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Managing Classroom Behaviour 21st Century Challenges, Approaches and Solutions

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PALS Jamaica. April 19, 2006. 3. Putting School Violence. in Context ... Why Do Teachers Resort To Authoritarian Methods? Lack of skills/tools? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Classroom Behaviour 21st Century Challenges, Approaches and Solutions


1
Managing Classroom Behaviour 21st Century
Challenges, Approaches and Solutions
  • April 19, 2006

2
Minimising Disruptive Student Behaviour
  • Janilee Abrikian
  • PALS Jamaica
  • April 19, 2006

3
Putting School Violence in Context
  • Everyone is trying to analyse it
  • Some say it is more prevalent than ever

4
Putting School Violence in Context
  • The reality is that we are more and more alarmed
    by violent children.

5
Putting School Violence in Context
  • Of more concern than the debate over an increase
    or a decrease, is the mix of the nature of
    violence which seems to have changed in the
    direction of more violent acts.

6
The Faces of School Violence
  • School violence wears many faces kicking
    pushing, shoving, grabbing, verbal abuse, gang
    activity, bullying and intimidation, gun use,
    assault …

7
Relation to Social Trends
  • 1) Where violence is a pervasive part of life,
    the school bears less blame for violence.
  • 2) In a generally peaceful society, where schools
    are violent, schools bear more blame and are
    expected to solve the problem to a greater extent.

8
Relation to Social Trends
  • To what extent is school violence a school
    problem?
  • Should the school be seen as the primary place to
    stem violence?

9
Putting School Violence in Context
  • In general, schools thought to promote violence
  • Have high rates of exposure to violence and
    victimisation.
  • Display an inability to effectively monitor and
    discipline children, especially for the seemingly
    minor conflicts which occur between children at a
    high rate on a daily basis.

10
Putting School Violence in Context
  • Teachers/schools cannot immediately or directly
    alter the social factors that create students
    problems

11
Putting School Violence in Context
  • But if we understand the factors that contribute
    to the problem, we will be
  • better able to
  • Place student failure and disruptive behaviour
    (including violent behaviour)
  • Create environments that reduce rather than
    intensify their effects.

12
Putting School Violence in Context
  • Undeniably, behaviour is influenced by factors
    outside the control of the school.
  • Teacher effectiveness has a significant impact on
    how students behave and learn and how they
    feel about themselves.

13
School Factors Influencing Student Misbehaviour
  • Overcrowding
  • High student-teacher ratios
  • Insufficient curricular course relevance combined
    with low student achievement and apathy which
    gives rise to disruptions.

14
School Factors Influencing Student Misbehaviour
  • Poor facilities design
  • Adult failure to act because they fail to
    identify potentially inflammatory problems are
    reluctant to admit a problem believe that
    nothing will work simply do not know what to do.

15
School Factors Influencing Student Misbehaviour
  • When discipline problems occur in school, to what
    extent can they be traced to dysfunction in the
    interpersonal climate and organisational patterns
    of the school, rather than to malfunctions in the
    student?

16
The Search For Solutions
  • Working to increase discipline, order and safety
    in schools requires all parties to examine the
  • Attitudes
  • Behaviours
  • Values
  • that define them.

17
The Search For Solutions
  • Meaningful behaviour change will need to include
    discussion about underlying beliefs related to
    issues of power, control and authority.

18
The Search For Solutions
  • Meaningful behaviour change will need to include
    discussion about teachers instructional and
    management goals and the congruence between these
    and their management strategies.

19
The Search For Solutions
  • Teachers skills in dealing with inappropriate
    student behaviour has to be a major focus in
    combating unproductive student behaviour.

20
Classroom Teaching Two Major Tasks
  • Classroom teaching has two m ajor task structures
    organised around the problem of
  • A) Learning
  • B) Order

21
Classroom Teaching Two Major Tasks
  • Learning is served by the instructional function.
  • Order is served by the managerial function of
    organising classroom groups, establishing rules
    and procedures, reacting to misbehaviour …

22
Classroom Management Skills Key
  • Teachers classroom management skills are a key
    factor in influencing students achievement and
    behaviour.
  • The key to successful classroom management is
    prevention of problems before they start.

23
Responsive Classroom Management
  • Classroom management has always had to be DYNAMIC
    and RESPONSIVE to changing situations.

24
Responsive Classroom Management
  • Some of the old approaches are relevant.
  • We need new paradigms to help us address and
    reduce the problems that exist today.

25
Goals of Reducing Student Misbehaviour
  • One way to determine the goal or goals of
    reducing student misbehaviour is to answer the
    question
  • What do I want to accomplish in responding to
    inappropriate behaviour?

26
Goals of Methods to Reduce Unproductive Behaviours
  • To instill self-discipline.
  • To enhance intra- and inter-personal
    relationships.
  • To help students to make better choices.
  • To help students develop social skills.

27
Goals of Methods to Reduce Unproductive Behaviours
  • To create a classroom climate in which all
    students can achieve.
  • To make learning fun for all.
  • To improve productivity in the classroom.
  • To give students life skills.
  • To develop individual ability for problem
    solving.

28
A Framework
  • A classroom in which all students are accepted by
    the teacher and their peers.
  • A classroom in which classroom rules and
    procedures have been carefully taught and
    consistently monitored.
  • A classroom where students are involved in
    interesting work at which they can succeed.
  • A classroom where problem solving is taught and
    used consistently.

29
Framework The classroom, A community
  • 1) A classroom in which all students are accepted
    by the teacher and their peers.

30
The Classroom A Community
  • When children experience belonging and feel that
    they are valued, they become involved in their
    own education and they seldom need to misbehave.

31
The Classroom A Community
  • Psychological Safety
  • A climate where individuals are free to express
    diverse opinions without fear
  • Individual and cultural differences are accepted,
    not judged
  • Students feel protected against unprofessional
    criticism, intimidation, verbal abuse, bullying,
    and violence

32
The Classroom A community
  • Mutual respect.
  • When students are working together respectfully,
    teachers do not have to spend a great deal of
    time addressing inappropriate behaviour.
  • Teachers will have control of their class, but
    they will not have to act in a controlling manner.

33
The Classroom A community
  • Classroom Climate and School Climate
  • Student learning and student development are
    significantly influenced by the quality and
    characteristics of the classroom climate ( and
    school climate).

34
The Classroom A community
  • Classroom Climate
  • Teachers are responsible for establishing and
    maintaining positive classroom climates.

35
The Classroom A Community
  • Meeting Needs
  • Students behave appropriately and effectively in
    environments that meet their basic personal and
    psychological needs.

36
Framework Proactive Strategies to Minimise
Student Misbehaviour
  • 2) A classroom in which classroom rules and
    procedures have been carefully taught and
    consistently monitored.

37
Minimising Behaviours
  • Most of the work in minimising student
    misbehaviours takes place in the area of rules,
    procedures, routines, organising groups.

38
Management Strategies - Categorisation
  • Classroom management strategies can be divided
    into two broad categories proactive and reactive.

39
Reactive Approaches
  • Reactive approaches are the behaviours that the
    teacher uses in response to problems and
    conflicts when they arise.

40
Proactive Approaches
  • Proactive approaches have to do with the planning
    in which the teacher engages before contact with
    his or her students and the techniques to prevent
    discipline problems from occurring.

41
Proactive Approaches
  • The difference lies in the teachers ability to
    prevent discipline problems.

42
Proactive Strategies
  • Proactive teachers teachers dont just react to
    the school environment, they shape it. They take
    charge.
  • Teacher action can prevent or alleviate almost
    all discipline problems.

43
Proactive Approaches
  • Proactive approaches include
  • Effective classroom organisation
  • Effective group process behaviours
  • Effective classroom rules and procedures
  • Resilience training
  • Stress management …

44
Classroom Rules
  • Be clear in teaching classroom rules.
  • Monitor student behaviour.
  • Give corrective feedback.
  • Reteach rules that students frequently fail to
    follow.

45
Why Rules May not Work
  • Students dont know the rule or do not understand
    it.
  • The rule is too vague or too general.
  • The rule keeps changing.
  • The rule violates a strong need or value.

46
Increasing Student Acceptance of Rules
  • Students need to be involved in developing rules.
  • Rules need to be clearly stated.
  • Few rules.
  • Students must accept rules.
  • Monitor effectiveness of rules.
  • Parent acceptance of rules.

47
Effective Procedures To Minimise Student
Misbehaviour
  • There are five general areas in which teachers
    need to teach their students how to act

48
Effective Procedures Minimise Student Misbehaviour
  • Use of classroom space and facilities.
  • Procedures during class activities.
  • Procedures during small-group work.
  • Behaviours outside of the classroom.
  • How to behave at the beginning and end of the
    school day.

49
Establishing Control Through Class Routines
  • Establish a few simple procedures.
  • Teach them to students.
  • Be consistent.

50
Teaching Procedures
  • Effectively teaching procedures to students is
    similar to good athletic coaching.

51
Teaching and Monitoring Classroom Procedures
  • Discuss the need for the procedure.
  • Solicit student ideas.
  • Have students practise the procedure until it is
    performed correctly.
  • Reinforce the correct behaviour.

52
Framework Instructional Management Skills to
Minimise Disruptive Behaviour
  • 3) A classroom where students are involved in
    interesting work at which they can succeed.

53
Maximising On-task Behaviour and Academic
Achievement
  • Giving clear instructions.
  • Beginning a lesson.
  • Maintaining attention.
  • Pacing.
  • Using seatwork effectively.
  • Summarising.
  • Providing useful feedback and evaluation.
  • Making smooth transitions.

54
1. Giving Clear Instructions
  • When presenting a lesson, clear instructions for
    the activities should be provided.
  • A significant amount of disruptive behaviour
    stems from students not knowing how they are to
    proceed or how they can get assistance when they
    need it, or what they should do once they have
    completed the activity.

55
2. Beginning a Lesson
  • Teachers need to find effective ways to get
    students attention.
  • The goals and activities for the lesson should be
    clearly described and a motivating activity
    should also be part of beginning the lesson.

56
3. Maintaining Attention
  • Although teachers complain that it is hard to
    hold students interest, teachers need to
    stimulate more consistent attention than what
    often happens.

57
4. Pacing
  • The teacher can vary his or her tempo. Breaking
    activities into short segments is a useful
    technique.
  • In lessons over 30 minutes, short, structured
    breaks can be allowed.
  • Teachers will be more effective if they vary
    their style of instruction.

58
5. Using Seatwork Effectively
  • Be seatwork, we mean those times when the
    teachers has assigned an activity to student
    which they do on their own, at their desks.

59
5. Using Seatwork Effectively
  • Seatwork should be designed to provide students
    with meaningful pracatice while enabling teacher
    and student to assess the students progress.
  • Seatwork should therefore be checked and
    monitored by the teacher.

60
5. Using Seatwork Effectively
  • Teachers should have optional learning activities
    ready for when students have finished the primary
    task, thereby continuing to keep them on task.

61
5. Using Seatwork Effectively
  • The teacher should also look into whether all
    students should get the same seatwork.
  • Students can also engage in group work.

62
6. Summarising
  • It is useful to focus students on talking about
    what they learned for example during one day at
    school.
  • This will help student focus on what they have
    learned and how that learning relates to specific
    learning goals or to their own lives.

63
7. Providing Useful Feedback and Evaluation
  • Student performance is enhanced when students are
    given specific feedback about their performance.
  • Generalised feedback like Nice work and Good
    are not specific. Feedback should be honest.

64
8. Making Smooth Transitions
  • Classrooms should be arranged for efficient
    movement.
  • The teacher should have his or her materials
    ready for the next lesson, the next part of the
    lesson, the next class.
  • Time lost in transitions from one lesson to
    another (in the elementary classroom) could be
    significant.

65
Framework Problem Solving to Minimise
Disruptive Behaviour
  • 4) A classroom where problem solving is taught
    and used consistently.

66
Power Methods. Do They Work?
  • Many teachers rely on power to control behaviour.
  • How do students respond to power methods?

67
Why Do Teachers Resort To Authoritarian Methods?
  • Lack of skills/tools?
  • It is an easier way of controlling to students?
  • The culture of the school?
  • Makes teacher feel powerful?
  • Large class size?
  • Physical environment?
  • Insecurity?
  • Pressing needs of the curriculum?
  • Their own socialisation?

68
Authoritarian Control Versus Natural Authority
  • Teachers can replace their authoritarian control
    with natural authority.
  • Natural authority That readily-accepted
    leadership associated with obvious competence,
    interest and concern.

69
Benefits
  • There are benefits to teachers and to students in
    giving up authoritarian control.
  • What are these benefits?

70
Benefits to Fewer Teacher-directed Behaviours
  • Students learn to take responsibility for their
    behaviour.
  • Students learning tends to be more permanent.
  • Students develop multiple problem-solving skills.
  • Students become more creative in finding new
    modes of behaviour.

71
Benefits to Fewer Teacher-directed Behaviours
  • Students are more empowered to make choices.
  • Saves time which can be spent on learning other
    skills.
  • Creates a positive learning environment.

72
A Gentler Society
  • Eventually, all of these student and teacher
    outcomes lead to a gentler society.

73
Change in Teachers Role
  • How does the teachers role change when students
    become involved in problem solving?

74
Change in Teachers Role
  • Teacher becomes a facilitator and a motivator.
  • Teacher empowers students.
  • Teacher fosters critical thinking.
  • Self-esteem is built.
  • Student confidence is built.
  • Creativity is encouraged.

75
Problem Solving to Minimise Student Misbehaviour
  • Involving students in examining their behaviour
    with a view to developing mutually-acceptable
    strategies that will alter that behaviour.
  • It requires time to negotiate and agree on
    methods for changing the behaviour.

76
Problem Solving- A step-by-step Approach
  • Step 1
  • Establish a warm and personal
  • relationship with the student and be willing to
    get emotionally involved.

77
Problem Solving Between Teacher and Student
  • Step 2
  • Deal with the specific, current behaviour.
  • - What happened?
  • - What did you do?

78
Problem Solving Between Teacher and Student
  • Step 3
  • Help the student to make a value judgment about
    his behaviour
  • - Is this behaviour helping you?
  • - Is it helping others?

79
Problem Solving Between Teacher and Student
  • Step 4
  • Together, work out a plan for changing the
    behaviour.
  • - What can you do differently?
  • - What do you need me to do?
  • - What do you need other students to do?

80
Problem Solving Between Teacher and Student
  • Step 5
  • Get a commitment from the student to carry out
    the plan
  • - Are you going to do this?

81
Problem Solving Between Teacher and Student
  • Step 6
  • Follow up by checking to see if the plan is
    working
  • Step 7
  • Do not punish the student by being negative and
    do not accept excuses if the inappropriate
    behaviour continues.

82
Problem Solving A Major Method
  • We all do it.
  • However, how systematically are problem-solving
    approaches implemented in classroom management
    plans? In schoolwide management plans?

83
Class Meetings
  • Class meetings allow both teacher and students to
    resolve problems openly.
  • Teachers will need to prepare their students for
    the concept of class meetings.

84
Class Meetings - Rationale
  • The opportunity to discuss things that people
    like that are working well, as well as things
    that need to be changed.

85
Class Meetings - Guidelines
  • Should be held whenever considered necessary.
  • Whether or not there are issues of concern to be
    discussed, hold a class meeting at least once a
    week.

86
Class Meetings - Guidelines
  • Sit in a circle if possible.
  • Problems relating to the whole group will be
    discussed.
  • Problems that concern two or three individuals
    will not be discussed in class meetings.
  • It is the issue that must be addressed, not a
    person.

87
Class Meetings - Guidelines
  • An agenda will be prepared before the meeting.
    Older students could prepare their agenda item
    before hand, and e.g. put it into the designated
    container in between meetings.
  • Students may write their agenda item on the
    chalkboard and sign their name on it.
  • If children cannot write, the can tell the
    teacher the mater they want to discuss.

88
Class Meetings - Guidelines
  • The items will be discussed according to the
    ordering of the agenda.
  • The goal of the meeting is to find a positive
    solution to the problem, so discussions must no
    focus on punishment.

89
Class Meetings - Guidelines
  • If someones behaviour is the topic of
    discussion, the student needs to agree to have
    his or her behaviour discussed.
  • Feedback should be sensitive.

90
Class Meetings - Guidelines
  • The student may choose to leave the room while
    the others strive to come up with ways to help
    the student. The information will then be shared
    with the student.

91
Class Meetings - Guidelines
  • Alternatively, the student may choose to discuss
    the behaviour with the teacher and a small group
    of students.
  • The results of this discussion will be shared
    with the class at the next class meeting.

92
Class Meetings - Guidelines
  • Students responsibilities during the meeting
    include listening to the speaker, not talking
    while someone else is talking, staying on topic
    and contributing ideas.

93
Classroom Meetings
  • How comfortable do you feel about holding
    classroom meetings as a way of addressing
    problems?
  • How must I change my attitude if I am to use a
    classroom meeting approach?
  • What skills must I develop if I use classroom
    meetings?
  • What training must I give my students before I
    start?
  • What support do I need from the principal?

94
Problem Solving A Major Method
  • Problem solving responds to a number of
    socio-emotional needs of students.
  • Problem solving helps remediate a wide range of
    skill deficits experienced by many students who
    consistenly behave unproductively.

95
Other Approaches
  • Self-management
  • Social skills training
  • Contracting
  • Cognitive skills training
  • Conflict resolution programme

96
Self-Management
  • Focus on specific, observable behaviour
  • Focusing on the specific, observable behaviour is
    the first step for systematically altering a
    students behaviour.

97
Self-management
  • Involves assisting a student in establishing a
    system for monitoring and recording his or her
    own behaviour.
  • Creates an internal locus of control for student
    which will become generalised.

98
Self-management
  • E.g. Students who are consistently late, absent
    or uninvolved in activities, talking out of turn,
    making disruptive noises .
  • Teachers role help student accurately describe
    behaviour, work out a plan.

99
Getting Control Of My Behaviour
  • What did I do?
  • What were the circumstances? Where? Who was
    involved?
  • Why did I do what I did?
  • What did I think the payoff to me would be?
  • What happened when I did what I did?

100
Getting Control Of My Behaviour
  • Was the outcome what I expected?
  • Was the outcome positive or negative for others?
    In what way?
  • If the outcome was negative, what can I do in
    future to avoid that outcome and produce a more
    positive outcome?
  • Write some guidelines to guide your future
    actions.

101
Social Skills Training
  • A student who has persistent and serious
    behaviour problems is demonstrating a lack of
    certain social skills.
  • Responses to these students means helping the
    students develop new behaviours to replace the
    old ones.

102
Cognitive Skills Training
  •  Challenge the way students think about problem
    solving.
  • Violence in schools often erupts as impulsive or
    irrational reactions to immediate problems.
  • Teach means-ends thinking, in which students
    learn how to reach a goal by step-by-step
    planning, identifying potential obstacles and
    accepting that problem solving often takes time.

103
Cognitive Skills Training
  •  Teach analytical thinking, in which students
    learn how to weight the appropriate pros and cons
    when deciding whether to carry out an act.
  • Teach alternative solution thinking, in which
    students learn to find new solutions to a
    problem.

104
Cognitive Skills Training
  •  Teach consequential thinking, in which students
    learn to consider different outcomes that might
    result from a given action.

105
Contracting
  • Negotiating a behaviour contract with student.
  • This is about finding a way to help the student
    follow the rules.

106
Conflict Resolution Programme
  • Central themes include cooperatioin,
    communicaton, affirmation and conflict resolution
  • Skills effective communication, mediation
    negotiation, problem solving, active listening
    and critical thinking and competent social
    skills.

107
Conflict Resolution Programmes
  • Learning to Live Together Programmes.
  • The CR skills are applied in the context of
    values and norms such as empathy caring about
    others cooperation respect for human dignity
    and diversity, life and health minimising
    violence and promoting peace

108
Violence in Schools The Crisis
  • Do you need a violence prevention and conflict
    resolution programme?
  • Depends on how much of a problem already exists.

109
Violence in Schools The Crisis
  • The vision? Ensuring that basic safety needs are
    met.
  • Providing a school environment conducive to
    learning and socialisation.

110
Violence in Schools The Crisis
  • Effective prevention is systematic and long term.
  • Cannot be an add-on.
  • Has to be an integral part of the curriculum.

111
Violence in Schools The Crisis
  • Teachers establish the first line of schools
    safety.
  • They should be supported in creating safe
    classroom atmospheres.
  • Schools should provide training and technical
    assistance to teachers and staff in the following
    areas

112
Violence in Schools Training and Technical
Assistance
  • Conflict prevention, management and resolution.
  • Anger management.
  • Victim support.
  • Crisis/critical incident management.
  • Bullying, harassment recognition, prevention and
    intervention

113
Violence in Schools Training and Technical
Assistance
  • Who should, how to, and where to refer students
    and families to social service agencies.
  • Classroom management.
  • How to identify and defuse potentially violent
    situations.

114
Violence in Schools Training and Technical
Assistance
  • How teachers and other staff members own
    behaviour may diffuse or escalate conflict.
  • How to identify troubled students.
  • How to communicate and work with
    parents/guardians in order to intervene in the
    behaviour of troubled students.

115
Violence in Schools The Role of Students
  • The majority of students recognise they share in
    the responsibility to prevent school violence.
    (?)
  • They suffer the consequences.
  • They provide an essential perspective on how to
    promote school safety.

116
Violence in Schools The Role of Students
  • Therefore, students should be included in al
    efforts to create safer schools.

117
Violence in Schools The Role of Students
  • They can participate in ongoing activities that
    promote school safety
  • Conflict resolution
  • Problem solving teams
  • Mentoring programmes
  • Student courts
  • Community service
  • Peer mediation

118
Policies Promoting Positive Student Management
  • It is the teachers responsibility to prevent and
    effectively deal with minor misbehaviour in the
    classroom.

119
Policies Promoting Positive Student Management
  • It is students responsibility to know that even
    though they have a right to express concern if
    they feel their personal learning needs are not
    being met, they will not be allowed to disrupt
    the learning process.

120
Goals of School Discipline
  • Two main goals
  • To ensure the safety of staff and students.
  • To create an environment conducive to learning.

121
Characteristics Associated with Discipline
Problems
  • Unclear rules
  • Rules that are perceived to be unfair
  • Rules that are not enforced consistently.
  • Students do not believe in rules.
  • Teachers and administrators do not agree on the
    proper responses to student misconduct.

122
Characteristics Associated with Discipline
Problems
  • Teacher-administration relationship is poor.
  • Administration is inactive.
  • Misconduct is ignored.
  • Large school.
  • School lacks adequate resources for teaching.

123
Effective School Discipline
  • Effective school discipline strategies seek to
  • Discourage misconduct
  • Encourage responsible behaviour
  • Provide all students with a satisfying school
    experience.

124
Effective Discipline Common Characteristics
  • Discipline is developmental.
  • High expectations for students a belief that
    students can succeed a commitment to expend high
    amounts of energy to achieve that goal.
  • A student-centred orientation.

125
Effective Discipline Common Characteristics
  • A focus on the causes of discipline problems
    rather than on the symptoms.
  • An emphasis on preventive measures rather than
    punitive measures.
  • A total school environment conducive to school
    discipline.

126
Effective Discipline Common Characteristics
  • Clear and broad-based rules.
  • Warm school climate.
  • A visible, supportive principal.
  • Delegation of discipline authority to teachers.
  • Staff development on discipline philosophy and
    practice.

127
Effective Discipline Common Characteristics
  • Close ties with parents and communities.
  • An openness to critical review.

128
What Makes a Discipline Policy Effective?
  • There is no single solution to discipline
    problems.
  • But, some broad-based considerations can be borne
    in mind when developing and reviewing discipline
    policies.

129
Need To Be Innovative
  • Even in orderly schools, discipline problems
    still arise.
  • In schools that are fraught with disorder and
    danger, schools have to search for innovative
    measures to address the problems.

130
What Makes a Discipline Policy Effective?
  • Involvement.
  • Statement of purposes and goals of discipline.
  • Flexibility.
  • Communication.
  • Consistent enforcement.
  • A feedback system.

131
Some Considerations For Those Developing Policy
  • Will policies work long term as well as solve the
    short-term problems?
  • Do policies deal with symptoms or with root
    causes?
  • Are policies developed through a deliberative
    process?

132
Some Considerations For Those Developing Policy
  • Will policies teach students to be responsible?
  • Is character development the ultimate goal of
    discipline?
  • Do policies dignify or humiliate staff and
    students?
  • Do policies ensure that all students are treated
    with respect?

133
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • The instructional programme.
  • The physical environment.
  • The psychological climate.
  • Guidance and counselling services.
  • Extra-curricular and social activities.
  • Home-school connections.
  • Alternatives to punishment.
  • Elimination of corporal punishment.
  • Aggression replacement training.
  • Dealing with violence.

134
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • The instructional programme
  • When students are learning, they are likely to be
    orderly.
  • Order by itself will not produce learning.
  • Students come to school to learn.
  • Curriculum goals must be achievable by students.

135
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • The instructional programme
  • If students cannot achieve, they will direct
    their energies elsewhere.
  • Often, this manifests itself in inappropriate
    behaviour.
  • So, curriculum and instruction can actually be a
    cause of discipline problems.
  • Trying to get order where there are instructional
    weaknesses is a losing proposition.

136
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • The Physical Environment
  • Clean and comfortable is good.
  • Schools should also be safe for students and
    staff.
  • Every effort should be made to protect students
    and staff from violence.
  • Criminal acts should not be tolerated and schools
    should develop policies for dealing with them.

137
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • The Psychological Environment
  • Schools should provide a psychologically safe
    climate.
  • Many discipline problems are faced by the way we
    treat students. S
  • Some school policies and classroom practices also
    cause problems.
  • These in turn make keeping order difficult.

138
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • The Psychological Environment
  • When administration and staff are engaged in
    practising a way of life that promotes
    discipline, self-control and values, a much more
    positive psychological climate will prevail.
  • Students are much more likely to behave if they
    feel valued, are encouraged to achieve and are
    given opportunities for participation in school
    activities.

139
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • Guidance and Counselling Services
  • Counselling provides help with personal
    problems, self-esteem development and social
    skills training.

140
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • Extra-curricular and social activities
  • Discipline in schools can be improved by
    involving students in extra-curricular activities
    and school-sponsored social events.

141
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • Extra-curricular and social activities
  • Many of the personal and general pro-social
    skills that students need for positive
    interpersonal relationships can be acquired
    through involvement in social activities with
    peers, teachers and parents.
  • Students will have fun, develop friendships,
    achieve goals and improve their self-esteem.

142
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • Home-school Connections
  • Seek as much parental involvement as possible.
  • Seek and promote innovative ways to increase the
    extent to which students and parents/guardians
    connect with the school.

143
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • Home-school Connections
  • School/class newsletters.
  • Classroom activities.
  • Opportunities for participating in clubs
  • Use parents as mentors, guest speakers.
  • Create a parent lounge
  • Have parenting classes.

144
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • Home-school Connections
  • Parents, an essential plan of school violence
    prevention.
  • They can help with the design of safety plans.
  • Information and training sessions can be provided
    on school safety policies and programmes.

145
Variables Impacting on Developing a Schoolwide
Discipline Policy
  • Remember, consideration will also have to be
    given to
  • Alternatives to suspensions.
  • Elimination of corporal punishment.
  • Aggression replacement training.
  • Dealing with violence.

146
Remember- Variables Impacting on Developing a
Schoolwide Discipline Policy
  • The instructional programme.
  • The physical environment.
  • The psychological climate.
  • Guidance and counselling services.
  • Extra-curricular and social activities.
  • Home-school connections.
  • Alternatives to punishment.
  • Elimination of corporal punishment.
  • Aggression replacement training.
  • Dealing with violence.

147
Organisational Development Approach
  • School teams to carry out improvement projects.
  • Curriculum and discipline policy review and
    revision.
  • Academic innovations.
  • Climate innovations.
  • Career-oriented innovations.
  • Special services.
  • Strong/effective school board.

148
Support of Schoolwide System
  • Teachers need the support of a schoolwide system
    that provides interventions for students who
    continue to disrupt classes when teachers have
    instructed responsibly and managed the class.

149
Summary. A Framework, Four core areas that can
make a Difference
  • A classroom in which all students are accepted by
    the teacher and their peers.
  • A classroom in which classroom rules and
    procedures have been carefully taught and
    consistently monitored.
  • A classroom where students are involved in
    interesting work at which they can succeed.
  • A classroom where problem solving is taught and
    used consistently.
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