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Egyptian Timeline

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Egyptian Timeline Old Kingdom (2700-2150) Hieroglyphics and religion develop in Egypt pyramids built Middle Kingdom (2040-1786) extension of Egyptian control into Nubia – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Egyptian Timeline


1
Egyptian Timeline
  • Old Kingdom (2700-2150)
  • Hieroglyphics and religion develop in Egypt
  • pyramids built
  • Middle Kingdom (2040-1786)
  • extension of Egyptian control into Nubia
  • New Kingdom (1570-1075)
  • militaristic - Hebrews enslaved
  • mummification perfected

2
Outline
  • Geography
  • Religion
  • Gods
  • Pyramids
  • Mummies
  • Government
  • The Pharaoh
  • Daily Life
  • Middle Kingdom
  • New Kingdom

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Achievements
  • Pyramids
  • There were about 80 along the banks of the Nile
    River.
  • The largest is the Great Pyramid, built by King
    Khufu in about 2600 B.C.
  • It stands about 481 feet high and covers 13
    acres.
  • The pyramids functioned as huge burial tombs for
    the Egyptians dead pharaohs and queens.
  • Ship-building
  • They used the Nile River like a highway to
    transport people and goods to foreign lands.
  • The first ships were made out of bundles of
    papyrus reeds tied together to make a canoe-like
    vessel.
  • As the ship trade flourished, the hulls of the
    ships were made of cedar, and oars and sails were
    added for greater speed.
  • Hieroglyphics
  • These were pictures and symbols that served as
    one of the first written languages in the world.
  • Calendar
  • Calendars were developed in 4241 B.C. with 365
    days in a year.
  • It was based on the flooding of the Nile River.
  • New Years was on June 1, not January 1!

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Vocabulary
  1. cartouche a tablet with a border, used as a
    nameplate
  2. hieroglyphics a sophisticated system of
    pictures and symbols used in ancient Egypt to
    communicate information
  3. Nile River river that runs through Egypt
  4. Ankh a symbol for life after death
  5. pyramids burial place for kings
  6. Pharaoh Ruler of Egypt
  7. necropolis the place of the burial tombs for
    the kings and the wealthy
  8. papyrus type of plant paper was made from

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I. Geography
  • River dominates Egyptian world/thought
  • Surrounded by desert with occasional oasis
  • Permits some trade
  • Defense from invasion
  • Contributes to feeling of safety
  • preserves artifacts

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Egypt is the gift of the Nile -Herodotus
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I. The Nile
  • yearly flooding - no concern for soil depletion
  • Predictable
  • Irrigation systems
  • Encourages
  • Trade
  • Communication
  • Political unity

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I. The Nile
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I. The Nile
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I. The Nile
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I. The Nile
  • Impact on religion
  • divided life - living and dying.
  • East (sunrise) is land of the living - cities,
    temples
  • West (sunset) is land of the dead - tombs

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II. Religion
  • Omnipresence of religion
  • Polytheistic
  • interaction with the natural environment shows
    interrelated gods and goddesses yearly rebirth of
    Nile and daily rebirth of sun
  • over 2000 gods
  • Pharaoh as living god
  • Afterlife
  • Evolution of who has an afterlife
  • Old vs. New Kingdom

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II. Osiris
  • God of the Dead - rebirth - and the weighing of
    the heart
  • Evolution of Egyptian mythology
  • known as a ruler in the Nile delta -
  • a local god
  • regional god.

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II. Horus
  • Horus, god of balance and harmony
  • maintained the natural order the flow of the
    Nile and the fertility of the soil.

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II. Early Pyramids
Zozers stepped pyramid - similar to Babylonian
ziggurats
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Why build Pyramids?
  • Belief in the afterlife demanded
  • Bodies be interred whole
  • Material goods for use in afterlife be present
  • The need to protect the bodies demands good
    burial tombs
  • First were mastabas
  • Then pyramids
  • Then later hidden tombs

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Mastaba
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II. Great Pyramid
  • Tomb for Khufu
  • an almost perfect square (deviation .05)
  • Orientation is exactly North, South, East West
  • 2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high
  • 20 years to build
  • Average block weighs 2.5 tons
  • Some weigh 9 tons!

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Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu
Queen Pyramids in front
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II. Mummies
  • Not known when it started in Egypt
  • Perfected by time of New Kingdom
  • How to make a mummy 70 steps
  • 1) Removal of the brain through the nostrils 2)
    Removal of the intestines through an incision in
    the side 3) Sterilization of the body and
    intestines 4) Treating, cleaning, dehydrating the
    intestines 5) Packing the body with natron (a
    natural dehydrating agent) and leaving for 40
    days 6) Removal of the natron agent 7) Packing
    the limbs with clay or sand 8) Packing the body
    with linen (soaked in resin), myrrh and cinnamon
    9) Treating the body with ointments and finally
    wrapping with a fine linen gauze, not less than
    1000 square yards .

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Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of
heart, stomach, intestines and liver which were
also treated
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Mummy
Inner coffin
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Second inner coffin
Second inner coffin lid
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Funerary Gifts
Gift bearers
Shawabti box
Model boat
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III. The Pharaoh
  • God-King - unlike Mesopotamia
  • Temporal power
  • owns all the land and people and what people
    posses
  • law vs. Pharaoh's will
  • irrigation
  • no city walls

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III. The Pharaoh
  • God-King - unlike Mesopotamia
  • Religious
  • direct descendant of the Sun god
  • controls access to the afterlife
  • July-Sept, during floods life is controlled by
    the Pharaoh
  • 365 day calendar.

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III. Role played by size in Egyptian Artwork
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IV. Daily Life in Egypt
  • Cosmetics, cleanliness (bathe 3 times a day),
    shaved bodies, wigs
  • main food is beer and bread
  • Grow many crops emmer, barley, flax, lentils,
    onion, beans, and millet
  • common building made of sun-dried mud bricks - up
    to three stories in height
  • Four social classes - slaves on the bottom
  • Most common job farming

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IV. Farmers in Egypt
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IV. Hieroglyphics
  • Language is written without vowels
  • Different pronunciations
  • MNFR as Memphis
  • SR as Osiris
  • TTMS as either Thutmose, Thutmosis, Tatmusa or
    Atithmese
  • Who learns this writing style?

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IV. Hieroglyphics
  • Use in temples
  • Rosetta Stone
  • Napoleon and Egyptology.

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IV. Egyptian Artwork
Stela (carved stone)
Egyptian Farmers animals
Notice, all people drawn from the side even
when looking right at you!
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V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE
  • End of civil wars, farming and trade return
  • move capital south to Upper Egypt (Thebes)
  • public improvements
  • drain swamps, canal to Red Sea
  • belief in afterlife expands to include common
    people
  • tombs instead of pyramids
  • better protection for mummies.

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V. Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE
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VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE
  • Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and
    reunited Egypt
  • Known as the Empire period
  • development of public and private zones at
    temples.

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Ahmose I leading Egyptians against the Hyksos
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VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE
  • Characterized by a more militaristic and
    imperialistic nature
  • incorporated chariot, bronze working, horses
  • development of a professional army
  • became a slave based economy fueled by war and
    expansion

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VI. Threats to Tradition
  • Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347 B.C.) introduced the
    worship of Aton, god of the sun disk, as the
    chief god and pursued his worship with
    enthusiasm.
  • Changed name to Akhenaten (It is well with
    Aton)
  • He closed the temples of other gods and
    especially endeavored to lessen the power of
    Amon-Re and his priesthood at Thebes.

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VI. Threats to Tradition1355-1335 BCE
  • Nefertiti
  • Wife of Akhenaton the only pharaoh to even
    partially reject polytheism
  • political move against priests of Amon-Re
  • moved capital to Amarna
  • worshipped Aton, the sun disk
  • royal inbreeding.

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VI. Tutankhamen 1335-1325 BCE
  • (King Tut)
  • child ruler
  • ruled nine years, died at 18
  • young death meant burial in the tomb of a lesser
    person (noble) resulting in preservation

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VI. Ramses II (1279-1213)
  • greatest New Kingdom ruler
  • military leader of Egypt
  • expanded into southern Turkey
  • built many monuments to himself
  • last gasp of Egyptian power.

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VI. Ramses II (1279-1213)
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VI. Ramses II (1279-1213)
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