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Title: Concepts of Organizational Change and Transformation


1
Concepts of Organizational Change and
Transformation
  • Thomas V. Mecca, Ed.D

2
Objective of the Presentation
  • Clarify the basic concepts required to bring
    about true institutional transformation and
    change.

3
The Crisis of Change
4
Change is not a new phenomena.
  • Change is the law of life and those who look
    only to the past and present are certain to miss
    the future.
  • John F. Kennedy

5
What is different about change today?
  • volume
  • momentum
  • complexity

6
The Nature of Change
7
The perception of change, whether positive or
negative, depends on...
  • Anticipated outcome of the change.
  • Degree of influence we can exert in the situation
    resulting from the change.

8
  • Change is perceived as negative because of our
    inability to predict and control it.

9
People dont resist change as much as its
implications - the ambiguity that results when
the familiar ceases to be relevant.D. Conner,
Managing at the Speed of Change, p. 126
10
Types of Change
11
  • Continuous Improvement Incremental improvement
    in an existing process.
  • Incremental Change achieved in line with its
    existing culture and objectives.
  • Transformational Change required in the
    organizations basic values and moves from
    known established behaviors to new unknown
    behaviors.

12
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13
Change is considered major when...
  • Perceived to be by those affected.
  • Results in significant disruption in established
    expectation.
  • People believe they have lost control over
    important aspects of their lives.

14
The Process of Change
15
Change is a Process
Transition State
Present State
Desired State
Transition
Unfreezing
Refreezing
(pain)
(remedy)
16
Three States of the Process
  • Present State Status quo as defined by
    established expectation patterns and stable
    behavior.
  • Transition State Individuals or groups no
    longer behave as they did in the past, nor are
    they fully set in the desired behavior pattern.
  • Desired State Individuals or groups have
    integrated the new behavior required by the
    change.

17
Although the phases of the process are
predictable, people go through transition at
their own individual rate.
18
Change and Transition are not synonymous, but
linked, although very different, processes.
19
  • Change An event created by a shift in the
    external environment or in a set of circumstances
    (i.e., new instructional approach, merging two
    departments, installing a new form of technology,
    etc.).
  • Transition The psychological and emotional
    process a person goes through in adapting to the
    change itself.

20
Prerequisites for Transformational Change
  • Pain A critical mass of information that
    justifies breaking away from the status quo.
  • Remedy A desirable, accessible action that will
    solves the problem or transforms the current
    situation.

21
Commitment to Change
22
Nature of Commitment
  • Pursues the specific outcome of a goal in a
    consistent manner over time and in varied
    situations.
  • Rejects courses of action that are not consistent
    with a strategy for achieving desired result.
  • Willingness to pay the price required to achieve
    the desired result.

23
Importance of Commitment to Change
  • The critical adhesion between the people and the
    goal of the change.
  • Necessary for successful change implementation.

24
Phases of Commitment to Change
  • Preparation
  • Awareness
  • Commitment

25
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26
Each phase has stages.
  • At each stage the degree of commitment can
    advance or regress.

27
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28
Stages of Preparation Phase
29
  • Stage 1 - Contact The earliest encounter a
    person has with the fact that change has or may
    take place.
  • Checking out - unawareness

30
  • Stage 2 - Awareness of Change The person knows
    that a change is being contemplated.
  • Checking out - confusion

31
Stages of Acceptance Phase
32
  • Stage 3 - Understanding The person
    demonstrates some degree of comprehension of
    the nature and intent of the change.
  • Checking out - negative perception and
    beginning resistance.

33
  • Stage 4 - Positive Perception The person
    develops a positive view and disposition toward
    the change.
  • Checking out - decision not to initiate

34
  • Stage 5 - Installation The change is
    implemented and becomes operational.
  • Checking out - change aborted after initial
    utilization

35
Stages of Commitment Phase
36
  • Stage 6 - Adoption The change has been
    utilized long enough to demonstrate worth and
    a visible positive impact.
  • Checking out - change aborted after extensive
    use

37
  • Stage 7 - Institutionalization The change has a
    long history of worth, durability and continuity,
    and has been formally incorporated into the
    routine operating procedures of the organization.

38
  • Stage 8- Internalization Organizational members
    are highly committed to change because it is
    congruent with their personal interest, goals or
    value systems.

39
In building commitment, remember
  • Individuals response to change at different
    intellectual and emotional rates.
  • Building commitment is a developmental process.
  • Developing commitment to change is expensive.
  • Commitment will only be generated with a plan of
    action.

40
Organizational Culture and Change
41
Why is organization culture important in
transformation process?
  • Exerts powerful, unconscious influence on human
    behavior.
  • Difficult to challenge and address directly.

42
  • Culture The core set of norms of behavior,
    beliefs, shared values and assumptions of the
    organizations members.

43
Function of Organizational Culture
  • Allows people within the organization to
    interpret their environment and to behave in
    response to that environment

44
How Culture Impacts Change
( Attempts to introduce changes that are
radically different than the existing culture
usually are not successful.)
Current Culture
Beliefs
Behaviors
Assumptions
( Attempts to introduce changes consistent with
current culture usually are successful.)
45
Changes not compatible with the current culture
will always be subject to regression.
46
Change needs to anchored in an altered culture.
  • Comes last, not first.
  • Depends on obtaining results.
  • Requires a lot of talk.
  • May involve turnover.
  • Succession decisions crucial
  • J. Kotter, Leading Change, 1996

47
The Roles of Change
48
Critical Roles in a Change Process
  • Change Sponsor Individual or group that uses
    organizational power and influence to legitimize
    the change.
  • Change Agent Individual or group responsible
    for implementing or helping to implement the
    change.
  • Change Targets Individual or group that, as a
    result of the change, will alter their knowledge,
    skills, attitudes or behavior.

49
Certain roles are more critical are specific
phases of the change process.
  • Unfreezing Change sponsor unfreezes the status
    quo.
  • Transition Change agent serve as
    diagnosticians, implementers, coaches,

50
The Management of Change
51
Organizational transformation is not a neat set
of sequential and universal steps.
52
Organizational change is...
  • Messy
  • Chaotic
  • Complex
  • Difficult
  • Ambiguous

53
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54
  • Implementing change is a cycle of three elements
  • information
  • action
  • results
  • Iteration of the cycle produces the desired
    change.

55
Desired State
Present State
56
  • An organizational change plan should be a guide
    from the macro/general aspects of the change to
    the specific skills and knowledge need to
    successfully implement the project.

57
Note
  • Implementing organizational change is a circular,
    not a linear, process.

58
Vision
Implement
Design
Plan
59
And, remember...
60
Even if you are on the right track, you are
going to get run over if you just sit
there.Will Rogers
61
Thats it!Thanks for attending.
Tom Mecca
62
AGENDADAY 1 Thursday, October 12th
  • 830 - Welcome, Introductions and Overview
  • 930 Identification and selection of change
    projects and teams.
  • 1100 The Concepts of Organizational Change
    (PPT presentation)
  • 1200 - Lunch
  • 100 - Establishing a Vision for Change
    (Process A)
  • Developing a Vision (PPT presentation)
  • Identifying the Why for change (A1)
  • Creating the vision for change (A2)
  • Articulating the gap between the vision and the
    present situation (A3)
  • Communicating a compelling vision (A4
  • 300 - Assessing Change Readiness (FORM A
    Assessing Change Management in Your
    Institution)
  • 500 Adjourn (Note Participants in the
    workshop will be asked to complete Form B
    Assessing Leadership Readiness for Change at
    home.

63
AGENDA (continued)DAY 2 Friday, October 13th
  • 830 Discussion and Sharing of Results from
    Form B
  • 930 - Planning the Change Implementation
    (Process B)
  • Elements of the Change Implementation Plan (PPT
    presentation)
  • Designing the Change Implementation Plan (B1)
  • Establishing the Implementation Management
    Structure (B2)
  • Assessing the Implementation (B3)
  • 1100 - Assessing the Change Impacts (completion
    of Form C Assessing the Change
    Initiative Impacts and Form D Predicting
    the Level and Type of Participant Response to
    Change)
  • 1200 Lunch
  • 100 - Planning the Transition (Process C)
  • The Transition Phase of Change (PPT
    presentation)
  • Pre-assessment for Planning a Transition (C1)
  • Planning for the Ending (C2)
  • Planning for the Neutral Zone (C3)
  • Planning for Beginnings (C4)
  • 300 - Implementing the Change Process (PPT
    presentation)
  • Continuous communications
  • Aligning systems
  • Integrating the change
  • 400 - Recap and Next Steps at UDC

64
NEW SECTION
  • Visioning

65
Functions of a Vision
  • Defines a general direction for the change.
  • Inspires people to move right direction. of the
    change.
  • Quickly and efficiently organizes actions.

66
Effective vision statements of change are
  • Positive, appealing and desirable to achieve.
  • Lofty, inspiring and motivational towards a
    higher purpose.
  • Clear, concise and easily understood.
  • Visual and easy to communicate and grasp.
  • Challenging and idealistic, but achievable.
  • Aligns with organizational mission and goals.
  • Encompasses different viewpoints and perceptions
    of the change

67
Without a clearly stated vision, people will be
  • Uncertain and anxious about the change.
  • Distrustful of the organizations leadership.
  • Unmotivated or less than fully motivated.

68
Tips for communicating vision
  • Build and communicate a compelling vision for
    change.
  • Appropriately tune the message for different
    stakeholder groups.
  • Identify value and benefits of change.
  • Openly communicate whats ahead.
  • Use data and analysis to create a sense of
    urgency.
  • Repeat and refresh the message as often as
    necessary.
  • Use multiple communication strategies.
  • Be consistent in walking the talk.

69
Effectively communicate a compelling case for
change by being
  • Truthful
  • Brief
  • Logical
  • Prepared with the facts
  • Clear
  • Articulate
  • Jargon-free
  • Knowledgeable about the benefits gained
  • Prepared to acknowledge the known and unknown

70
Establishing A Vision for Change
  • (Process A)

71
A1. Identifying the Why for Change
  • What are the external and /or internal forces
    driving the change?
  • What problem must be solved or what need must be
    met by the change?
  • How will the institution (or functional unit)
    benefit from the change?
  • What will happen if the institution (or
    functional unit) does not make this change?

72
A1. Identifying the Why for Change
  • What are the external and /or internal forces
    driving the change?
  • What problem must be solved or what need must be
    met by the change?
  • How will the institution (or functional unit)
    benefit from the change?
  • What will happen if the institution (or
    functional unit) does not make this change?

73
A2. Creating the Vision for Change
  • In general, what will the institution (or
    functional unit) look like when the change is in
    place?
  • What will the faculty and staff be doing when the
    change is in place?
  • What new services and/or programs will the
    institution (or functional unit) provide?
  • What new standards will be set when the change
    occurs?
  • What new values will the institution (or
    functional unit) need in this future state?

74
A3. Articulating the Vision Gap
  • In general, what does the institution (or
    functional unit) look like now?
  • What are the significant discrepancies between
    the vision and the present situation of the
    institution (or functional unit)?
  • What must change in the institution (or
    functional unit) to support the vision?
  • What should stay the same when the vision is
    implemented?
  • Why is this gap important and critical enough to
    motivate people to change?

75
A4. Communicating the Vision
  • How can a sense of the discrepancies between the
    present state and the future state be
    articulated?
  • How can a sense of urgency be built in others
    about the need for the change?
  • How can the vision of the future/desired state be
    communicated in a compelling way?
  • What communication strategies can be used to
    convey the vision to the rest of the institution
    (or functional unit) and to encourage two-way
    communications about the vision?

76

FORM
B. Assessing Leadership Readiness for ChangeThe
behaviors listed below encompass behaviors that
are important in meeting the challenges facing
you in leading change. Think about the changes
you have implemented or will be responsible for
implementing. For each statement, assess whether
you presently exhibit that behavior or you need
to exhibit that behavior more often to meet these
challenges. When you have completed your self
assessment, review your responses. You may also
want to verify your perspective by discussing
your assessments with other individuals.
Change Leadership Behaviors Presently Exhibit Exhibit More Often
I role-model the flexibility, action oriented, and personal commitment needed to respond and adapt successfully to change.
2. I spend time orienting myself to the external and internal threats and opportunities facing my institution so that when change is needed, I can map it into this larger context.
3. When change is called for, I articulate a sense of urgency and vision for a new and different future that responds to the drivers of change and makes the institution more efficient and effective in meeting its mission.
4. I influence others and effectively build coalitions in order to win needed buy-in, commitment, and resources for change planning and implementation.
5. I take time to plan for the aspects of change over which I have control and try to ensure that all people involved in the change take part in its planning and implementation.
6. When I plan for change, I use an institutional perspective so that systems impacts can be identified.
7. I try to anticipate for others reactions to change and mitigate the negative reactions by providing the information and support needed to help people through their transitions.
8. I model effective problem solving, decision making, and project management skills throughout the change planning and implementation process.
9 I invest in building and maintaining trusting relationships with the individuals I supervise so that they will follow my leadership during change.
77

FORM C - Assessing the Change
Initiative ImpactAnalyze the impact of the
change initiative your team is proposing on each
of the dimensions of organizational change. The
analysis will help the team to obtain an overall
indicator of the impact on the organization as a
whole.The assessment also will help the team to
identify the path that the change will take as
the change plan and strategies are implemented.
The dimensions with the highest impact scores are
those dimensions that are critical to the success
of the initiative. If the change strategies are
not adequate to accommodate these high impacts on
these dimensions, then it is likely that the
initiative will stall because of resistance.



Strongly
Strongly


Disagree
Agree A. Faculty and Staff
The change will alter the way that most
faculty 1 2 3
4 5 and staff perform their work. The change
will raise faculty and staff insecurities
1 2 3 4 5 about the
status of their jobs. The change will alter the
ways that individuals of the 1 2
3 4 5 faculty and/or staff relate to each other
Sum of these three scores
______ Score ______
3 (Complete the
questionnaire by assessing each of the following
dimensions in a similar fashion Leadership,
Students, Culture, Strategy, and Organizational
Structure. Once finished, calculate the Impact
of Change Initiative score.)
78

FORM D - Predicting the Level and Type of

Participant Response to
ChangeHow well do these statements describe
your feelings of agreement about____________ (the
change)?Please use the following scale
1a. I expect to make less money as a result.
Not at all
Definitely

1 2 3
4 5 6 1b. I worry my position may be put at
risk. Not at all
Definitely

1 2 3 4
5 6 2a. I dont know what change may result in
my
Not at all Definitely position.
1 2 3 4 5 6 2b. I
worry a lot about the possible negative
Not at all
Definitely impacts of this change.
1 2 3 4 5 6 3a. I fear my power and
authority will be Not at
all Definitely reduced. 1 2
3 4 5 6 3b. I think administration will have
a harder
Not at all Definitely time controlling
their staffs effectively.
1 2 3 4 5 6
(Complete the questionnaire through item 7b.)
79
NEW SECTION
  • Planning
  • the
  • Change

80
Basic focus of the change plan is answering the
question
  • What needs to be done to get the change up and
    running?

81
Elements of the Change Plan
  • Definition of major activities and
    sub-activities.
  • Determining who is responsible for each activity
    or
  • sub-activity.
  • Estimating the time and resources required to
    complete each activity or sub-activity.
  • Laying out the sequence and timeline of
    activities.
  • Estimating costs.
  • Coordinating and updating the change plan.

82
The management of the change implementation plan
should be thought through.
83
  • Whose expertise, qualifications or representation
    may be needed?
  • Who will lead and management the change?
  • Whose support in needed to either advocate or
    legitimize the change?
  • What role will each of the above play?
  • Who will have to change their behavior to
    positively affect the change?

84
Key questions during implementation
  • Are we headed in the right direction? If not,
    where (and why) are we falling short?
  • Did we achieve the value and result we desired
    for the investment made by the organization and
    its people in the change?
  • What lessons have we learned from this change
    process that we can apply toward future change
    efforts?

85
Core assessment questions are
  • What should be measured?
  • Where should the data come from?
  • When should the organization check the results?
  • Who will conduct the check and interpret the
    results?
  • What will be done with the results?

86
Planning the Change Implementation
  • (Process B)

87
B1. Designing the Implementation Plan
  • Given the change your team is planning to
    implement, what are major areas, functions and/or
    processes of the institution (or functional unit)
    that need to align to accomplish the change?
  • What activities and sub-activities are needed to
    align each of these major areas in order to
    implement the change?
  • How long will each activity or sub-activity take?
  • What personnel (i.e. faculty or staff) will be
    needed to implement each activity or
    sub-activity? What other resources will be needed
    to accomplish each activity or sub-activity?

88
B1. Designing the Implementation Plan(Continued)
  • What is the sequence in which the activities and
    sub-activities should occur? Where should the
    team build in extra time?
  • What are the milestones or major implementation
    events that need to be achieved?
  • What are the cost estimates for each activity and
    sub-activity? What assumptions and constraints
    has the team used in making these estimates? How
    will you handle cost variances?
  • How will the team monitor the progress of the
    implementation of the change?

89
B2. Establishing the Implementation Management
Structure
  • What group(s) is/are needed to oversee the
    details of the implementation? What roles will
    each group play?
  • What issues will need to be considered in
    selecting and chartering this group?
  • Who are the individuals who will play the role of
    the change sponsor? Change agent(s)? Change
    advocate(s)?
  • What group(s) of individuals will have to change
    their behaviors and/or learn new skills for the
    change to be successful?

90
B3. Assessing the Implementation
  • What core measures (i.e. results and processes)
    will need to be measured in order to assess the
    change outcomes?
  • From what sources will data be gathered to assess
    the outcomes? How will it be gathered?
  • What will be the cycle for assessing the
    outcomes, including the collection of before
    and after data?
  • What resources are needed to carry out the plan
    for assessing the outcomes?
  • Who will be responsible and accountable for
    assessing the results of the effort?

91
B3. Assessing the Implementation(Continued)
  • How and to whom will this person communicate the
    results of the assessment?
  • What process will be used to determine any
    corrective action?
  • How will the organization continue to gather data
    on the impact of the changes?
  • What long-term strategies can be developed to
    align the organization and the change to one
    another?

92
NEW SECTION
  • Planning
  • for the
  • Transition

93
  • Managing people through the transition that
    accompanies the change is one of the most
    difficult and often overlooked aspects of
    implementing organizational change.

94
Fundamental principles of transition
  • Resistance to change is natural.
  • The transition process is predictable.
  • The transition process must be managed.

95
Resistance to Change
96
Resistance is a natural and inevitable reactions
to the disruption of expectations.
97
The Human Reaction to Change
When perceived reality match expectations, a
sense of control is generated
Specific expectations are established based on
what can be anticipated
Need for control met by dictating
or anticipating their future
People have a strong need for control
When perceived reality does not match expectations
, a feeling of control is lost and people must
adjust to changes they are unprepared to face
98
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99
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100
Emotional Responses to Change
  • Fear of the unknown future and their part in
    that future.
  • Anger of the time and effort that seems to have
    been wasted.
  • Grief over the loss of status and
    disappearance of the known organization.

101
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102
Resistance to change is manifested by a lack
of...
  • Ability - possessing the necessary new skills
    or knowing how to use them
  • Willingness - motivation to apply new
    skills to change situation

103
Why people react negatively to change
  • Perceived threat to the security of their
    competency, coordination, or commitment.
  • Not enough information is available.
  • Misunderstanding about the change and its
    implications.
  • Fear of having to learn new skills
  • Belief that change does not make sense.
  • Repeated failure of change efforts within the
    organization.
  • Low tolerance for change and uncertainty.
  • Desire not to lose something of value (e.g. job
    security, position, title, status quo).
  • Feeling overwhelmed by too much change.
  • Perception that the change will have a negative
    effect on a person or group.
  • Concern that they wont have the resources to
    help them deal with change.

104
Phases of the transition process
  • Beginning (EndingsLetting Go)
  • Middle (The Neutral Zone)
  • Ending (The New Beginning)
  • William Bridges. 1991. Managing transitions
    Making the most of change. NY, Perseus.

105
Beginning (EndingsLetting Go)
  • Characteristics
  • Awareness that change is coming.
  • Old way is coming to an end.
  • People must let go of the past.
  • Possibility of losing something he or she values.
  • Leaders responsibilities
  • Communicate effectively about the change.
  • Help people deal with the lose.

106
Middle (Neutral zone Trying out the change)
  • Characteristics
  • Heart of the transition process.
  • People begin to let go of old way.
  • People trying out, but not yet accepting of new.
  • Great deal of ambiguity, confusion, sense of lose
    identify.
  • Work efforts slow down or standstill
  • Rumors are rampart about change information is
    limited.
  • People not sure about outcome of the change.
  • People easily discouraged and revert to old
    ways.
  • Leaders responsibilities
  • Communicate frequently about change and its
    implementation.
  • Listen to criticism, but also be evaluative as to
    its intent.
  • Critical to build and to maintain trust.
  • Critical to be persistent and consistent in
    supporting early successes and adopters.
  • Incorporate information from people into the
    change plan.

107
Ending (BeginningsCommitting to the Change)
  • Characteristics
  • People finally ready to commit to the new way.
  • People begin to incorporate new understanding,
    values and behaviors.
  • People accepted the change and its requirements.
  • Majority of organizations personnel prepared to
    modify their behavior.
  • Possibility of losing something he or she values.
  • Leaders responsibilities
  • Continue to communicate, particularly successes.
  • Provide encouragement and support.
  • Reinforce new behavior and values whenever and
    wherever possible.
  • Walk the talk consistently.
  • Celebrate effectively about the change.
  • Help people deal with the lose.

108
Remember
  • Transition phases can be fuzzy.
  • Not clear and distinct tend to overlap
  • Transition is a gradual process.
  • Psychological transition happen slowly
  • People need time to try out the change
  • People progress at different rates.
  • Change leaders may be ahead of others
  • Some people will never accept the change

109
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110
The transition process must be managed. What
happens when it isnt successfully managed?
  • Guilt
  • Resentment
  • Anxiety
  • Self-Absorption
  • Stress

111
Planning for theTransition
  • (Process C)

112
C1. Pre-assessment for Planning a Transition
  • In general how well have change transitions been
    managed in your institution/functional unit in
    the past?
  • What has been the impact of mismanaged or
    unmanaged transitions?

113
FORM A - Assessing Change Management in Your
InstitutionFor each statement below, check the
response that best reflects how change is managed
in your institution.
Statement Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly agree
We take time to thoroughly plan for changes.
2. People affected by a change take part in the planning and implementation of that change whether or not they were involved in the change decision
3. The goals, purposes, and potential benefits of change efforts are clearly communicated to everyone in the institution.
4. When changes are announced, there is open dialogue about the disruptions they may create and the difficulties we may need to address in order to make the changes successful.
5. When people have problems implementing changes, they communicate freely and ask for help.
6. People who express negative feelings about change are listened to and their concerns are addressed.
7. When difficulties and disruptions arise, people are quick to address and fix them rather than to affix blame.
8. When changes are being implemented, people who should care about the success of the changes continue to ask about them and show interest in them.
9. When changes are being implemented, people who should care about the success of the changes continue to ask about them and show interest in them.
(Complete the questionnaire by answering questions 10 to 15.)
114
C2. Beginning the Transition (Endings - Letting
go)
  • What key groups of individuals will be impacted
    by the change?
  • How will they be impacted? What will they be
    losing or perceived they are losing?
  • What are some strategies for helping these groups
    deal with actual or perceive losses?
  • What are the strategies for communicating during
    this phase of the transition?
  • What is the strategy for marking the ending of
    this phase of the transition? How can you involve
    others?

115
C3. Middle of the Transition (The Neutral Zone)
  • What are some specific ways that concern can be
    shown for the individuals affected by the change
    during this phase of the transition?
  • What are some specific ways that the change team
    members and the appropriate administrator can
    show commitment to the change through consistency
    of words and actions?
  • What are the key elements about the change that
    need to be communicated to the individuals
    affected?

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  • Consider the following questions
  • PURPOSE - What is driving the change? What is the
    problem for which the change is the solution?
    What would happen if the organization didnt
    change?
  • VISION What will the organization become
    through the change?
  • PLAN How will the change be implemented? How
    will it affect groups/individuals? What
    support/assistance will be provided to deal with
    the change? What strategies that will be in place
    to facilitate two-way communications during the
    change?
  • ROLES What roles will be different after the
    change?
  • What are some communication methods that can be
    used initially and ongoing to meet the
    communication needs of individuals affected by
    the change?
  • What are some additional procedures, systems,
    and/or structures that will need to be
    established to meet the needs of the transition?

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C4. Ending the Transition (The New Beginning)
  • What are some specific behaviors that will have
    to be demonstrated when the basic change has been
    made?
  • What are some strategies for reinforcing these
    behaviors?
  • What are some ways that early opportunities can
    be provided for recognizing and rewarding these
    behaviors?
  • What kind of celebration can you sponsor when the
    transition is over? Who should be involved?

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NEW SECTION
  • Implementing
  • the
  • Change Process

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ImplementingtheChange Process
  • (Process D)

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IMPACT FACTOR ASSESSMENT
  • The Impact Factor Assessment is a diagnostic tool
    which helps administrators to determine if
    participants will assimilate a specific change
    without displaying dysfunctional behaviors. If
    such behaviors persist, the risk of failing to
    successfully implement the change is high. The
    results of an assessment may be used by
    administrators to design implementation plans
    appropriate to the level of disruption associated
    with the change they wish to initiate.
  • While completing the following questions,
    remember that the Impact Factor Assessment is a
    function of the participants perceptions of how
    a change will affect them, regardless of your
    assessment of objective reality. Participants
    base their opinions on their personal frame of
    reference, which guides how they see their work
    environment. For this reason, their perceptions
    of a change may vary markedly from yours. For
    best results, answer all questions as if you were
    viewing the change from the participants
    viewpoint.

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Directions From the perspective of participants,
circle the number that best represents the level
of impact your change project may have in each of
the following factors
Low Impact / Low Risk High Impact / High Risk Low Impact / Low Risk High Impact / High Risk Low Impact / Low Risk High Impact / High Risk
Amount The change will not require a large number of alterations in the way participants work. 1 2 3 4 5 The change will require a large number of alterations in the way the participants work.
Scope The participants will not see the change as having an effect throughout the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 The participants will see the change as having an effect throughout the organization.
3. Time The participants will feel they have enough time to implement the change. 1 2 3 4 5 The participants will not feel they have enough time to implement the change.
4. Transferability The change is easy to communicate and will be readily understood by the participants. 1 2 3 4 5 The change is not easily communicated and the participants will find it difficult to understand.
5. Predictability Participants will be able to accurately anticipate the effect the change will have on them. 1 2 3 4 5 Participants will not be able to accurately anticipate the effect the change will have on them.
6. Ability Participants will feel they have or can attain the knowledge and skills necessary to implement change. 1 2 3 4 5 Participants will not feel they have or can attain the knowledge and skills necessary to implement change.
7. Willingness Participants will be motivated to implement the change. 1 2 3 4 5 Participants will not be motivated to implement the change.
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8. Values The change will not require any significant shift in the fundamental beliefs participants now hold regarding our institution, e.g., the type of education provided, the nature of the curriculum, the way decisions are make, how people relate to one another, how to market or deal with students and external stakeholders, etc. 1 2 3 4 5 For this change to be truly successful, participants must change some fundamental beliefs they now hold regarding the institution.
9. Emotions The change will not require participants to feel any differently about people and/or the way the organization operates. 1 2 3 4 5 This change cannot really accomplish its objective unless participants feel differently about some people and/or the way the organization operates.
10. Knowledge The change will not require participants to learn new information or view existing information differently than they have in the past. 1 2 3 4 5 In order for this change to be successful, participants must learn new information or view existing information differently.
11. Behaviors The change will not require participants to modify their actual daily activities. 1 2 3 4 5 If participants dont alter their daily activities, this change will not achieve its intended goals.
12. Logistics The change will not require any significant alteration in the participants work-related procedures, such as scheduling, time management, or equipment utilization. 1 2 3 4 5 If there is not a shift in the participants work-related procedures, the change will not produce the intended results.
13. Economics The change will not require participants to operate very differently regarding budgets, expenses, or funding. 1 2 3 4 5 For the change to be successful, participants must operate differently regarding budgets, expenses, or funding.
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14. Politics The change will not require participants to modify their current methods of influencing other, utilizing power, networking, teamwork, dealing with territoriality, or protecting vested interest. 1 2 3 4 5 The change will fail if participants dont modify their current methods of influencing others, utilizing power, networking, teamwork, dealing with territoriality, or protecting vested interest.
  • Total Score ___
  • Scoring Instructions Total the scores for all
    factors. Divide the Total Score by 14. Multiply
    the result by 10 to obtain the Impact Factor
    Assessment Score of this change project.
  • Total Score x 10 Impact Factor Assessment Score

  • 14
  • Interpretation of Results The Impact Factor
    reflects the level of risk of implementation of a
    project. These level include
  • High Risk (41 and above) A score at this level
    indicates that the participants population may
    not be capable of successfully adopting the
    change without displaying dysfunctional
    behaviors. If this occurs, there may be such
    resistant symptoms as low morale, hostility,
    reduced efficiency, increased anxiety, general
    confusion, miscommunication, defensiveness,
    territoriality, and a lack of cooperation. At a
    minimum, projects with this degree of impact
    require a very sophisticated implementation plan
    and major investments of time and other resources
    in order to achieve the intended goals of the
    change. Other possible courses of action are to
    abandon the project or significantly reduce its
    scope and its complexity. At a later time,
    participants may be better prepared for the task,
    or you may consider replacing them with people
    who have a higher capacity to deal with this
    change.
  • Moderate Risk (21-40) A score in this range is
    high enough that it should be considered a
    significant issue in predicting the success or
    failure of the change implementation. The
    participants ability to adopt the change will be
    a pivotal element in the projects outcome, and
    therefore requires attention and resources in the
    planning and execution of the implementation
    steps.
  • Low Risk (10-20) A score in this range is low
    enough that it should not be considered a threat
    to the success of the change implementation.
    However, projects like these should never be
    taken for granted. Intermittent assessment of the
    project may be required. It is our experience
    that participants perceptions of the impact of a
    project fluctuate as the project proceeds. For
    instance, certain aspects of the change
    implementation which were not initially apparent
    may become problems later, or project objectives
    may actually shift during implementation. This
    shift may require that participants make changes
    not considered prior to your first assessment.
    For these reasons, we suggest that you
    periodically monitor the Impact Factor to avoid
    any unexpected breakdown in the implementation
    process.

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Errors Common to Change Efforts
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  • Allowing too much complacency.
  • Failing to create a sufficiently powerful
    guiding team.
  • Underestimating the power of vision.
  • Undercommunicating the vision.

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  • Permitting obstacles to block the vision.
  • Failing to create short-term wins.
  • Declaring victory too soon.
  • Neglecting to anchor change in new culture.

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  • (Change Management Section)

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  • (Change Management Section)

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  • (Change Management Section)

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What is Change Management?
  • A structured and systemic approach to achieving
    a sustainable change in human behavior within an
    organization.

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Focus of Change Management
  • Moving the majority of the members of the
    organization into new behaviors while retaining
    key competitive advantages, competencies and
    customer relationships.
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