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Community Based Monitoring Systems: A Pilot Implementation in Pakistan

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Title: Community Based Monitoring Systems: A Pilot Implementation in Pakistan


1
Community Based Monitoring Systems A Pilot
Implementation in Pakistan
  • Durre Nayab
  • Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
  • Islamabad

2
Scheme of Presentation
  • A snapshot of the state of poverty in Pakistan
    and the existing monitoring systems
  • Rationale for having CBMS in the country and
    means to institutionalise it
  • Piloting of CBMS- sites, indicators, field
    methods and survey tools used

3
Poverty in Pakistan
  • Current monitoring system
  • Mainly Household Income and Expenditure Survey
    (HIES)/Pakistan Integrated Household Survey
    (PIHS) are used to gauge the poverty levels. An
    official poverty line is calculated based on the
    caloric intake per adult per day, which for rural
    areas is 2450 calories/adult/day and 2150 for the
    urban areas. In monetary terms it is equivalent
    to Rs. 848 per capita per month, as calculated in
    June 2004.

4
Trends in Poverty
5
Poverty Spectrum
6
Rationale for CBMS and its Institutionalisation
in Pakistan
  • Most of the available data in the country is
    on the national, provincial or district level.
  • Collection of local level and disaggregated
    information for policy planning and
    implementation is the prime motivation behind
    implementing CBMS at the lowest level

7
Administrative Structure of Pakistan
8
Institutionalisation of CBMS
  • Under the 2002 Local Government Ordinance powers
    were devolved to lower administrative levels.
  • Neighbourhood/village councils are to be formed
    in urban and rural areas under this plan.
  • Collection of statistics on socio-economic
    indicators is among the prescribed duties of
    these councils.
  • Compilation and consolidation of this data is
    done by National Reconstruction Bureau (NRB)
    through National Reconstruction Information
    Management Systems (NARIMS).

9
CBMS-NRB/NARIMS A Symbiotic Relation
  • CBMS needs means to sustain and
    institutionalise the system once the pilot phase
    is over, and NRB/NARIMS could provide this
    support.
  • NRB/NARIMS by including the indicators at the
    household level, as suggested by the CBMS, could
    become a more comprehensive and useful database

10
CBMS-NRB/NARIMS Partnership
  • Facilitate policy planning and budget allocations
    through reliable and updated data, and aiding in
    prioritisation of problems and improving
    allocative efficiency.
  • Encourage community participation for the
    successful implementation of any programme by
    increasing the capacity of the local community
    for data collection, processing and analysis.
  • Monitor progress on core indicators that impact
    lives of the people.
  • Facilitate the Rural Support Programs (RSPs)
    reach the ones needing help the most.
  • Collection of data for research purposes at the
    smallest level in the country

11
CBMS Piloting Locales
12
Indicators at the Household Level-I
  • 1. Age and sex composition
  • 2. Marital status
  • 3. Education
  • Primary enrolment rate
  • Secondary enrolment rate
  • Basic literacy
  • Vocational training 
  • 4. Employment and income
  • Employment. Unemployment Underemployment
    Households above poverty line 
  • 5. Health
  • Infant mortality
  • Child mortality
  • General state of health
  • Number of births attended by trained
    professionals Child immunisation
  • Coverage of antenatal care 
  • Coverage of post-natal
  • care
  • Contraceptive prevalence rate
  • 6. Nutrition
  • Prevalence of malnutrition 
  • Childhood anthropometric measures

13
Indicators at the Household Level-II
  • 7. Peace and Order
  • Crime incidence
  • Action by law enforcing agencies against
    reported crimes 
  • 8. Housing and sanitation Type of house
    ownership. Type of house construction Percentage
    of households having access to toilets Percentage
    of households having access to sewerage facility.
  • Garbage collection method from households 
  • 9. Political participation
  • Number of eligible and registered voters and
    those actually voting
  • Presence and participation of/in village
    organisation
  • Accessibility of public representatives 

14
Indicators at the Village Level
  • Educational facilities, including primary,
    middle, secondary, and post-secondary educational
    facilities.
  • Health facilities
  • Available services, e.g., police station, post
    office, bank, transport facilities, gas,
    electricity, telephone, etc.,
  • Road network available to the community
  • Water supply facility
  • Garbage and waste disposal
  • Incidence and type of crimes committed
  • Presence of village organisations and their
    functions

15
Survey Tools
  • Three questionnaires have been designed for the
    pilot phase
  • Male
  • Female
  • Community

16
Selection of Field Enumerators
  • The PIDE team is supervising the pilot phase but
    local monitoring teams have also been constituted
    to keep a watch on the progress of the survey.
  • The selected local enumerators include
  • Members of local health and education
    departments, mainly teachers
  • Local youth, with minimum qualification of BA

17
Sustainability of CBMS
  • Closer liaison between administration and
    community is the first pre-requisite for
    sustaining the System.
  • Incorporation of the CBMS with the NRB-NARIMS
    design is a positive sign for the sustainability
    of CBMS after the pilot phase.

18
  • Thank you

19
CBMS Observatory Villages
  • Toba Tek Singh District- UC 42
  • 285 GB
  • 286 GB
  • Rawalpindi District- Dhamial UC
  • Mohra Barian
  • Mohra Chhapar
  • Mohri Ghazan
  • Jorian
  • Dhamial
  • Kotha Khurd
  • Mohra Faqiran
  • Banda Nagial
  • Dhok Abdullah
  • Hayal Dhamial
  • Ranial

20
Trends in Food Poverty
21
Population of Dhamial UC
22
Age structure of Dhamial UC
23
Literacy Status of Dhamial UC
24
Housing Type and Facilities in Dhamial UC
25
Functions of Village Councils
  • To consolidate and prioritise village development
    needs and make recommendations to the district
    government.
  • To register births, deaths and marriages, and
    issue certificates.
  • To disseminate information on matters of public
    interest.
  • To provide and maintain public sources of
    drinking water, including wells, water pumps,
    tanks, ponds and other works for the supply of
    water.
  • To cooperate with the public, private or
    voluntary organisations engaged in similar
    activities.
  • To assist the village/neighbourhood councils in
    the union to execute development projects.
  • To collect and maintain statistical information
    for socio-economic indicators

26
Poverty and Head of Household
27
Poverty Transition between 1998-99 to 2000-01
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