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Georgia Habitats

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Georgia Habitats Piedmont Marsh/Swamp Atlantic Ocean Mountains Coast Coastal Animals The Brown Thrasher (Georgia state bird) can be seen throughout Georgia, but is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Georgia Habitats


1
Georgia Habitats
Piedmont
Marsh/Swamp
Atlantic Ocean
Mountains
Coast
2
Georgia Habitats
  • The information on this slideshow will allow
    students to
  • Differentiate among the habitats of Georgia and
    the organisms that live in each one
  • Identify features of animals that grow and thrive
    in each region
  • Identify features of plants that grow and thrive
    in each region

3
Piedmont
  •   The piedmont is an area of rolling hills.
    Piedmont means foot of the mountain. The
    piedmont has forests, lakes and rivers. Red clay
    gives the ground its color. It is located
    between the coastal plain and the mountains in
    the northern half of Georgia.

4
Animals of the Piedmont
  • Raccoons can be found all over Georgia! When
    people move in, habitats become smaller or
    disappear. Raccoons have adapted to their
    environment. They eat fruit, acorns, insects and
    vegetables. They will also forage through
    peoples garbage cans.

5
Animals of the Piedmont
  • The Great Horned Owl is the largest owl of the
    southern United States. Its "horns" are really
    ear tufts. It lives in wooded areas. It hunts
    during the night and eats rabbits, rodents,
    birds, fish and insects.

6
Animals of the Piedmont
  • The Timber Rattlesnake lives in forests. It
    eats rodents, rabbits, squirrels, birds, other
    snakes, lizards and frogs. Predators are bobcats,
    coyotes and skunks.

7
Animals of the Piedmont
  • The White-tailed Deer is found in all
    habitats, from high mountain forests to coastal
    marshes. It is mainly found in areas which have a
    mix of forest, old fields and active crop lands.
    The White-tailed Deer eats leaves, buds, twigs,
    acorns, fruits and mushrooms.

8
Animals of the Piedmont
  • The Opossum is nocturnal (actively looking for
    food at night). The species is omnivorous (eating
    both plants and animals). Its diet includes
    fruits, berries, insects, crayfish, small
    rodents, carrion (dead animal flesh) and even
    human garbage.

9
Plants of the Piedmont
  • With the arrival of European settlers,
    agriculture expanded quickly, with forests being
    cleared and cotton being grown in almost any
    place that was flat enough to plow. This exposed
    the land to erosion and leaching of nutrients,
    causing the valuable topsoil to wash away and
    leave the famous Georgia Red Clay. 

10
Plants of the Piedmont
  • Pine trees are the first to come back when a
    field is abandoned because they are tolerant of
    sunlight and dry conditions. Forestry became the
    main form of agriculture instead of cotton
    farming.

11
Plants of the Piedmont
  • Two other types of trees that populate this
    area are the live oak (Georgia state tree) and
    hickory tree.

12
Plants of the Piedmont
  • Kudzu was brought to the United States from
    Japan and was planted to help with soil erosion.

13
Marsh/Swamp
  • The Okefenokee Swamp is in southern Georgia and
    extends all the way to the Georgia-Florida state
    line. Few places in America can offer as varied
    and extensive wildlife as this southeastern
    swamp. Much of the wildlife is protected by law.

14
Marsh/Swamp
  • The Okefenokee Swamp is a true wildlife
    refuge. It is covered with peat (decaying
    plants). The peat is so thick in some areas that
    you can walk on top of it when you are in the
    water.

15
Marsh/Swamp Animals
  • The cottonmouth water moccasin is the only
    North American poisonous water snake! It is a pit
    viper in
  • the same family as the copperhead and the
    rattler. This is a dangerous snake which will
    fight when attacked or even approach an intruder.

16
Marsh/Swamp Animals
  • Alligators are the largest reptiles in North
    America. Alligators are carnivorous. They like
    shallow fresh water with mud or sandy banks. When
    they are not hunting they like to take sun baths.

17
Marsh/Swamp Animals
  • The otter is a very smart, curious and playful
    animal.  It loves to make slides on river banks.
    It eats fish, crabs and small reptiles.
    Alligators are their only predator in the swamp.

18
Marsh/Swamp Animals
  • The Green Tree Frog (Georgia state amphibian)
    is nocturnal and may gather in large numbers at
    night to call. It eats small insects and other
    invertebrates. It can be found among floating
    plants or in the vegetation around the water.

19
Marsh/Swamp Animals
  • The Sandhill Crane is a large bird between 4-5
    feet in height. They nest in fairly open places
    where trees do not block their vision. When
    frightened or sensing danger, a crane sounds its
    alarm cry that can be heard for miles. Their
    nickname is the "watchmen of the swamp."

20
Marsh/Swamp Animals
  • At one time the osprey nest served as guide
    post to the local natives penetrating the
    unchartered interior. A pair will build their
    nest, usually in a high tree near a prairie and
    this area for a couple of miles in all
    directions will become their domain.

21
Marsh/Swamp Plants
  • The ecosystem of the swamp is fire dependent.
    Fires generally burn lightly due to the wet
    nature of the swamp. Cypress trees need
    occasional fires to survive.

22
Marsh/Swamp Plants
  • Some of the swamp is a prairie and covered
    with grass, moss and ferns. The Okefenokee has
    meat-eating plants which lure, trap and digest
    small animals. This specialization gives them the
    advantage of living in impoverished areas with
    little crowding from other plants.

Bladderwort
Golden trumpet
23
Mountains
  • Georgia's mountains are much older than the
    Rockies or even the Himalayas. The base of the
    Blue Ridge formed over a billion years ago, but
    the bulk of our mountains were created from
    oceanic sediments between 200 and 450 million
    years ago. The mountains cover the northern part
    of Georgia.

24
Mountain Animals
  • Largemouth Bass (Georgia state fish) are
    freshwater fish and generally inhabit clear,
    vegetated lakes, ponds and swamps. They prefer
    quiet, clear water and often hide in dense
    vegetation
  • along the edges of a water body. Largemouth
    bass eat crayfish, frogs, insects and small
    fishes.

25
Mountain Animals
  • Bats are a valuable and fascinating part of
    Georgias natural heritage. 
  • They provide a beneficial service by foraging
    on flying insects, many of which are pests.  A
    single bat can eat hundreds of mosquitoes in one
    hour!
  •   The large number of caves formed in this area
    are an ideal habitat for bats.

26
Mountain Animals
  • The cardinal is a bird that lives in wooded
    areas. Cardinals like to eat seeds, fruits and
    insects. The male bird is red with a black face.
    The female has a red tail, wings and crest the
    rest of her body is brown. Both have a red beak.
    It does not migrate in the winter.

27
Mountain Animals
  • The Black Bear is the smallest of the American
    bears but it is the largest carnivore in eastern
    North America. It has a large heavy body with
    long legs, flat feet, stout claws and a very
    short tail. The Black Bear is nocturnal in the
    summer. It is an omnivore. It can also be found
    in the Okefenokee Swamp.   
  •  

28
Mountain Plants
  •    The Georgia mountains provide a lush, thick
    area for a variety of plant life to grow. This
    mountain range originally formed by pressure,
    heat and water. It has been eroding for the past
    400 million years. The resulting rounded mountain
    range has formed rich forest soils which support
    the most diverse plant life in the State. The
    types of plants growing depend on the elevation.

29
Mountain Plants
  •    Two of the state flowers are found in the
    mountain area. Azaleas (Georgia state wildflower)
    can be found covering much of our state. An
    interesting thing about these lovely flowers is
    that they are actually mildly poisonous! When
    these flowers are eaten by animals, they can
    cause stomach and heart problems.
  •  

30
Mountain Plants
  •    The Cherokee Rose (Georgia state flower) is
    also found in this area. Native American folklore
    says the flowers are a result of the tears shed
    during the Trail of Tears. Trees and bushes
    bearing fruit are also located in the mountains.

31
Coast
  •    Georgia's coast is made up of sandy beaches
    and barrier islands. The coastline of Georgia is
    almost 110 miles long. The Coastal Plain is part
    of a low land that extends around the coast of
    the eastern United States from New York to Texas.
    In Georgia, a chain of low islands called the Sea
    Islands lies just off the mainland.

32
Coastal Animals
  •    Sea Gulls are large birds and are usually grey
    or white with black markings on the head or
    wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed
    feet.They are ground nesting carnivores. They eat
    crabs and small fish.

33
Coastal Animals
  •    Ghost crabs live in burrows along the sandy
    beaches of the Eastern United States. The crabs
    can reach relatively large sizes of over 6
    inches. They are omnivorous and will eat other
    crabs, clams, insects and vegetation. Feeding
    activity takes place at night, while burrowing
    occurs during the day.

34
Coastal Animals
  •    The Brown Thrasher (Georgia state bird) can be
    seen throughout Georgia, but is most common in
    the southern and central portions of the state.
    It eats a variety of food including insects,
    invertebrates, small vertebrates, fruits and
    nuts.    

35
Coastal Plants
  •    The forests of Georgia's islands often are
    more extensive and better developed than those of
    other U.S. barrier islands. Canopies of Georgia's
    mature maritime forest
  • are dominated by Spanish moss and live oaks.
       

36
Coastal Plants
  •    Other large canopy trees include southern
    magnolias, pines and cabbage palms. Smaller trees
    include the American holly and morning glory. On
    the beaches of the coast, sea oats grow on the
    dunes and help prevent erosion.     

37
Atlantic Ocean
  • The Atlantic Ocean is made of saltwater. The
    Atlantic Ocean near Georgia is warmer than most
    oceans in the world. Georgia's offshore waters
    lie along the migratory route for several species
    of marine
  •  animals that are unique and play important
    environmental roles.

38
Animals of the Ocean
  • The sand tiger shark is very large and has a
    mouthful of sharp, spike-like teeth. It can eat
    just about anything it wants and swallow it
    whole. It doesn't attack humans. It is the only
    shark that controls how it floats in the water by
    burping!

39
Animals of the Ocean
  • After baby loggerhead turtles hatch, they
    immediately make their way to the sea. The only
    time a female loggerhead comes ashore is to nest.
    She will crawl up a beach at night, dig a pit in
    the sand with her hind flippers, and lay between
    80 and 120 eggs in the nest. Many of the eggs
    will be eaten or stolen by predators. After 50
    to 80 days, a few tiny hatchlings will struggle
    out of their eggs.

40
Animals of the Ocean
  • Right whales (Georgia state marine mammal) can
    grow up to 60 feet long and weigh up to 100 tons.
    Whalers thought the whales were the "right" ones
    to hunt since they float when killed. Over
    hunting caused their numbers to decrease. Today,
    the right whale is endangered. There are only
    350 left, so instead of hunting them, people
    often watch these acrobatic whales for pleasure.

41
Animals of the Ocean
  • Many types of fish live in the Atlantic Ocean
    off the coast of Georgia. Black sea bass,
    grouper, snapper, bluefish, tuna, amberjack,
    barracuda, sailfish, barracuda and mackerel are
    just some of the fish common to the area. Georgia
    has built a number of artificial reefs to attract
    fish and other sea life.

42
Plants of the Ocean
  • Gray's Reef contains both plant and animal
    life. The rock that forms the reef is mostly
    sandstone and limestone that was formed between
    two and five million years ago! Gray's Reef
    provides a home and foundation for hundreds of
    different species of plants and animals. Seaweed,
    algae and seagrass thrive on Gray's Reef.
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