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Pro poor Solid Waste Managment in Pakistan- Saadullah Ayaz


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Title: Pro poor Solid Waste Managment in Pakistan- Saadullah Ayaz

Pro-poor and Sustainable Solid Waste Management
for Secondary Cities and Small Towns
Saadullah Ayaz IUCN Pakistan
Saadullah Ayaz Coordinator Climate Change/ Clean
Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN
Pakistan Email
Solid Waste Management Situation main
challenges in urban areas of Pakistan?

Solid Waste generation in Pak (Source Ministry
of Environment 2004) Total Production 20.024
million tones/ year or 59 thousand tones/
day (approx) (discluding 3 hazardous
waste) Per capita 0.61 kg/ day (average
for cities) 0.23 kg/capita/day (avg. sub-
urban and rural areas) Growth rate
2.4 per year (approx)
Waste composition ( weight) (sample 6 cities
Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore, Peshawar,
Quetta) (Source Ministry of Environment 2004)
  • Type of Solid waste Percentage by weight
  • Food waste (kitchen garbage, vegetables, fruits)
  • Yard waste (braches/ twigs, leaves/ grass) 17.1
  • Animal waste 9.1
  • Soil/ rubble 9.2
  • Textile based material 7.4
  • Plastics (all types) 7.1
  • Glass 6.27
  • Paper 6.0
  • Rubber (tyres, gaskets, old footwear) 5.3
  • Wood (lumber, wood products/ residue) 3.2
  • Hospital waste 2.1
  • Ferrous metal (iron, steel, tins) 1.8
  • Non- ferrous metal (aluminum, copper, brass,
    lead) lt 1
  • Bones and ash lt1
  • Ceramics lt1
  • Other waste lt1

  • Methods for Disposal
  • Average taken of five cities
  • Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi/
    Islamabad and Peshawar
  • (Source Ministry of Environment 2004)
  • Practice Percentage by weight
  • MSW brought to designated dumping site 28.6
  • Garbage thrown in open spaces 27.8
  • Dumped in or near water bodies/ drainage 16.3
  • Rubbish burned in the open 10.4
  • Collected recyclables 7.23
  • Composting (formal and informal) 5. 21

Recycling Situation/ Industry
  • - Almost 20-30 percent of solid waste in
    Pakistan is recycled
  • - Recycling is done informally and not regulated
    anywhere in Pakistan no basic recycling rules
  • - Mostly done by scavengers, who sell these
    recyclables of scrap merchants
  • - No formal recycling industry exists, these
    material are recycled as additional raw material
    by production industry (small industry)
  • - Major recycled items include paper, plastic,
    glass, metal (iron, aluminum, lead)
  • - Rubber/ tyres are used as additive fuel in
    brick kiln industry

Government of Pakistan Policies and Programmes
on Solid Waste Management
  • National Environmental Policy, Gov. of Pakistan
    (2005) Clause 3.3 states solid waste may be
    prevented and reduced) and proposes
  • a. Strict enforcement of National Environmental
    Quality Standards and Monitoring and Reporting
  • g. Encourage reduction, recycling and reusing
    of Municipal Solid Waste,
  • i. Develop and enforce rules and regulations for
    proper management of municipal, hazardous and
    hospital waste,
  • Programme Ministry of Health, Gov. of Pakistan
    launched a waste management plan (May 2009) for
    hospital waste in all provinces of Pakistan with
    cost of PKR. 1.6 Billion

CDM project in in Pakistan (SWM) (only One)
  • Composting of Organic Content of Municipal Solid
    Waste in
  • Lahore, Pakistan
  • Methodology Approved baseline and monitoring
    methodology AM0025 version 9. Titled Avoided
    emissions from organic waste through
    alternative waste treatment processes
  • Objectives
  • - Produce organic fertilizer from solid municipal
    organic waste through state of the art aerobic
    windrow type composting technology.
  • - To help in achieving the objectives of
    combating climate change under UNFCCC by reducing
    significant amount of greenhouse gas (Methane)
    emissions and contributes to the regional and
    national sustainable development.

  • Host Country Approval August 2008
  • Project Owner Lahore Compost (Pvt) Limited
  • Project Sponsors Lahore Compost (Pvt) Limited
  • IBRD as trustee of the Danish Carbon Fund
  • Saif Holdings Limited
  • Cost US 5.5 million
  • Emission reduction 7844 tones CO2 eqv./ year
  • Carbon buyers Open market Danish Carbon Fund
    World Bank
  • Current status under registration with UNFCCC,
    Executive Board

  • Sustainability/ Social benefits of the project
  • - Reduce GHG emissions
  • - Production of cheap organic fertilizer
    agriculture development
  • - Transfer of modern technology (state of art
    Menart technology)
  • - Increases skilled labor opportunities (about 80
    full-time jobs)
  • - Improving the environment quality of Lahore city

Examples of innovative approaches in SWM
  • Pilot on Participatory Solid Waste Management
    under Project Building Coalitions for Change to
    Implement Pro-Poor Environmental Fiscal Reforms
    (EFR) (IUCN 2009)
  • Target area Nawanshehr town, district
  • Objective Development and operationalization of
    a Participatory Solid Waste Management System
    for Pro- poor Fiscal Reforms
  • Components
  • i. Social Mobilization dialogue with
    community groups, youth associations,
    shopkeepers, school children and women
    folks,Operationalization of a Youth Forum
  • Citizens seminar, targeted meetings, door
    to door campaign, distribution of awareness
    raising material

  • Social Organization
  • 62 community activists (male and female)
    involved, trained in PSWM
  • Environmental Committees in 7 hamlets
    constituted (headed by lane manger and supported
    by community activists)
  • Trainings imparted on waste collection/
    disposal, collectables/ recyclables, compositing/
    kitchen gardening, route planning for waste
    collection, dumping after 24 hrs.
  • Improved measures for primary collection
  • 9 beads developed (comprising of 100- 120
  • Privately hired community waste collectors in 9
  • Improved outturn/ equipment of waste collectors
    (including safety gear)
  • practice of dumping after 24 hrs.

  • iv. Improved secondary collection system
  • Route planning for collection, preparation of
    area maps
  • Improved tools/ equipment
  • Modern properly designated permanent waste
    dumping sites (09)
  • Improvisation of waste dumping trolley for
    efficiency (hydraulic system)
  • v. Introduction of Pro- Poor Fiscal Instruments
    in SWM
  • Revenue generation from recyclables in 7 schools
  • Community hired waste collector (paid through
  • Composting practice/ kitchen gardening (total
  • Regulation of waste merchants (18 Nos.) tax
    being paid to local administration

Mobilization through Seminars
Training Community activists
School children in collection of recyclables
Kitchen gardening (from Compost)
Improved door- to door collection, improved
tools and turn out of sanitary workers
New concreted collection points
New hydraulic dumping trolley