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Organization Development and Change


To look at something as though you have never seen it before takes great courage. ~ Matisse Organization Development and Change – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organization Development and Change

Organization Development and Change
To look at something as though you have never
seen it before takes great courage. Matisse
Defining Organization Development
  • Planned change effort
  • Organization wide
  • Using systems approach
  • Managed and supported from top
  • With support of facilitator/consultant
  • Using interventions based on applied behavioral
  • Emphasis on developing human potential
  • Designed to increase organizational effectiveness

  • Much has been written about the technology of
    change much is also written about the need for
    change these are about the change itself.
    Less, however is written about the human and
    social dynamics of change the influence of
    organizational members on the success or failure
    of the change initiative.
  • (Jackson, 2006, p. 2)


OD Toolbox
Organization Development and Change
  • The Field of Organization Development

The heart of a vision is not so much the actual
wordsbut the act of creating itand committing
ourselves to it. Peter Block, The Empowered
OD Toolbox
The Field of Organization Development

Organizations are changing ...
  • Structure
  • Small, loose structures (new)
  • ?
  • Large, bureaucratic structures (growth)
  • ?
  • Flatter, more flexible structures (economy)

Changes ...
  • Way We View People
  • Scientific Management (people as machines)
  • ?
  • Humanist Movement (people as valuable resources)
  • ?
  • Empowerment (people as organizational partners,

Changes ...
  • Way We Manage People
  • Control and command
  • ?
  • Inspire and motivate
  • ?
  • Empowerment and leadership

Changes ...
  • Way We View Careers
  • Life-long employment at one company (security)
  • ?
  • Multiple careers (lifelong learning)
  • ?
  • You Inc

New Paradigms of Organizations
  • Old Paradigm
  • Control, regulation
  • Management direction
  • Employees treated as children
  • Short-term goals
  • Rigid hierarchy
  • New Paradigm
  • Openness
  • Leadership focus
  • Employees treated as equal partners
  • Long-term goals
  • Flexibility, market people orientation

New Paradigms of Organizations
  • Old Paradigm
  • Satisfying shareholders
  • Competition
  • Aggressive warlike values
  • New Paradigm
  • Acknowledgement of all stakeholders
  • Cooperation, collaboration
  • Values of openness, integrity, trust, equality,
    mutual respect, dignity

Paradigm shifts take time!
Three Types of Change
Incremental Change Transitional
Change Transformational Change
In what ways has your organization changed in
recent years? What changes are looming in the
horizon? How does the field of organization
development fit within these changes?
Organization Development
  • Planned change
  • Collaborative approach
  • Performance oriented
  • Humanistic
  • Behavioral Science Approach
  • Systems Orientation
  • Uses 3rd party change agent

Characteristics of OD
  • Focus on culture, structure, process
  • Addresses human side of change
  • OD Practitioners are facilitators, collaborators,
    co-learners in client system
  • Ongoing process
  • Focus on process, not content

Characteristics of OD
  • Goal is to increase client ability to function,
    solve problems, create a learning environment
  • Relies heavily on client system involvement
  • Relies on experiential, action-oriented learning
  • Uses action-research

Organization Development is NOT
  • A Program
  • Individual development
  • Imposed from above
  • A single event
  • A cure

Values and Assumptions Questionnaire
  • What did your responses tell you about the
    assumptions you currently have about
    organizational life?
  • How were your responses related to the text
  • What factors have influenced your current values
    and assumptions about organizational life?

Assumptions and Values of OD Individuals
  • Workers are capable of making a greater
  • Workers desire growth and development
  • Most workers want a voice in decisions that
    directly affect them

Assumptions and Values of OD Group
  • Work group is important to feelings of job
    satisfaction (Hawthorne studies)
  • Group climate is important to organizational
  • Interpersonal trust and support is critical to
    organizational effectiveness
  • Group members must be willing to accept
    responsibility for being part of the solution

Assumptions and Values of OD Organizational
  • Must seek new organizational systems and forms of
    authority, management
  • Cooperative efforts are critical
  • Change efforts must be supported by top
  • Development of organizational members is critical
    to success of organization
  • Organizations can be both humane and profitable

Systems View of Leadership-Haines
  • People are valued perceptions and feelings
  • Involvement of those affected by a change effort
  • Sharing of information
  • Feedback is solicited and welcomed

  • Action Research process
  • Determine actual problem, seek feasible
    solutions, rank alternatives, test, evaluate
  • Change objectives are viewed against impact on
    total organization
  • Effects of change on all involved are considered
  • Monitoring, reinforcement is critical to
    sustained change

Interdependencies in Organizational Components
Basic OD Process
OD Practitioners
  • Internal and external
  • Collaborative
  • Act as facilitator
  • Establishes a learning community
  • Structures activities so that the organization
    learns to solve own problems
  • Leaves organization with skills for continuous

OD Practitioners Guiding Principles
  • Always be helpful
  • Always deal with reality
  • Access your ignorance
  • Everything you do is an intervention
  • The client owns the problem and the solution
  • Go with the flow, but seize targets of
  • Be prepared for surprises, learn from them
  • Share the problem

OD Practitioners Types of Interventions
  • Individual
  • Inter-personal
  • Face-to-face Group
  • Inter-group
  • Organizational
  • Inter-organizational
  • Larger System

The Consulting Process(Peter Block)
  • Phase 1 Entry and Contracting
  • Phase 2 Discovery and Dialogue
  • Phase 3 Feedback and Decision to Act
  • Phase 4 Engagement and Implementation
  • Phase 5 Extension, Recycle, or Termination

OD Practitioners Ethical Standards
  • Misrepresentation of skills
  • Professional and technical ineptness
  • Misuse of data
  • Distortions of data
  • Collusion with others to show deficiencies in
    other members
  • Forcing members to disclose information
  • Promising unrealistic outcomes
  • Deception and conflict of values

Organization Development and Change
No man can know where he is going unless he
knows exactly where he has been and exactly how
he arrived at his present place. Maya Angelou

Individual Response to Change

OD Toolbox
  • William Bridges

A Lifetime of Transitions
  • Adolescence
  • Graduation
  • Job
  • Marriage
  • Parenting
  • Careers
  • Aging
  • Death

  • Morning
  • End of childhood
  • Establishes separate identity
  • Leaving home
  • Noon
  • Age 30 transition
  • Questioning
  • Second thoughts

Stages (continued)
  • Afternoon
  • Midlife (45-50)
  • Rearrangement of priorities
  • Whats it all about?
  • Evening
  • Older age Second half
  • Time to think break with old do something new

Stages (continued)
  • Its important to understand process, rather than
    the terms!

Change Human Beings Transition
  • Change
  • is situational the new boss, new policies, etc.
  • is external
  • depends on the new reality
  • Transition
  • is the psychological process involved in coming
    to terms with the situation
  • is internal
  • depends on letting go of the old reality

Transition is a natural process that marks the
turning points of the path of growth
Endings Begin at the End
  • Letting go is at best an ambiguous experience
  • Every transition begins with an ending -- we have
    to let go of the old before we can pick up the
  • Important to recognize how you handle endings --
    avoidance, denial, delay, acceptance.

Endings Five Stages
Allow yourself to experience these stages
  • Disengagement break with familiar
  • Dismantling unpacking from that which you are
  • Disidentification feeling of not being quite
    sure of who you are anymore
  • Disenchantment discovery that your world is no
    longer real dissatisfaction
  • Disorientation time of confusion emptiness

Dont rush the process
Neutral Zone Letting go Renewal
  • To find meaning in this stage
  • Accept your need for this time in the neutral
  • Find a regular time and place to be alone (time
  • Journal your thoughts, dreams, etc.
  • Write your autobiography look back to gain
    insight into future
  • Discover what you really want
  • Think of what would be unlived if your life ended
  • Go on a retreat -- time to reflect

Great stage if you understand and surrender to it!
New Beginning
The Neutral Zone
Ending, Losing, Letting Go
When we are ready, we shortly find the opportunity
  • Stop getting ready and act -- just do it!
  • Begin to identify yourself with the final result
    of the new beginning
  • Take things step-by-step -- recognize the process
  • Concentrate on the process of reaching your goal,
    rather than the goal itself

Transition Checklist
  • Take your time dont rush the process
  • Arrange temporary structures, i.e., temporary job
  • Dont act for the sake of acting -- go with the
  • Recognize why you are uncomfortable
  • Take care of yourself in small ways
  • Explore both sides of change -- benefits and costs

Transition Checklist (continued)
  • Talk to people (friends, professionals)
  • Discover what is waiting in the wings of your
    life -- allow new ideas to germinate
  • Use this time as the impetus to a new kind of
    learning -- from experience and education
  • Recognize that transition has a characteristic
    shape disintegration -- withdrawal -- new

Organizational Transitions
  • Important to celebrate and mourn endings
  • Recognize the confusion and chaos of the neutral
  • Allow the process to happen.

In organizational transitions, there is a process
that includes confusion and a need to mourn the
Change is inevitable Growth is optional
Lifeline Activity
No man can know where he is going unless he
knows exactly where he has been and exactly how
he arrived at his present place. Maya Angelou
  • Personal and Organizational Learning, Creativity
    and Change


OD Toolbox
Personal Learning

Adult Learning Theory
  • Whats in it for me?
  • I want to be in control.
  • What about my experience?
  • I need to know
  • I have a problem I need to solve.
  • I want a better life for myself and my family

Kolbs Learning Model
Personal Style and Change

Personal Profile Preview
  • What it is
  • A questionnaire to help you discover your
    behavioral style
  • What it measures
  • Your individual behavioral and communications
  • What it isnt
  • It is not a test -- there are no right or wrong

DiSC Dimensions of Behavior Model
  • William Marston, The Emotions of Normal People
  • Perception how people think about their world
    and the events of their lives, i.e. favorable or
    challenging, and forms the basis of how they feel
    and behave and
  • Environment how the individual interacts with
    the environment around them

Personal Profile System
  • First created and published in 1972
  • Describes how people behave as they respond to
    their environment
  • Behavior may change when the environment changes,
    and therefore people's perceptions and reactions
    to it changes
  • However there are consistencies in behavior
    across a variety of situations and the Personal
    Profile System reflects these consistencies as
    well as adaptations of behavior

D i S C Deciphered ...
  • D Dominance Direct and Decisive
  • How you respond to problems challenges
  • i Influence Optimistic and Outgoing
  • How you influence others to your point of view
  • S Steadiness Sympathetic and Cooperative
  • How you respond to the pace of the environment
  • C Conscientiousness Concerned and Correct
  • How you respond to rules procedures set by

All people exhibit all four behavioral styles in
varying degrees of intensity. W. M. Marston
Dominance Direct and Decisive
  • Determined, straightforward
  • Motivated by competitive opportunities
  • Direct, assertive, takes authority
  • Loves change and causing action
  • Takes risks and accepts challenges
  • Quick decisions
  • Manages and solves problems
  • Independent, prefers working alone

  • Emphasis Shapes the environment by overcoming
    opposition to accomplish results.
  • Tendencies
  • Getting immediate results.
  • Causing action.
  • Accepting challenges.
  • Making quick decisions.
  • Questioning the status quo.
  • Taking authority.
  • Managing trouble.
  • Solving problems.

Dominance -- Preferred Environment
Do my own thing
  • Authority, power, title, position
  • Challenge, new and varied activities
  • Advancement, accomplishment
  • Freedom from control, detail, supervision

influence Optimistic and Outgoing
  • People oriented
  • Focuses energies on others
  • Social, talkative, bubbly, fun oriented
  • Eager to please others, seeks social recognition
  • Enthusiastic, optimistic, animated, creates a
    motivational environment
  • Persuasive, articulate
  • Eager to try new things

  • Emphasis
  • Shapes the environment by influencing or
    persuading others.
  • Tendencies
  • Contacting people.
  • Making a good impression.
  • Being articulate.
  • Creating a motivational environment.
  • Entertaining people.
  • Being optimistic.
  • Participating in a group

influence -- Preferred Environment
Lets do it together
  • Opportunity for social activities -- both at work
    and outside
  • Inclusion, working with others
  • Freedom of expression
  • Short-term, varied activities
  • Freedom from control and details

Steadiness Sympathetic and Cooperative
  • Consistent, predictable
  • Low-keyed, dependable, easy going, amiable
  • High need for security and stability
  • Prefers listening and doing to talking reserved
  • Concerned for well being others desires to help
  • Loyal
  • Strong team player

  • Emphasis
  • Cooperates with others within existing
    circumstances to carry out tasks.
  • Tendencies
  • Demonstrating patience.
  • Developing specialized skills.
  • Helping others.
  • Performing in a consistent manner.
  • Showing loyalty.
  • Being a good listener.
  • Creating a stable work environment.

Steadiness -- Preferred Environment
How can I help you?
  • Steady, predictable environment
  • Harmonious working relationships
  • Status quo-- sticking with what is known
  • Sincere appreciation for accomplishments
  • Working with others in a team atmosphere
  • Period of adjustment for change

Conscientiousness Concerned and Correct
  • Concerned with doing things correctly, precisely
  • High personal standards
  • Strong need for caution
  • Orderly, analytical
  • Diplomatic with others, however critical of low
  • Makes slow decisions, gathers lots of data, uses
    a systems approach
  • Long term oriented

  • Emphasis
  • Works conscientiously within existing
    circumstances to ensure quality.
  • Tendencies
  • Concentrating on key details.
  • Being diplomatic.
  • Checking for accuracy.
  • Adhering to key directives and standards.
  • Thinking analytically.
  • Using indirect approaches to conflict.
  • Using a systematic approach to situations.

Conscientiousness -- Preferred Environment
Ill do it right!
  • Clearly defined expectations
  • Known, proven operating procedures
  • Business-like atmosphere
  • Control over the way work is done
  • Personal autonomy
  • Recognition for skills and accomplishments

DiSC and Teams
  • Recognizing others style
  • Responsiveness
  • Assertiveness
  • Adapting to others styles
  • Modifying your own style to match others
  • Styles compatibility

DiSC warning ...
A persons strength overextended may become
his/her weakness
  • D who is good at directing and deciding, may
    become autocratic
  • i who is good at promoting and persuading, may
    oversell and manipulate
  • S who is steady and agreeable, may give in
    despite their needs
  • C who is good at analyzing and checking, may
    become a perfectionist and indecisive

Personal Style and Change
  • What is the value of your style to the change
  • What are potential limitations of your style to
    the change process?

Personal Style and Facilitating Change
  • How does this model facilitate working with
    others during times of change?
  • What specific strategies will you use to work
    with the different styles?

Behavioral Change Models

Change Process ModelKurt Lewin
Change Process ModelKurt Lewin
Neutral Zone
New Beginnings
Haines Rollercoaster of Change
  • Creativity and Innovation

Creativity and Innovation
  • Individual

I am creative ...
Individual Creativity
  • When are you at your most creative?
  • What factors influence your creativity?
  • What do you do to put yourself in a creative
  • What do you do when you are stuck?
  • How do you keep track of your creative ideas?

Basic Premise
  • We are all creative.
  • Increased creativity is a teachable, trackable
  • All of us can become more creative and this
    will make us happier, healthier, more productive,
    and more authentic in everything we do.
  • The business environment will increasingly reward
    those who are able to be creative.
  • -- Julia Cameron,The Artists Way at Work, p. xxi

  • The production of novel and useful ideas.
  • Organizational creativity - creation of a
    valuable, useful new program, product, service,
    idea, procedure, or process by individuals
    working together.

  • The process of transforming creative ideas into
    a marketable program, product, service, or

Creativity and Innovation Process
  • Preparation -- actively seeks problems to be
    solved and information about these problems.
  • Incubation -- puts the problem to rest and turns
    to other activities.
  • Illumination -- the aha! when one receives an
    answer unexpectedly and without effort.
  • Verification -- tests and verifies ideas for
    viability through various implementation stages.
  • refinement, modification and refinement to get
    ideas into a salable form
  • selling, getting someone else to buy the finished

Group Process
  • Problem awareness and identification group
    becomes aware of problem and begins analysis of
    identifying underlying causes
  • Idea proposal group generates ideas on potential
    solutions and goes through a process of analyzing
    those ideas
  • Idea adoption group selects solution to the
    problem and begins process of planning for
  • Idea implementation transforming the ideas into


Team Innovation
Roles We Play
  • Individuals display a preference in thinking and
    behaving when in a team setting
  • Results in a natural personal style or role

Innovate with C.A.R.E. Profile?
Innovate with C.A.R.E. Profile?

  • Most comfortable with the role of generating
    fresh, original concepts and ideas
  • Creators are not afraid of taking risks and enjoy
    identifying problems and exploring solutions


  • Recognizes new opportunities
  • Most comfortable with the role of moving ideas
  • Derives satisfaction from process of selling the
    idea and removing roadblocks to its success


  • Most comfortable in the role of "devil's
  • Causes others to examine the idea closely, and
    think it through thoroughly before implementing it


  • Lays the groundwork for implementation
  • Checks for implementation flaws
  • Manages detailed tasks of getting the job done in
    a quality way


  • Monitors contributions of team members
  • Easily moves into a variety of roles as needed
  • Facilitates the process of hand-offs from one
    role to another

Turning ideas into programs, products, services
What the process looks like
Creating Ideas Generating new ideas Quantity is
key Suspend judgment, non-evaluation
Advancing Ideas Selling ideas Finding sponsors
and champions
Implementing Ideas Managing details Making
ideas come to life Quality is key
Refining Ideas Combine, build upon, improve
ideas Look for executional flaws
  • Issue challenge to employees
  • Grant autonomy to divisions
  • Offer shared access to technologies
  • Offer separate career track for innovators
  • Exhibit patience in nurturing projects
  • Show respect for ideas
  • Show constructive attitude toward failure
  • Maintain open communication lines
  • Provide seed money for promising ideas

Hewlett Packard
  • Exposure to new ideas through interaction among
  • No internal walls
  • promotes open communications
  • eliminates status distinctions that might inhibit
    flow of ideas

  • No dress code
  • Flexible work schedules
  • College campus atmosphere
  • Window offices
  • Open doors
  • Regular social gatherings

CARE Dimensions An Assessment
  • What is the value of your CARE dimension to the
    team innovation process?
  • What is the value of your CARE dimension to the
    change process?
  • What are potential limitations of your CARE
    dimension to the change process?

  • Approaches to Organizational Change

No problem can be solved from the same level of
consciousness that created it. Albert Einstein

OD Toolbox
Org Improvement Strategies
Target of Intervention Work-related Groups Individuals or non- interdependent groups
Consultant Model Used Collaborative equal power Experts or purchase model
Task or Structure vs. Process Orientation Focuses largely on processes, e.g., group interaction, norms, leadership, decision making, etc. outcomes may be task/structural changes Focuses on changing tasks or structures
Depth of Culture Managed Attempt to manage culture (formal and informal) attitudes, perceptions, feelings Primary focus on one area of formal system (structure, technology, tasks, or goals)
Time Perspective Two to three years and beyond Ad hoc, short range orientation
Systems Perspective High systems orientation (i.e., high cognizance of interdependencies) Narrow attention to functional org subsystem or problem
Basic OD Process
Interdependencies in Organizational Components
Reframing Organizations
Frame Barrier to Change Essential Strategies
Human Resources (Needs and Skills) Anxiety, uncertainty. People feel needy and incompetent Training for new skills. Participation and involvement. Psychological support
Structural (Alignment and Clarity) Loss of clarity and stability. Confusion and chaos Communication, realignment, new formal policies / processes
Political (Conflict) Disempowerment. Win-lose mentality Create arenas where issues negotiated and new coalitions formed
Symbolic (Meaning and Purpose) Loss of meaning and purpose Create transition rituals, mourn past, celebrate future
Quinns Four Strategies of Change
  • Level 4 Transcending
  • Transcending self emphasis on emerging reality
  • Level 3 Participatory
  • Open dialogue emphasis on relationship
  • Level 2 Forcing
  • Leveraging behavior emphasis on authority
  • Level 1 Telling
  • Rational persuasion emphasis on facts

Haines Rollercoaster of Change
Diving Deep and Surfacing A Creative Process
Paradigm for Change
Dr. Jane Goldberg http//www.expressiveartstrainin
Diving In
  • Making the commitment
  • Creating the proper environment
  • Clearing out the past
  • Awakening the passion of the vision
  • Final readiness issues
  • The Dive

Dr. Jane Goldberg http//www.expressiveartstrainin
Moving Through The Waters
  • Entering the waters
  • Becoming quiet
  • Right brain activities to facilitate moving
    through the waters
  • Finding a symbol
  • Freeing the fears
  • Intimation

Dr. Jane Goldberg http//www.expressiveartstrainin
Finding the Treasure
  • The form of the treasure
  • The unconditional love encounter
  • A sense of the divine
  • Other therapeutic encounters
  • Time to relax and appreciate

Dr. Jane Goldberg http//www.expressiveartstrainin
Surfacing With The Treasure
  • Coming up slowly
  • Holding on to the treasure
  • Dealing with the details
  • A fifth step in the making

Dr. Jane Goldberg http//www.expressiveartstrainin
Sharing the Treasure
  • The healing in the give-away
  • The meeting with the group - on common ground
  • Letting go of the therapist
  • A new sense of leadership - up on higher ground
  • The celebration of the completion

Dr. Jane Goldberg http//www.expressiveartstrainin
Goldbergs Diving Deep Bridges Transitions
Approaches to Org Change
  • Force Field Analysis
  • Action Research
  • Group Approaches
  • Appreciative Inquiry
  • Preferred Futuring

Action Research
  • Combines learning and doing
  • Requires participation of all parties
  • Based on collaborative relationships
  • Requires consensus before implementation
  • Involvement in monitoring and feedback
  • Assumes organization life is a shared experience
    most people can change (if they want to . . .)

Action Research Model
  • Perception of problem
  • Client group cooperation with OD person
  • Preliminary diagnosis
  • Data gathering from client
  • Data feedback to client
  • Client explores data problem diagnosis
  • Client action planning
  • Client takes action
  • Post action data gathering and evaluation
  • New action taken
  • Post action assessment

Action Research Model
Action Research and Behavioral Change Model
Systems Model of Action-Research Process
Source http//
Whats Going On . . .
  • Methods
  • Questionnaires and Instruments
  • Interviewing
  • Sensing
  • Polling
  • Collages
  • Drawings
  • Physical Representations of Organizations

Questionnaires and Instruments
  • Benefits
  • EconomicalUnit cost is low
  • Statistical analysis
  • Valuable for self-confrontation
  • Wide acceptance
  • Reduce reliance on 3rd party
  • Anonymity
  • Limitations
  • Little or no human conversation
  • Going through the motions

  • Benefits
  • Good for probing deeply into problems
  • Can invite interviewee into new areas
  • Can be used as part of the intervention
  • Limitations
  • Time consuming
  • Personal bias
  • Find out more than group ready to deal with
  • Must be skilled in interviewing, esp. around

  • Benefits
  • Interaction produces rich info and ideas
  • More economical than interviews
  • Quick glimpse of what is going on
  • Allows for impressions, feelings, and ideas
  • Limitations
  • Must have a basis of trust already established
  • Not statistically rigorous
  • Snooping
  • Manager is key to success

  • Benefits
  • Fast, interesting, and simple
  • Anyone can do
  • Whole group participates, bonding feeling
  • Flexible
  • Limitations
  • Questions are not thought out carefully
  • Can have built in errors if not carefully
  • Dont lend themselves to larger groups

  • Benefits
  • Good for icebreakers
  • Very artistic and expressive
  • Give overall impression
  • Can be bonding / teambuilding
  • Limitations
  • Formal groups may be resistant
  • May reveal little that is hard and specific

  • Benefits
  • Rich compressions of meaning
  • Used for entering into more difficult subjects
  • Limitations
  • Expressive medium
  • Can be difficult for those who are not artistic

Physical Representation of Org
  • Benefits
  • Discloses interpersonal issues that hinder a
  • Creates strong motivation to improve situation
  • Limitations
  • Too far out, i.e., not within norms
  • May do more harm than good

Force Field Analysis
  • Current State
  • Desired State
  • Driving Forces
  • Restraining Forces
  • Fishbone Diagram

Force Field Analysis
How to Use the Tool To carry out a force field
analysis, first download our free worksheet and
then use it to follow these steps Describe your
plan or proposal for change in the middle. List
all forces for change in one column, and all
forces against change in another column. Assign
a score to each force, from 1 (weak) to 5
(strong). For example, imagine that you are a
manager deciding whether to install new
manufacturing equipment in your factory. You
might draw up a force field analysis like the one
in Figure 1
Source http//
Force Field Analysis
Example A team at a steel mill are seeking to
save money. They come up with a consolidation
idea, but know that it may be opposed, so they
use Force-Field Analysis to explore reasons why
the idea will or will not be supported. How it
works Sometimes there are not clear and simple
reasons why an idea is useful or otherwise - the
pros and cons are more uncertain and possibly
distant forces. 'Force' is a metaphor that
everyone viscerally understands. Length of arrow
is already used in mathematics for vectors that
indicate the size of a force.
Source http//
Future Search (Preferred Futuring)
  • Process
  • History
  • Current State
  • Values and Benefits
  • Strategic Trends / Developments
  • Vision
  • Strategic Actions, Goals, and Roadblocks
  • Action Plans
  • Follow-up Support

Appreciative Inquiry
  • Process
  • Define
  • Discover
  • Dream
  • Design
  • Deliver

AI - 4 Basic Questions Examples
  • Describe a time when you performed well.
  • Describe a time when you were proud to be a
    member of this team/organization.
  • What do you value most about being a member of
    this team/organization?
  • What 3 wishes do you have for this

AI and Problem Solving
Problem Solving Appreciative Inquiry
Basic Assumption An organization is a problem to be solved Basic Assumption An organization is a mystery to be embraced
Identify Problem Appreciate What is
Conduct Root Cause Analysis Imagine What might be
Brainstorm and Analyze Solutions Determine What should be
Develop Action Plans Create What will be
Case Study TQM Binder
  • How can OD help this organization?
  • What did the execs do right? Wrong?
  • What did the consultant do right? Wrong?
  • What would you do now?
  • Is more training the answer?

An accurate, insightful view of current
realityis as important as a clear vision.
Peter Senge, Fifth Discipline
  • Organizational Change Strategies


OD Toolbox
Approaches to Organizational Change
  • Action Research
  • Force Field Analysis
  • Appreciative Inquiry
  • Preferred Futuring
  • Interdependencies

Approach -- method for moving towards change
OD Strategy
  • A strategy is an overall plan for your OD
  • Process or how you work within the realm of
    organizational change.

Kotters Eight-Step Process
  • 1. Create a sense of urgency
  • 2. Create the guiding team
  • 3. Develop change vision and strategy
  • 4. Communicate change vision for understanding
    and buy-in
  • 5. Empower others to act
  • 6. Produce short-term wins
  • 7. Dont let up
  • 8. Create a new culture make it stick

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Jacksons Organizational Change Process (OCP)
  • 1. Opportunity what needs to change?
  • 2. Transition teams
  • 3. Vision for the future
  • 4. Communicate the vision
  • 5. Plan the change initiative
  • 6. Take action
  • 7. Stabilize the change

Case Study Xerox LTQ
  • Problem/Opportunity Competition
  • Transition Teams
  • Corporate Quality Office assessed current state
    created vision for future
  • Quality Teams -- local level implementation
  • Organizational Vision

Xerox LTQ Quality Policy
  • Xerox is a quality company. Quality is the
    basic business principle for Xerox. Quality
    means providing our external and internal
    customers with innovative products and services
    that fully satisfy their requirements. Quality
    improvement is the job of every Xerox employee.
  • Developed and agreed to by entire Xerox Senior
    Management Team (1983)

Xerox LTQ Vision of Future
  • By the end of 1987, Xerox and Leadership Through
    Quality will become synonymous in the eyes of our
    employees, customers, suppliers, shareholders,
    and the general public. The pursuit of quality
    improvement will be a way of life in Xerox by
    practicing the processes and using the tools.

Xerox LTQ Strategy
  • Transition to a Total Quality Company
  • Training
  • Communications
  • Transition Teams
  • Management Behaviors and Actions
  • Tools Measurements
  • Recognition Reward

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Xerox LTQ Steps
  • CEO met with consultants to discuss problem
  • Video produced that discussed change and
  • At each level, employees brought in to view video
    and receive information on change

Xerox LTQ Steps
  • Quality teams formed
  • Quality Specialists
  • Implementation plans formed
  • Resources required
  • Training needs
  • Time frame
  • Specific action plans

Xerox LTQ Steps
  • Pilot Test
  • At one business unit
  • Action plan for rollout
  • Train-the-trainer
  • Resource allocation
  • Cascade down through organization
  • 40 hours of training for every employee

Xerox LTQ Steps
  • Rollout
  • 1983 - 1987 (approximately)
  • Training
  • Each team responsible for Quality Improvement
  • 1 yr post training -- performance review process
  • Measurement of processes
  • Refinements based on customized needs
  • Celebrations
  • Quality Team Days

Lessons from Xerox
  • Get folks involved!
  • Celebrate quick wins
  • Pilot test your large scale change
  • Transformation takes time
  • Transformation takes upper management support
    throughout the process
  • Celebrate success!

Organization Development and Change
Good leaders make people feel that they're at the
very heart of things, not at the periphery.
Warren Bennis
  • Leadership and Organizational Change


OD Toolbox
  • Resisting Change

DiSC and Resistance to Change
Dominance D and Influencing i
Steadiness S and Conscientious C
Resistance to Change
  • Kanters 10 Most Common Reasons for Resistance to
    Change (p. 205-207)
  • Who is the Resistor Reframing the Question (p.
  • Why do would-be leaders resist embracing the
    very ideas that would motivate followers?

Reducing Resistance
  • Build strong working relationships with the key
  • Involve stakeholders in planning, implementation,
    and post-analysis diagnosis
  • Maintain a clear focus
  • Embrace resistance Skeptics are my best friend
  • Respect those who have a stake in the change
  • Fully support the organizational change
  • Stakeholders security and autonomy not threatened

  • Leading Change

Types of Power
  • Legitimate Power
  • Reward Power
  • Coercive Power
  • Referent Power
  • Expert Power
  • Information Power
  • Connective Power
  • In what ways are these power bases useful in
    organizational change?

Leading Organizational Change
  • Does leadership matter in organizational change?
  • Does change only occur when the charismatic CEO
    says so?
  • What are characteristics of an effective change
  • What are the essential elements for leading
    organizational change?

  • Servant-Leadership
  • Robert Greenleaf

What is servant-leadership?
Servant-leadership is a practical philosophy
which supports people who choose to serve first,
and then lead as a way of expanding service to
individuals and institutions. Servant-leaders
may or may not hold formal leadership positions.
Servant-leadership encourages collaboration,
trust, foresight, listening, and the ethical use
of power and empowerment. - http//www.greenleaf
Who is the servant-leader?
The servant-leader is servant first. It begins
with the natural feeling that one wants to serve,
to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one
to aspire to lead. This is sharply different
from one who is leader first for this person
it will be a later choice to serve (if this
choice is made at all) after leadership is
established. The difference manifests itself in
the care taken by the servant-first to make sure
that other peoples highest priority needs are
being served. - Robert K. Greenleaf, The
Servant as Leader, p. 7
The Best Test
The best test, though difficult to administer,
is Do those served grow as persons? Do they
while being served become healthier, wiser,
freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to
become servants? And, what is the effect on the
least privileged in society will he benefit, or
at least, will he not be further deprived? -
Robert K. Greenleaf, The Servant as Leader, p. 7
Ten Characteristics
- Rubye Braye, Focus on Leadership, p. 300
Transforming leadership
Transforming leadership occurs when one or more
persons engage with others in such a way that
leaders and followers raise one another to higher
levels of motivation and morality. The
transforming leader draws upon the follower's
needs, motivations, and goals, and engages the
full person of the follower the result of
transforming leadership is a relationship that
converts followers into leaders and may convert
leaders into moral agents. - James MacGregor
Burns, Leadership, p. 4
Transformative Leadership
  • Articulate a clear and appealing vision
  • Explain how the vision can be attained
  • Act confidently and optimistically
  • Express confidence in followers
  • Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key
  • Lead by example
  • Empower people to achieve the vision

Servant-leadership as an individual leadership
Similar to transformational leadership,
servant-leadership is neither a theory or a
model. It does not put forth a formula for
success it does not offer a set of tools or
skills to master. Servant-leadership is a way of
thinking about self and others, a way of being in
relationship to others. Servant-leaders may or
may not hold formal positions or titles of
management they practice serving as a way of
leading from anywhere in the organization.
Servant-leadership as an institutional model
This is my thesis caring for persons, the more
able and the less able serving each other, is the
rock upon which a good society is built if a
better society is to be built, one that is more
just and more loving, one that provides greater
creative opportunity for its people, then the
most open course is to raise both the capacity to
serve and the very performance as servant of
existing major institutions by new regenerative
forces operating within them. - Robert K.
Greenleaf, The Institution as Servant, p. 1
A new kind of leadership
  • Traditional Boss
  • Motivated by personal drive to achieve
  • Competitive, independent
  • Seeks to receive personal credit for achievement
  • Relies on facts, logic, proof
  • Controls information in order to maintain power
  • Tells, gives information
  • Personal value comes from individual talents
  • Servant as Leader
  • Motivated by desire to serve others
  • Collaborative, interdependent
  • Gives credit to others
  • Uses intuition and foresight to balance facts,
    logic, proof
  • Shares big-picture information generously
  • Listens, asks, values others input
  • Personal value comes from mentoring and working
    collaboratively with others

Organizational structures
Traditional hierarchy
Primus inter pares

Primus inter pares
  • There is still a leader, but he is not chief
  • It is important that the primus constantly tests
    and proves his leadership among a group of able
  • Organizational success will only be met if more
    people are encouraged to serve as leaders,
    everywhere in the organization. He argued the
    structure of equals with a primus will enable
    more leaders to grow and develop
  • Robert K. Greenleaf, The Institution as Servant,
    p. 11

Servant Leadership
In what ways does servant-leadership lend
itself to leading organizational change?
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