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Multicultural Guidance and Counselling

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For learning and competence. Multicultural Guidance and Counselling ... For learning and competence. EXAMPLES OF MULTICULTURAL ISSUES IN NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Multicultural Guidance and Counselling


1
Multicultural Guidance and Counselling
  • Mr Mika Launikari, Project Coordinator
  • Finnish National Board of Education
  • Tel. 358-9-7747 7289
  • Email mika.launikari_at_oph.fi

Amsterdam, the Netherlands 10 October 2006
2
CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION
  • EUROPEAN LEVEL POLICY ISSUES
  • EUROPEAN HANDBOOK
  • MULTICULTURAL COUNSELLING
  • INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
  • DEVELOPING MULTICULTURAL COUNSELLING COMPETENCIES
  • LIFE MAPPING TECHNIQUE

3
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN EUROPE
  • Memorandum on Lifelong Learning (2001)
  • International reviews of career guidance policies
    by OECD, World Bank, CEDEFOP, ETF (2003-2004)
  • European Employment Strategy 2005-2008
  • Education and Training 2010
  • Guidance resolution (2004) High-quality lifelong
    and lifewide guidance is a key component of
    education, training and employability strategies
    in Europe! Guidance is a way to promote SOCIAL
    INCLUSION, SOCIAL EQUITY, GENDER EQUALITY,

4
HANDBOOK MULTICULTURAL GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND BEST PRACTICES IN
EUROPE
  • Only American and Canadian literature available
  • Discussion about multicultural guidance and
    counselling from a European perspective needed
  • Finland is not interested in making the same
    mistakes with immigrants as other European
    countries have made during the 1960s and 1970s
  • PREVENTIVE MEASURES building up competencies,
    establishing structures, creating good practices,
    etc.

5
HANDBOOK ON MULTICULTURAL GUIDANCE
  • TARGET GROUPS guidance counsellors, trainers of
    guidance counsellors, education and employment
    authorities, human resources personnel,
  • CONTENTS combination of theory and practice,
    some policy level issues
  • AUTHORS Experts from 8 European countries
  • FUNDING European Commission Finnish
    authorities
  • HANDBOOK available as a pdf-document at
  • http//www.cimo.fi/english -gt Publications

6
DEFINITION OF MULTICULTURAL GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELLING
  • MULTICULTURAL GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING is a
    situation in which two or more persons with
    different ways of perceiving their social
    environments are brought together in a helping
    relationship. (Pedersen 1994)
  • MULTICULTURAL COUNSELLING refers to preparation
    and practices that integrate multicultural and
    culture-specific aware-ness, knowledge and skills
    into counselling interaction with individuals of
    different ethnic and cultural origin. (Arredondo,
    Toporek al, 1996)
  • N.B. The term MULTICULTURAL refers not only
    to various ethnic groups, but also to gender
    issues, different age groups, disabled people,
    people with different sexual identity, etc.

7
DEFINITION OF CULTURE developed by UNESCO world
conference on cultural policies
  • "In its widest sense culture may now be said
    to be the whole complex of distinctive spiritual,
    material, intellectual and emotional features
    that characterise a society or group. It includes
    not only the arts and letters, but also modes of
    life, the fundamental rights of human beings,
    value systems, traditions and beliefs."
  • In other words, culture includes spiritual
    beliefs, actual physical property, people's
    thoughts and emotions. It includes ways of life,
    basic human rights, people's values, beliefs,
    attitudes, norms and traditions.
  • N.B.1. No culture is good or bad cultures
    are only different in relation to one another.
  • N.B.2. Cultures are dynamic and they evolve over
    time.

8
An influential researcher of cultures Geert
Hofstede defines it as a collective programming
of the mind that distinguishes one group or
category of people from another.
  • Generally agreed upon characteristics of CULTURE
    are
  • CULTURE is shared. All members of a particular
    group will share a common culture which defines
    the range of behaviour "acceptable" within that
    group.
  • CULTURE is learned. Culture is not innate or
    instinctive. It is passed from one generation to
    the next and from individual to individual. It
    may change over time, as new items are learned
    and become customs, and others fall into disuse.
  • CULTURE is based on symbols. The elements of
    language are the primary symbols used by all
    groups which possess a culture.
  • CULTURE is integrated. The culture of a group is
    not a collection of random characteristics. It is
    an interrelated whole.

9
MORE CONCEPTS
  • ETHNICITY - In general ethnic origin refers to
    membership to a group of persons that are defined
    on grounds of common history, traditions, culture
    or cultural background, language, geographical
    origin and so forth. Ethnicity is experienced
    cultural differences that matters in social
    relations.
  • ETHNIC GROUP - Any group of people who set
    themselves apart and are set apart from other
    groups with whom they interact or coexist in
    terms of some distinctive criterion or criteria
    which may be linguistic, racial or cultural.

10
WHAT IS MULTICULTURAL GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING?
  • What we see and observe, how we define
    ourselves, what we eat and drink, what we like
    and value, are products of our culture. Our
    culture determines our choices and views,
    although it does not explain everything. We are
    not prisoners of our cultures, our lives are also
    influenced by our society. Taking the cultural
    background of our clients into account in
    counselling does not mean that we adopt a
    stereotypical attitude towards them but that we
    accept and understand differences.
  • Multicultural guidance and counselling does not
    mean that counsellors should know as much as
    possible about different cultures but that they
    are aware of the impact of culture on the
    personalities and behaviour of both the
    counsellor him- or herself and the client.

11
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES 2 MAIN TRENDS
  • UNIVERSAL TREND emphasises that all counselling
    is multicultural in the sense that all
    individuals belong to many cultures that have
    different values.
  • e.g. a black, disabled man from an ethnic
    minority
  • CULTURE-SPECIFIC TREND stresses the importance of
    understanding and responding to the special
    nature of certain cultural groups in counselling
    and keeping in mind that clients should be seen
    both as individuals and as members of a
    culturally different group.
  • e.g. a cultural group defined by ethnic
    background

12
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES CULTURAL IDENTITY
  • NATIONAL Japanese, American, French,
  • ETHNIC Arab, Zulu, Roma,
  • REGIONAL East German, West German,
  • GENDER cultural models based on the gender roles
    in ethnic groups
  • SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASS rich vs. poor, high vs. low
    status, ...
  • LEVEL OF EDUCATION no formal education, basic
    education, ...
  • RELIGION Jew, Muslim, Christian, Hindu, Atheist,
  • AGE different generations in national and ethnic
    groups
  • PHYSICAL ASPECTS blind, deaf,
  • SEXUAL ORIENTATION straight, gay, bi, lesbian,
  • ORGANISATION multinational, public, private,

13
COLLECTIVE AND INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES
  • COLLECTIVE CULTURE WE comes before I, the
    whole extended family involved in decision
    making, individual is an integrated member of a
    cohesive ingroup communal responsibility, social
    usefulness, acceptance of authority, loyalty to
    family are important.
  • INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURE I precedes WE,
    individual has full freedom of choice concerning
    his/her life (work, education, religion,
    politics, social role, ), self-actualisation and
    independence are highly valued, reservations
    towards authorities, loyalty to things that are
    personally important and relevant.

14
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
  • Intercultural communication can be defined as
    face-to-face interaction between people whose
    cultures are significantly different from one
    another. (Bennett, M. 1998 Basic concepts of
    intercultural communication)
  • The sending and receiving of messages can be
    divided into verbal and non-verbal communication.
    What is said is closely linked to how it is said.
    The impressions (e.g. closeness or distance,
    spontaneity or reservedness) that we get from
    people are to a great extent based on non-verbal
    communication (e.g. gestures, facial expressions,
    eye-contact, touching, body distance, )

15
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
  • There are a number of cultural verbal and
    non-verbal communication differences that can
    influence the communication and counselling
    process with individuals from culturally and
    linguistically different backgrounds.
  • If misunderstood and/or misinterpreted, many of
    these communication differences can seriously
    jeopardise the relationship between guidance
    counsellor and client.
  • CULTURALLY APPROPRIATE NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR IS
    CRUCIAL TO SUCCESSFUL COUNSELLING OUTCOMES!

16
EXAMPLES OF MULTICULTURAL ISSUES IN NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
  • N.B. Individual, context and cultural
    differences contri-bute to difficulties in
    interpreting non-verbal messages. For example
  • BODY LANGUAGE
  • PHYSICAL SPACE AND TOUCHING
  • TIME
  • EYE CONTACT
  • VOCAL TONE AND SPEECH RATE

17
SUGGESTIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
  • Knowledge and understanding of others
    non-verbal communication is the key to successful
    non-verbal communication across cultures.
  • BE AWARE AND DELAY ATTRIBUTIONS
  • BE AWARE OF YOUR OWN NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
  • MATCH YOUR COMMUNICATION BEHAVIOUR TO DIFFERENT
    CULTURES

18
DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL GUIDANCE
COUNSELLORS relevant for general and
multicultural counselling competencies
  • CARING as a core element
  • SELF-AWARENESS who am I, what is my culture?
  • SENSITIVITY towards cultural differences
  • ABILITY to analyse ones own feelings
  • ABILITY to act as a model to others
  • ABILITY to support counselees individual growth
  • ALTRUISM (unselfish regard for the welfare of
    others)
  • STRONG SENSE OF ETHICS
  • RESPONSIBILITY for oneself and others

19
EMPATHY AS A CORE COUNSELLING QUALITY
  • EMPATHY describes an attempt to understand
    by imagining or comprehending the others
    perspective and communicating that understanding
    back to the person.
  • EMPATHY is based on an assumption of difference
    and implies respect for that difference and a
    readiness to give up temporarily ones own
    worldview to imaginatively participate in the
    others.

20
CULTURE-GENERAL ADVICE FOR SHOWING EMPATHY
  • RESPOND TO CORE THEMES (i.e. listen attentively,
    put clients central messages into his/her own
    words)
  • RECOVER FROM MISUNDERSTANDINGS (i.e. check out
    your perceptions with the client)
  • DO NOT PRETEND TO UNDERSTAND (i.e. ask for more
    information/further clarification)
  • USE TIME IN WAYS THAT REFLECT EMPATHY (i.e. take
    time to think before you speak/respond to
    clients)

21
CULTURE-SENSITIVE ADVICE FOR SHOWING EMPATHY
  • CHECK YOURSELF FOR CULTURAL BIASES AND HIDDEN
    PREJUDICES (i.e. be as objective as possible)
  • DO NOT STEREOTYPE (i.e. avoid overgeneralising
    about any cultural group)
  • INCORPORATE CULTURAL AND ETHNIC DATA INTO
    COUNSELLING (i.e. personalise the cultural
    information that you get from your clients)
  • USE CULTURAL SCHEMATA (i.e. mental structures
    that are characteristic of one cultural group but
    not others)

22
VARIOUS STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING MULTICULTURAL
COMPETENCIES
  • EXPERTS in various sectors in your country, in
    Europe
  • VOLUNTEER for work in an agency dealing with
    culturally different clients
  • RESOURCE PERSONS from ethnic groups
  • REVIEW of counselling journals, professional
    literature
  • DAILY JOURNAL for identifying insights regarding
    your own cultural identity, assumptions,
    behaviour,
  • TRAINING to learn more about multicultural issues

23
LIFE SPACE MAPPING CASE FROM SWEDEN
  • The original LIFE SPACE mapping technique was
    created by Vance Peavy, Canada
  • - two round spaces are drawn on a large paper
    one of them for PRESENT SITUATION and the other
    for FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
  • - these two round spaces are combined with a
    bridge or ladder which represents the steps that
    the client needs to take before he/she can reach
    the potential goals.
  • - SWEDEN a third circle was needed to this
    visualisation to represent THE PAST (see next
    slide)

24
LIFE SPACE MAPPING CASE FROM SWEDEN
  • O OO
  • The past The present
    The future
  • Diagram 1. The three circles of Life Space
    mapping

25
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN FINLAND Building up
multicultural counselling competencies
  • In-service training of guidance counsellors
  • Initial training of guidance counsellors
  • Information materials
  • Research
  • Professional study visits abroad
  • Participation in national and international
    conferences
  • Nationally and internationally funded projects
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