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Title: Organizational Change: Facilitating a Process


1
Organizational ChangeFacilitating a Process
Facilitated by John Besaw, Ph.D.
2
Same Direction
Clarity
Consistency
Commitment
Clarity
Consistency
Commitment
3
Leadership Drives Change
Leadership
Management
4
Big Picture
  • There really is no one answer.
  • Each of us must find our own way.
  • Need active, executive-level sponsorship.
  • Need highly visible (transparent) process.
  • People need to be released.
  • Planning 10, Execution 90.
  • Need for executive coaching.
  • No plan survives the first battle.

5
Keys to Implementation
  1. Tie to Business Strategy and Priorities
  2. Tie to Business Critical Success Factors
  3. Keep Top Leaders Involved
  4. Position as Improved Competitiveness and World
    Class
  5. Keep Message Simple and Clear
  6. Focus on Short-Term Results
  7. Focus on Long-Term Growth and Development
  8. Make e-Learning an Ongoing Activity

6
Steps to Action
7
From Where You Are, to Where You Want To Go (From
Here, to There)
Future (To Be)
Present (As Is)
The Gap (between where you are and where you want
to be)
8
(No Transcript)
9
Stay away from ineffective and backward focused
questions. Use effective questions that are
forward focused.
10
Adjust as Plan Evolves
No plan survives contact with the enemy.
11
Model The Journey
Vision
TO BE
  • How are we going to get there?

Where we are today?
AS IS
12
People Drive Change
  • Organizations are communities of people AND an
    array of organizational structures and processes.
    Structures and processes must be top-notch, but
    they arent necessarily the drivers of change.
    People are.

13
Build Behavior First
  • People believe in a new direction because they
    are actually seeing behavior, action, and results
    that lead them to conclude that the program
    works.
  • Use action to gain understanding and commitment.

14
For Discussion
  • Changing technology was the easy part of
    becoming an e-Business convincing people to
    change the way they worked was the hard part.
  • Larry Ellison, Chairman and CEO, Oracle
  • The crucial component in adapting to
    technological change was the human factor.
  • Richard Dutton, Citicorp
  • Improved performance from technology investments
    are highly dependent on how people buy into and
    utilize their new tools on the job.
  • Harvard Business Review

15
Emotional Rollercoaster
  • Getting there
  • Analyze the Gap
  • State Tasks
  • Prioritize Tasks
  • Lead the Journey

Shared Vision
To Be
Growth
Denial
Awareness
Fear
As Is
Acceptance
16
For Discussion
Compliance Commitment Training Learning Short
Term Long Term External Internal Safety Ris
k-taking Predictability Ambiguity Control Orde
r
17
Module _An Integrated Approach
18
A Model of Change ManagementAn Integrated
Approach
Business Strategy
Technical Changes
Change
Business Process Changes
People Behavior Changes
Organization Structural Changes
Culture
19
Integrated Approach to Transformation
Guiding Coalition
People Strategy
Technical Strategy
Organizational Strategy
New Organization Structures and Business Processes
New Technology
New Behaviors
Transformation
20
People20-60-20
  • 20 of people in the organization will be change
    friendly
  • 60 will sit on the fence
  • 20 will resist

21
Module _Sustained Change
22
Implement and Sustain Change
  • Customs and Norms
  • Rules and Policies
  • Management Behavior
  • Training
  • Communication Networks
  • Rewards and Recognition
  • Organizational Structures
  • (formal and informal)

Sustained Change
Change
Cultural Screen
23
Apparent
Roles
Attitude
Structure
Systems
Less Apparent
Informal Communication
Beliefs
Attitude
Motivation and Commitment
24
Why Change is Resisted
  • Fear humans fear unknown
  • Self-interest Change may be good for others or
    even for the system as a whole, but unless it is
    specifically good for us, we resist it
  • Inertia When a large body is in motion, it
    takes considerable force to alter its course

25
Emotional concerns are much more energized than
the technical ones people tend to see
themselves as victimised by events beyond their
control.
26
Lessen Resistance
  • The uncertainty and fear of the unknown
    associated with change can be minimized by an
    effective communication program.
  • Information concerning the what and why involved
    in transformation should be provided to all
    organization members.

27
Thoughts for Discussion
  • Changing depends on wanting to change.
  • Everyone changes in their own way.
  • Changing is largely an emotional process.
  • Change is inherent to learning.

28
Resistance looks like
  • Anger
  • Blame
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Isolation
  • Fear

29
Resistance comes with the territory . . .when
managed creatively, resistance encourages
constructive candor, stimulates creative problem
solving, and increases innovation . . .to the
untrained, however, the destructive consequences
of resistance are tension, factionalization and
decreased productivity.
30
Assumptions
From To Strong leaders Dispersed
leadership I am powerless to change The choices
I make the big systems that everyday
significantly affect my life. affect my
life. We all need to take care We are all
connected of ourselves. We must take care
of both ourselves and each other.
31
Both
  • People
  • Empathy and understanding
  • Friendly and approachable
  • Participative
  • Task
  • Setting goals
  • Knowing expectations
  • Setting schedules
  • Working

Goals AND Relationships
32
Why Change Efforts Fail
  • 1. Lack of a Sense of Urgency
  • 2. No Guiding Coalition
  • 3. Lack of a Vision and Strategy
  • 4. Failure to communicate the Change Vision
  • 5. Failure to Empower Broad-Based Action
  • 6. Failure to Anchor New Approaches to Cultural
    Values
  • 7. Resistance Underestimated.
  • 8. Underestimate communication required.
  • 9. Miscalculate the time element.
  • 10. Not walking the talk.

33
Sunrise or Sunset?
34
A High Degree of Energy for Change
Burning Platform
35
Transformation Facilitator/Guide
  • Repository of information and experience
  • Catalyst
  • Process helper
  • Resource linker
  • Helps reduce resistance/win support
  • Links job specifics with change
  • Harmonize with different initiatives
  • Help with the necessary skill development
  • Fact finder
  • Not decision maker

36
Rules of Engagement
  • No sacred cows.
  • When in doubt get it outfor discussion.
  • Call a snake a snake.
  • Dont get defensive.
  • Beware behind-the-scenes efforts to sabotage.
  • Consider the multiplier effect everyone
    involved.
  • Avoid shaken-baby syndrome.
  • Think of How we can do it, NOT Why it Cant be
    done
  • Maintain a Positive Attitude.

37
Consensus
  • Consensus is A proposal that is acceptable,
    although not necessarily liked, by all members.
    It is a proposal that all members can support.
  • Consensus is not A unanimous vote, a majority
    vote, or something that totally satisfies
    everyone.
  • Consensus takes Time, active and honest
    participation by all members, skills in
    listening, conflict resolution, discussion
    facilitation, and open-minded and creative
    thinking.

38
Guidelines for Reaching Consensus
  • Involve Everyone
  • Explore Alternatives
  • Listen to Others
  • Identify Problems, not Symptoms
  • Be Careful of Quick Solutions
  • Encourage Differences
  • Dont Compete
  • Allocate Time Carefully
  • Strive for Best Decision
  • Use Data

39
Why Most Prefer Voting
  • VOTING
  • Clear-Cut Results
  • Widely Accepted
  • Divisiveness Conflict
  • Win/Lose
  • Efficient
  • CONSENSUS
  • Win/Win
  • Support by All
  • No Opposition
  • Time Consuming
  • Increased Discussion
  • May Never Reach Decision
  • Frustrating

40

Both
  • Collaboration
  • A process through which parties who see different
    aspects of a problem can constructively explore
    their differences and search for solutions that
    go beyond their own limited vision of what is
    possible.
  • Consensus
  • A proposal that is acceptable, although not
    necessarily liked, by all members. It is a
    proposal that all members can support.

41
Breaking Through Barriers to Cooperation
  • Dont React
  • Dont Argue
  • Dont Reject
  • Dont Push
  • Dont Escalate

42
Key Elements
  • Goals are understood and committed to
  • A climate of trust is reached
  • Open and honest communication
  • Diversity of opinions and ideas are encouraged
  • Creativity and risk-taking is encouraged
  • Individuals are constantly learning and improving
  • Procedures are developed to diagnose, analyze,
    and solve problems
  • Collaborative leadership is practiced

43
Why Change Efforts Fail
  • 1. Lack of a Sense of Urgency
  • 2. No Guiding Coalition
  • 3. Lack of a Vision and Strategy
  • 4. Failure to communicate the Change Vision
  • 5. Failure to Empower Broad-Based Action
  • 6. Failure to Anchor New Approaches to Cultural
    Values
  • 7. Resistance Underestimated.
  • 8. Underestimate communication required.
  • 9. Miscalculate the time element.
  • 10. Not walking the talk.

44
  • Task
  • Setting goals
  • Setting schedules
  • People
  • Empathy and understanding
  • Friendly and approachable
  • Participative

Leadership
Management
45
Imagin - eering

Ability to Visualize Courage to Commit
46
  • Comprehensive change strategy integrating
    people, organization structures and technology.
  • People includes the network of social
    relationships and behavioral patterns of members,
    such as norms, roles and communications.
  • Organization Structures includes the formal
    design, policies, procedures, etc., and is set
    forth by the organization chart including
    division of work and patterns of authority.
  • Technical includes the primary functions,
    activities, and operations including the
    techniques, equipment, etc., used to produce the
    output of the system.

47
Strategies
  • Vision sets the direction teams navigate the
    way.
  • Teams stimulate, coordinate and facilitate the
    change process.
  • Teams maintain collaborative relationships.
  • Teams create a climate of change.
  • Teams are led by in-the-trenches activists.

48
Opportunity Thinker
49
Growth
Decline
Life Cycle CHANGE
Out of Business
Start Business
50
Parking Lot(see notes)Curve
51
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52
How 1. How 2. How 3. How 4. How 5.
5 Hows
How
How
How
How
How
53
Cascading
54
Describe
Diagnose
Act
Prescribe
55
E R O L
Events
Response
Learning
Outcome
56
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57
  • T
  • T
  • T
  • T

58
Nature of Change
Awareness of Need for Change
Shaping a Vision
Monitoring Progress
The Change Process
Mobilizing Commitment
Making Things Happen
59
Parking Lot(see notes)roles of different team
members
60
BOTH Technical and Social
  • Socio-Technical considers
  • Changing human behavior (psycho-social)
  • Changing organizational processes (technical and
    organization structures)
  • Action Research involves collecting information
    about the organization, feeding this information
    back, and developing and implement action
    programs to improve system performance.

61
Resistance
20
60
20
Early Adopters
Cynics
Wait-and-See
Figure__ Rule of 20-60-20
62
Organizational Change
Process
Technology
Outcome
Trigger
Change
People
Figure __ Organizational Change
63
Emotional Rollercoaster
To Be
Performance
Acceptance
Growth
Trigger Event
Denial
Fear
Anger
Learning
As Is
Break Through
Figure__ Emotional Rollercoaster
64
Restraining Forces
Restraining Forces
Figure __ Forces of Organizational Change
65
Leading Organizational Change
Organizational Change Team
Roadmap
Implementation Planning
Process
People
Content
Figure__ Leading Organizational Change
66
Freedom to Choose
Perception of What Happens
Events
Freedom to Choose
Response
Learning
Outcome
Figure__ Events Response Outcome and
Learning
67
Where we want to be (To Be)
Where we are today (As Is)
Figure __ Visual of the Organizational Change
Process
68
Conceptual Model for the Process of
Organizational Change
Where we want to be (To Be)
Where we are today (As Is)
Figure __ Conceptual Model for the Process of
Organizational Change
69
Conceptual Model for the Process of
Organizational Change
Where we want to be (To Be)
Where we are today (As Is)
Figure __ Framework for the Process of
Organizational Change
70
A Process of Change
Process
Content
Learning
Trigger
Change
People
Figure __ Elements of a Process of Change
71
Closed-Loop System
Figure__ Closed-Loop System
72
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73
Chunks
Figure__ Chunks
74
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75
Chunks
76
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77
Chunks
78
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79
Chunks
80
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81
Chunks
82
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83
Forces of Organizational Change
Restraining Forces
Restraining Forces
84
Emotional Rollercoaster
To Be
Performance
Acceptance
Growth
Trigger Event
Denial
Fear
Anger
Learning
As Is
Break Through
85
Resistance
20
60
20
Early Adopters
Cynics
Wait-and-See
86
Current Reality
People
Content
Processes
New Processes
New Technology
New Behaviors
To Be
87
Communication Key Elements
  • Communication strategies are more effective when
    they are active rather than a passive process.
  • Two-way communication produces better results
    than one-way communication.
  • Participants gain more when they share
    responsibility for communication.

Two-way
Active
Shared Responsibility
88
Communication
General
Detailed
Specific
Long Term
Near Term
Short Term
Business Teams
Technical Support
Who Stake Holder Groups
EAME
Communication Matrix from 5 Frogs On A Log by
M. Feldman M.F. Spratt 1999
89

Segmenting the Communication Campaign
Information when and where he/she wants it.
  •     

E-Business Communication
Intranet Offerings
Emails
Technology driven Web site always open for
business.
Customer Preference
Send Print pub
Wish to Receive in print
Yes
Survey customers
No
Continue web offering
90

Example Deliverables
Key Deliverables
Performance Counts
Lean Supply Chain
Higher Levels of Performance
Increased Efficiency
91
Lean and Simple
Clarity Consistency Commitment
92
Freedom to Choose
Perception of What Happens
Events
Freedom to Choose
Response
Learning
Outcome
Events Response Outcome and Learning
93
Action Steps
What?
When?
Who?

94
Overview
  • Change Models
  • Develop strategies for Change Leadership.
  • Create a framework for Change Management.
  • Help leadership and workers become more resilient
    and responsive to change.
  • Discuss an integrated approach to change
    management.
  • Discuss need for responsibility/broad-based
    ownership.
  • Discuss success factors
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