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Egyptian Timeline

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Egyptian Timeline Old Kingdom (2700-2150) Hieroglyphics and religion develop in Egypt pyramids built Middle Kingdom (2040-1786) extension of Egyptian control into Nubia – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Egyptian Timeline


1
Egyptian Timeline
  • Old Kingdom (2700-2150)
  • Hieroglyphics and religion develop in Egypt
  • pyramids built
  • Middle Kingdom (2040-1786)
  • extension of Egyptian control into Nubia
  • New Kingdom (1570-1075)
  • militaristic - Hebrews enslaved
  • mummification perfected

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I. Geography
  • River dominates Egyptian world/thought
  • Surrounded by desert with occasional oasis
  • Permits some trade
  • Defense from invasion
  • Contributes to feeling of safety
  • preserves artifacts

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Egypt is the gift of the Nile -Herodotus
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I. The Nile
  • yearly flooding - no concern for soil depletion
  • Predictable
  • Irrigation systems
  • Encourages
  • Trade
  • Communication
  • Political unity

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I. The Nile
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I. The Nile
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I. The Nile
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I. The Nile
  • Impact on religion
  • divided life - living and dying.
  • East (sunrise) is land of the living - cities,
    temples
  • West (sunset) is land of the dead - tombs

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II. Religion
  • Omnipresence of religion
  • Polytheistic
  • interaction with the natural environment shows
    interrelated gods and goddesses yearly rebirth of
    Nile and daily rebirth of sun
  • over 2000 gods
  • Pharaoh as living god
  • Afterlife
  • Evolution of who has an afterlife
  • Old vs. New Kingdom

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II. Osiris
  • God of the Dead - rebirth - and the weighing of
    the heart
  • Evolution of Egyptian mythology
  • known as a ruler in the Nile delta -
  • a local god
  • regional god.

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II. Horus
  • Horus, god of balance and harmony
  • maintained the natural order the flow of the
    Nile and the fertility of the soil.

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II. Early Pyramids
Zozers stepped pyramid - similar to Babylonian
ziggurats
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Why build Pyramids?
  • Belief in the afterlife demanded
  • Bodies be interred whole
  • Material goods for use in afterlife be present
  • The need to protect the bodies demands good
    burial tombs
  • First were mastabas
  • Then pyramids
  • Then later hidden tombs

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Mastaba
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II. Great Pyramid
  • Tomb for Khufu
  • an almost perfect square (deviation .05)
  • Orientation is exactly North, South, East West
  • 2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high
  • 20 years to build
  • Average block weighs 2.5 tons
  • Some weigh 9 tons!

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Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu
Queen Pyramids in front
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III. The Pharaoh
  • God-King - unlike Mesopotamia
  • Temporal power
  • owns all the land and people and what people
    posses
  • law vs. Pharaoh's will
  • irrigation
  • no city walls

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III. The Pharaoh
  • God-King - unlike Mesopotamia
  • Religious
  • direct descendant of the Sun god
  • controls access to the afterlife
  • July-Sept, during floods life is controlled by
    the Pharaoh
  • 365 day calendar.

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III. Role played by size in Egyptian Artwork
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IV. Daily Life in Egypt
  • Cosmetics, cleanliness (bathe 3 times a day),
    shaved bodies, wigs
  • main food is beer and bread
  • Grow many crops emmer, barley, flax, lentils,
    onion, beans, and millet
  • common building made of sun-dried mud bricks - up
    to three stories in height
  • Four social classes - slaves on the bottom
  • Most common job farming

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IV. Farmers in Egypt
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IV. Hieroglyphics
  • Language is written without vowels
  • Different pronunciations
  • MNFR as Memphis
  • SR as Osiris
  • TTMS as either Thutmose, Thutmosis, Tatmusa or
    Atithmese
  • Who learns this writing style?

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IV. Hieroglyphics
  • Use in temples
  • Rosetta Stone
  • Napoleon and Egyptology.

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IV. Egyptian Artwork
Stela (carved stone)
Egyptian Farmers animals
Notice, all people drawn from the side even
when looking right at you!
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V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE
  • End of civil wars, farming and trade return
  • move capital south to Upper Egypt (Thebes)
  • public improvements
  • drain swamps, canal to Red Sea
  • belief in afterlife expands to include common
    people
  • tombs instead of pyramids
  • better protection for mummies.

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V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE
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VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE
  • Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and
    reunited Egypt
  • Known as the Empire period
  • development of public and private zones at
    temples.

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Ahmose I leading Egyptians against the Hyksos
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VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE
  • Characterized by a more militaristic and
    imperialistic nature
  • incorporated chariot, bronze working, horses
  • development of a professional army
  • became a slave based economy fueled by war and
    expansion

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VI. Threats to Tradition
  • Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347 B.C.) introduced the
    worship of Aton, god of the sun disk, as the
    chief god and pursued his worship with
    enthusiasm.
  • Changed name to Akhenaten (It is well with
    Aton)
  • He closed the temples of other gods and
    especially endeavored to lessen the power of
    Amon-Re and his priesthood at Thebes.

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VI. Threats to Tradition1355-1335 BCE
  • Nefertiti
  • Wife of Akhenaton the only pharaoh to even
    partially reject polytheism
  • political move against priests of Amon-Re
  • moved capital to Amarna
  • worshipped Aton, the sun disk
  • royal inbreeding.

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VI. Tutankhamen 1335-1325 BCE
  • (King Tut)
  • child ruler
  • ruled nine years, died at 18
  • young death meant burial in the tomb of a lesser
    person (noble) resulting in preservation

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VI. Ramses II (1279-1213)
  • greatest New Kingdom ruler
  • military leader of Egypt
  • expanded into southern Turkey
  • built many monuments to himself
  • last gasp of Egyptian power.

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VI. Ramses II (1279-1213)
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VI. Ramses II (1279-1213)
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