Guiding Framework for Policy Approaches to School Bullying and Violence - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Guiding Framework for Policy Approaches to School Bullying and Violence

Description:

Guiding Framework for Policy Approaches to School Bullying and Violence Mona O Moore Education Department, Trinity College, Dublin A joint OECD, Norwegian Ministry ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:282
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 38
Provided by: Lian60
Learn more at: https://www.oecd.org
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Guiding Framework for Policy Approaches to School Bullying and Violence


1
Guiding Framework for Policy Approaches to School
Bullying and Violence
  • Mona OMoore
  • Education Department, Trinity College, Dublin
  • A joint OECD, Norwegian Ministry of Education and
    Stavanger University College Conference,
    Stavanger, Norway, September 5-8, 2004

2
School Bullying and Violence Complex and
Multi-faceted
  • Most powerful risk factors Commission on
    Children Violence Gulbenkian Foundation, 1995
  • Violent and humiliating forms of discipline
  • Attitudes that approve of violence in the home
    and world outside
  • Adults behaving violently towards each other
  • Adults behaving violently towards children
  • Macho role models
  • Preferences for violent images on TV Film
  • Racial Hatred
  • Violence in Sport
  • Poverty poor living conditions

3
Towards Making A Difference
  • Contributing Factors
  • Commitment of Government
  • Commitment of Stakeholders at all levels of
    decision making
  • Local
  • National
  • International

4
Upstream investment brings downstream results
W.H.O, 2002
  • Example
  • National Intervention campaign against school
    bullying in Norway
  • Olweus Roland, 1983
  • Inspired
  • Belgium Stevens Van Oost, 1995 1997
  • Canada Pepler Craig, 1991 -1993
  • England Smith, Sharp, Cowie, Boulton,
    Thompson, 1991 -1993.
  • Finland Salmivalli, 1999
  • Germany Hanewinkel, 1994 -1996
  • Ireland OMoore, 1999 Lawlor, 2003
  • Spain Ortega, Lera, Del Ray, Mora-Merchan,
    1995 2004
  • Switzerland Alasker Volkanover, 1998
  • Sweden Svenson, 2001
  • U.S.A Limber, 1994 -1995

5
Recommendation for Action
6
Steps towards a Guiding Framework
  1. Draw up, implement and monitor a National Plan of
    Action to prevent school bullying and violence.
  2. Enhance the capacity to collect data on school
    bullying and violence. To do this some
    discussion takes place in relation to
    definitional issues.
  3. Define priorities for and support research on the
    causes, consequences, costs and prevention of
    school bullying and violence.
  4. Develop a national strategy to assist schools to
    prevent bullying and violence.
  5. Create a media campaign to promote non-violent
    values, attitudes and behaviour.
  6. Integrate School Bullying and Violence Prevention
    into Teacher Education at both Pre-Service and
    In-Service Levels.
  7. Establish an Advisory Body (Centre of Excellence)
    for Partners in Education.
  8. Contribute to an International Research Network.
  9. Promote legislation to deal effectively with
    school bullying and violence.

7
1. Draw up, implement and monitor a National
action plan to prevent school bullying and
violence.
8
Key Elements of a National Plan to Prevent
Reduce School Bullying and Violence World Health
Organisation, 2002
  • Review and reform existing legislation and policy
  • Build data collection and capacity building
  • Strengthen services for victims
  • Develop and Evaluate prevention responses
  • Set a timetable
  • Develop a mechanism of evaluation
  • Establish an organisation to monitor and report
    on progress

9
Role of Monitoring Authority
  • To co-ordinate efforts at local, national and
    international levels
  • To collaborate with sectors that have potential
    to contribute to the prevention of School
    Bullying Violence e.g.
  • Education
  • Labour
  • Health
  • Social Welfare
  • Criminal Justice

10
2. Enhance the capacity to collect data on school
bullying and violence
  • Why?
  • To influence policy making
  • To set priorities
  • To guide programme design
  • To monitor progress

11
How can comprehensive and reliable data be
secured?
Develop a universal accepted definition of school
bullying and violence.
Mobbing
Bullying
Ijime
Faits de Violence
Il bullismo
Violenca na escola
Victimisation
12
Towards a New Definition
  • The Construct of Abuse would help
  • To overcome the theoretical and cultural
    diversities
  • To target more effectively the problem behaviour
    i.e. the process as well as the product
  • To avoid unnecessary policies and programmes.
    e.g. racial, sexual

A Proposed Definition School Bullying and
Violence can be defined as Incidents where an
individual or a group are abused, threatened or
assaulted. The abusive behaviour involves an
explicit or implicit challenge to their safety,
well being and health.
13
3. Define priorities for, and support research
on, the causes, consequences, costs and
prevention of school bullying and violence.
  • Background
  • The Nature of School Bullying A Cross-National
  • Perspective. Eds. Smith, Morita, Junger-Tas,
    Olweus,
  • Catalona Slee (1999)
  • Violence in Schools The response in Europe. Ed.
  • Smith, 2003.
  • Nordic Council Research Conference, Stockholm
    03
  • Review of Good Practice in preventing and
    reducing
  • Bullying At School In The E.U. Member States
    Report to
  • the European Commission (2003/S179-161416) -
    Eds. Minton OMoore,
  • 2004

14
Research Priorities
  • Needed is a greater understanding of
  • Contextual characteristics
  • The elements that are most desirable for
    inclusion in programmes of prevention and
    intervention
  • The causes, consequences, costs and prevention of
    teacher-teacher, pupil-teacher, teacher-pupil,
    parent-teacher abuse.
  • Systematic and rigorous evaluations of
    initiatives to prevent and reduce school bullying
    and violence
  • Sports and violence.

15
Who Undertakes The Research?
  • Government Departments
  • Academic Institutions (inclusive of schools)
  • Individual researchers
  • Network of researchers local, national,
    international

16
4. Develop a National Strategy to assist schools
to prevent and reduce school bullying and
violence.
  • Criteria for success
  • Statutory requirement
  • Commitment of School Personnel
  • Commitment of School Community inclusive of
    Parents
  • Whole School Approach
  • Supplementary Therapeutic Services

17
Elements of a Whole School Approach
  • Evidence Based Policy Aims (Department of
    Education Science, Ireland, 1993)
  • To create a school ethos which encourages
    children to disclose and discuss incidents of
    bullying behaviour.
  • To raise awareness of bullying as a form
    unacceptable behaviour with school management,
    teachers, pupils, parents/guardians.
  • To ensure comprehensive supervision and
    monitoring measures through which all areas of
    school activity are kept under observation.
  • To develop procedures for noting and reporting
    incidents of bullying behaviour.
  • To develop a programme of support for those
    affected by bullying behaviour and for those
    involved in bullying behaviour.
  • To work with and through the various local
    agencies in countering all forms of bullying and
    anti-social behaviour.
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of school policy on
    anti-bullying behaviour.

18
Underpinning a School Policy to Prevent and
Reduce School Bullying and Violence 1
  • The Promotion of a co-operative school ethos
  • respect
  • trust
  • caring
  • consideration
  • support
  • The Promotion of high standards of Behaviour
  • pupil pupil
  • teacher pupil
  • teacher teacher
  • parent teacher

19
Underpinning a School Policy to Prevent and
Reduce School Bullying and Violence 2
  • Promoting Confidence Self Esteem
  • Pupils
  • School Personnel
  • Promoting Curricula to Foster
  • Respect for human dignity
  • Tolerance and respect for the values and beliefs
    of others
  • Celebration of diversity

20
School Based Interventions
Survey, prepare policies or code of discipline
reduce risk factors, establish student council,
peer support, mediation, counselling, school home
liaison
  • Primary reducing the risk of bullying and
    violence.
  • Secondary responding to incidents of bullying
    and
  • violence
  • Tertiary treatment and rehabilitation for those
  • involved in incidents.

Method of shared concern, No Blame approach,
Restorative Justice, Denial of Privileges,
Suspension, Expulsion
Child focused Teacher focused Family
focused Community - focused
Monitoring incidents, Counselling, referral to
specialists
21
Therapeutic Approaches require
22
Whole School Approach A Continuous Process
  • Self Audit. e.g. Varnava (2000)
  • Regular Audit
  • Monitoring Authority e.g school inspectorate
  • Regular Evaluation
  • Expert Advisory Organisation

23
The Design Team
Student Council
National Curriculum Development Unit
Teacher Unions
Education
Parent Councils
Ombudsman
The Design Team
Voluntary Sector Victim Support Groups Crime
Prevention Community Safety
Police
Juvenile Justice
Probation
Corporate
Researchers
Social Welfare
Mass Media
School Psychological Service
Health
Training Institutions Services for Children
24
5. Media campaign to change attitude, behaviour
and social norms
  • Challenges to be tackled Commission on Children
    Violence, Gulbenkian Foundation
  • Gender Issue
  • Macho Male Images
  • Those at risk of violence

Infants young people with a disability
minority ethnic groups
Design Team to Promote Media Campaign An
Inter-Departmental Ministerial Group
Besides a Media Campaign Build values that make
for a non-violent society into services that work
with and for children.
25
6. Integrate School Bullying Violence
Prevention into Teacher Education at Pre-Service
and In-Service Levels
  • Rationale
  • The commitment of teachers is critical to the
    effectiveness of intervention programmes Roland
    2000
  • Aim
  • To enhance competence
  • To detect
  • To intervene
  • To prevent
  • To understand the critical role of their own
    behaviour in shaping attitudes and behaviour of
    their students

26
Key Elements in a Teacher Training Module on
School Bullying Violence
  • Elements proposed by OMoore (2000) Nicolaides,
    Toda Smith, (2002)
  • What is bullying and violence?
  • The extent of bullying and violence
  • The signs of victimisation, bullying and
    violence.
  • The ill-effects
  • The causes
  • Preventative strategies
  • Strategies to deal with incidents, inclusive of
    teachers and parents
  • Developing a school policy.

Use the curriculum to promote pro-social
attitudes Enhance self-esteem
27
In-Service Training
  • Rationale
  • To improve quality and efficiency by learning
    about the scientific
  • advances in the field of school bullying and
    violence.
  • Successful Experience of In-Service (OMoore
    Minton, 2003)
  • ABC Model adapted from Roland, 1997
  • Develop a Network of Trainers
  • Provide Regional Training
  • Provide Local Support
  • Provide Professional Accreditation

Example Diploma in Aggression Studies, Trinity
College Dublin
28
7.To Establish a National Advisory Unit for
Partners in Education
  • Rationale
  • Need for evidence based advice and guidance to
    guide policies and intervention
  • strategies and research.
  • Example Anti-Bullying Centre
  • Research Resource Centre
  • Education Department
  • Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
  • ABC Provides
  • Advice and guidance website, helpline, drop in
    centre
  • Professional Counselling
  • Mediation
  • Resource Materials for parents, schools and
    organisations
  • In-service and staff development for schools and
    organisations
  • Day conferences and workshops for pupils,
    parents, teachers and adults in the workplace
  • Investigations
  • Expert Witness
  • Legal Advice
  • Reference library
  • Conducts research

If the Centre cannot provide the necessary
therapeutic help it refers on to experts in the
field
The Centre refers on to legal firms if the
clients are considering litigation
29
To Ensure Comprehensive Service Of National
Advisory Unit (Centre of Excellence)
  • Provide Government Funding
  • Give An Official Status
  • Establish International Links with Comparable
    Centres
  • Establish an Alliance with Other Advocacy Groups

To share and exchange information To pool
experiences To increase collaboration
30
8. To Contribute to an International Research
Network
  • Rationale
  • Identify and examine important issues on a global
    scale.
  • Facilitate the development of global preventative
    approaches
  • Potential Areas of Research Roland, personal
    communication
  • Conduct national baseline investigations using
    same definition and tools of measurement
  • Analyse results according to defined standards
  • Conduct indepth case studies of national policies
  • Monitor and evaluate prevention and intervention
    approaches
  • Assist OECD and National Authorities in awareness
    raising and National Research

31
Leadership of International Research Centres
  • Criteria
  • That the Centre is located in a country that
    reflects the
  • highest political commitment to tackling school
    bullying and
  • violence. This will ensure the necessary funding
    and
  • support.

32
9. Promote Legislation to Deal Effectively With
School Bullying Violence
  • Article 19 Convention On The Rights of Children
  • State Parties shall take all appropriate
    legislative,
  • administrative, social and educational measures
    to protect
  • the child from all forms of physical or mental
    violence,
  • injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment,
  • maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual
    abuse, while
  • in the care of parent(s) legal guardian(s) or any
    other
  • person who has the care of the child.

33
The Way Forward Legal Reforms
  • Examine with a view to adopt the recommendations
    of the Commission
  • on Children and Violence Gulbenkian Foundation,
    1995
  • Remove legal tolerance to any level of violence
    to children
  • Ensure that response to violent behaviour
    contribute to the solution rather than the
    problem
  • Prohibit physical punishment and humiliation of
    children
  • Review criminal justice system for young
    offenders to ensure rehabilitation and protection
    of public from serious harm.
  • Provide consistent obligations to act against
    bullying in all institutions
  • Review and simplify the law on possession and use
    of firearms and other offensive weapons.

34
  • Advantages of Legal Reform
  • Create a climate of opinion that reinforces a
    zero tolerance to bullying and violence.
    Ananiadou Smith (2002)
  • Requires all schools to develop policies and to
    act on them.
  • Create a healthy and positive school climate.
  • Disadvantages
  • Compensation Culture (Binchy, 2004)
  • Preventative Action
  • Provide clear guidelines to schools to how
    litigation can be avoided.
  • Appoint an Ombudsman for Child Labour
    Relations.

35
Office of Ombudsman
  • To initiate investigations of Unresolved
    Complaints
  • To refer to appropriate agencies, organisations
    for follow up, support and rehabilitation.
  • To meet the requirements set out in the U.N
    Convention on the Rights of Children. e.g.
    Norway

36
Conclusions
  • School Bullying and Violence is a worldwide
    problem
  • Imposes mental and physical ill health
  • Undermines and dilutes the quality of education
  • Action needed at local, national, international
    level
  • Framework for National Approach to Include
  • Data Collection and Research
  • Training of Professionals
  • Whole School Approach
  • Media Campaign
  • International Research Network
  • Legal Reform
  • Success will depend on strength of political will

When planning for a year plant corn, when
planning for a decade plant trees, when planning
for life, train and educate people (Yves
Beernaert, Lisbon, 2001)
37
Thank You
  • Go Raibh Mile Maith Agat
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com