are transferring from study to work
  • Rehabilitation advisers are intended for people
    with disabilities. These services include
    employment services, career planning, educational
    services, guidance in rehabilitation and health
    checks

27
Training of guidance practitioners at PES
  • Vocational guidance psychologist needs a grade in
    psychology
  • Other practitioners have no formal qualification
    requirements
  • In-service training provided within the field

28
Recent examples of quality development
29
National evaluation of guidance services in
Finland 2002
30
Evaluation of the efficacy of educational
guidance and counselling (Numminen al 2002)
31
Internet-based tools to support the institutional
evaluation of guidance
  • Tools derived from the national evaluation
    2001-2002
  • Separate questionnaires for
  • Comprehensive education, upper secondary level
    general education and 2. level vocational
    education
  • Questionnaires for students, parents, school
    counsellors principals
  • On-line profile based on the responses from
    different audiences

32
Indicators used in the institutional evaluation
(1)
  • Access for guidance
  • Student/counsellor ratio
  • The index of necessicity of career guidance
    (Student)
  • The access index (Student/Counsellor/Principal)
  • The clarity of the guidance system in the school
    (S/C/P)

33
Indicators used in the evaluation (2)
  • The facilities and resources for guidance
  • The time allocated to career guidance (C/P)
  • Psysical facilities for career guidance (C/P)
  • The tools and materials for career guidance
    (C/P)
  • Funding of career guidance (C/P)
  • Other resources (Human Resources) (P)

34
Indicators used in the evaluation (3)
  • The goals and aims of career guidance
  • Meeting the goals C
  • Coherence of guidance services within the school
  • Coherence of guidance services within the school
    (C/P)
  • Individual learning programme
  • Implementation and realisation of individual
    learning programmes (C/R)
  • Study skills of the students
  • Study skills (S)

35
Indicators used in the evaluation (4)
  • Ability for further educational and career plans
  • Ability for further educational and career plans
    (S)
  • Client satisfaction of career guidance services
  • Client satisfaction of career guidance services
    (S)
  • Prevention of social exclusion
  • Means to prevent social exclusion (P)

36
An example of the questionnaires
37
Example of the on line graphics generated by the
tool/Perceived necessity and access for
guidance/comparison
38
Development and implementation of
interdisciplinary guidance practise and policies
  • Need for transparency
  • Analysis of the services visible for citizens and
    the mechanisms behind the planning and managing
    the services not visible for the users
  • Shift from cocooned and isolated guidance
    providers to interdisciplinary partnerships
  • Need for a model that identifies the components
    and features of interdisciplinary approach in
    practical, organisational, regional and national
    policy levels
  • Need for a tool to enhance common language and to
    bridge the gap between the practise and guidance
    policy development

39
Strategic design of guidance practise policy
(Kasurinen 2006, Vuorinen, Kasurinen Sampson
2006)
Legislation Instructions Resources
Policy Context Organization Contents Action
plans Methods Time
Strategic design policy development - Not
visible
Educational settings Economic and work life
structures Networks
Leadership and management Action culture Human
resources Arrangement of education and support
systems
Services visible for clients
Career and future planning Guidance in study
process and skills Psychosocial support and
health care services
Objectives Responsibilities Division of labor
Information and advice services ICT services
in counseling Group counseling sessions
Individual counseling sessions
Citizens life career management and
implementation, Lifelong Guidance
40
Recent quality features in guidance policy
development in Finland
  • As a result of the national and international
    evaluations, lifelong guidance has been included
    in the key documents of educational and labour
    market policies.
  • National cross-sectoral initiatives based on the
    evaluation recommendations
  • Cross-sectoral working groups feed the national
    policy development still need for a sustainable
    national lifelong guidance forum

41
Materials
  • Quality of guidance provision in Finnish
    education by Raimo Vuorinen, in National
    conference on lifelong guidance entited
    Consultation on Quality Standards in Lifelong
    Career Guidance 19 September 2012 Ljubljana,
    Slovenia
  • Lifelong Guidance in Finland. In address
    http//www.cimo.fi/services/euroguidance_finland

42
More information
  • Jukka.lerkkanen_at_jamk.fi
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