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Title: Timeline History


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  • Timeline History

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35,000 700 BCPaleolithic Age
  • Ice Age artists modeled goddesses and animal
    figurines, incising lines and leaving their
    fingertip and fingernail impressions in the clay.
    Figurine creation was widespread with examples
    discovered at Dolni Vestonice, The Czech Republic
    (22,000 BC), Japan (15,000 BC), and Siberia
    (12,000 BC). Earliest ceramics may have been used
    in social activities or religious rituals that
    involved the making and firing of these images.
    The firing event may have included the figurines
    and wet pieces of clay, which would have exploded
    in the fire making for a dramatic yet playful
    performance.

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  • Venus of Willendorf
  • Austria
  • C. 25,000-20,000 BC
  • Fertility Fetish
  • Height 4 3/8
  • stone

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Goddess of Dolni VestoniceCzech Republic23,000
BCClay figurine
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  • Early pottery baked in an open fire
  • Typically black and round-bottomed

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6000 BCMiddle East
  • Earliest signs of settled life developed on the
    plateaus of Turkey, Iran, and Iraq, and expanded
    to the Tigres Euphrates river area in Mesopotamia
    when people learned to practice irrigation around
    5000 BC. Potters produced vessels by coiling long
    rolls of clay on top of a flat base or by
    pressing a slab of clay over a mold, such as a
    round stone or gourd. A paddle and anvil were
    used in shaping pots. Slip coatings (fine liquid
    clay) were also applied to vessels and burnished
    to attain a smooth surface. Two pottery-making
    traditions developed plain, undecorated, dark
    burnished ware and ware decorated with incised or
    impressed designs in simple zigzag patterns and
    angular lines. Decorations were painted red and
    black with clay oxides.

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  • Copper began to be used as well as stone.
    Handmade painted pottery varied from reddish
    brown on a pinkish background during the early
    stages to plain grey, black or brown clay during
    the later stage of this period.
  • Painted terracotta vessel from Hacilar, Turkey
  • Chalcolithic Period

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4500 BCMesopotamia
  • In Mesopotamia, potters learned how to control
    the atmosphere in the kiln (furnace for firing
    clay) in order to obtain oxidation (increased
    oxygen resulting in red veneer). Pottery-making
    became more sophisticated as clays were refined
    and prepared by decanting suspension (the process
    of adding water to clay in order to allow the
    larger particles and organic materials to
    separate out while standing and then gently
    pouring off the liquid without stirring up the
    sediment

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Clay figure of woman with traces of paint, ca.
6000 B.C., Mesopotamia, 5.11 x 4.5 cm
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Clay beaker decorated with geometric designs and
images of ibexes, from Susa (now Shusa, Iran),
ca. 5000 B.C., 28.9 cm high 16.4 cm diameter,
  • During the years 6000-5000 B.C, the Pre-Sumerian
    period, Southern Mesopotamia mass-produced
    pottery such as the beaker above. Vessels and
    other objects of fired clay were found in great
    abundance at sites near the Euphrates River. They
    had simpleeven crude--decoration and were
    produced on a fast potters wheel. Wheels were
    used for war chariots by this period as well. The
    chariots were drawn by onagers (wild donkeys).
    (Samuel Noah Kramer, History Begins at Sumer,
    University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia,
    1981.)

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4000 BC The First Cities, Middle East
  • Builders in the Middle East constructed cities
    using clay bricks. Officials wrote on clay
    tablets to chronicle city records as well as
    agricultural and trade information. Potters
    developed the pottery wheel and crafted
    earthenware molds, which increased production and
    transformed the making of pottery. These events
    led to craft specialization.

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Babylonian flood account, 2,000  B.C.
  • The story of a great Flood is not only recorded
    in the Bible. The Babylonian flood account is
    recorded on a 4,000 year-old clay tablet. It is
    very similar to Noah's story, but the Babylonian
    story may be much older, from even before 3,000
    B.C. It is often referred to as the Gilgamesh
    Epic. Together with other ancient records of a
    great flood from other civilizations, the story
    of this ancient event may have been passed down
    orally from generation to generation in several
    different civilizations. The Gilgamesh Epic was
    found in an ancient Assyrian library, and is now
    located in the British Museum.

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The city of Ur - in Mesopotamia around
3,000B.C.
  • Ur was the city where Abraham lived. It's
    excavation in 1922 revealed that it was a highly
    civilized city, complete with a complex
    government, busy trade and traffic. Receipts and
    contracts were used in commercial  activity. The
    city's infrastructure includes town drains,
    streets, two-story houses, and a great temple
    tower.
  • http//www.faithhelper.com/otarch1.htm

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3000 BCFirst Pottery Made in South America
  • Prehistoric people living in farming villages
    located in the Amazon Basin (Brazil) created the
    earliest pottery known in the Western Hemisphere.
    This original red-brown pottery was decorated
    with simple lines and painted patterns.

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2700 BCThe First Glaze, Egypt
  • Egyptian potters discovered an alkaline
    glaze-forming clay body, Egyptian Paste or
    Egyptian Faience. This clay was a composite of
    crushed quartz mixed with soda and calcium salts,
    which produced a blue-colored surface glaze when
    fired. Egyptian Paste was used for ceremonial
    vessels, jewelry, and small sculptures.

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Hippopotamus, Middle Kingdom, Egypt 1784-1570
BCBlue faience/Egyptian Paste
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Faience is a glazed non-clay ceramic material or
silica, composed of crushed quartz or sand, with
small amounts of lime, and either natronor plant
ash.
  • Its main ingredient was quartz, obtained from
    sand, or crushed pebbles to which was added an
    alkali, a bit of lime and ground copper as
    colorant. Egypt is rich in silica, in the form of
    desert sand, but for faience-making, certain sand
    sources were considered superior to others. Sand
    is not pure silica, as it contains impurities
    such as chalk, limestone or iron.

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  • The silica forms the bulk of the body, the
    material from which the object shape is formed.
    Ground silica/sand is not easy to form, and even
    though water is added to help shaping, the
    finished product will crumble when dry. Adding
    lime and soda helps to cement the quartz grains
    together as it dries. But the main strengthening
    factor is in the firing. The body is coated with
    a soda-lime-silica-glaze, most commonly a bright
    blue-green color due to its use of copper. When
    fired, the quartz body developed its typical
    blue-green glassy surface. Other colors were
    eventually possible, such as white, yellows,
    reds, and even marbled browns, blacks and other
    hues.

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2655 BCBanshan Culture, China
  • Neolithic craftsmen fashioned painted pottery
    jars by using the clay coil and paddling
    technique. After firing, burnished surfaces were
    gracefully painted with red and black pigments in
    spiral patterns and designs. Early Chinese
    pottery was fired in kilns that dug into the
    ground.

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China, Neolithic period, Majiayao culture,
Banshan type, late-3rd millennium BCHeight 17
1/2 inches, 44.5 cm
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China, Neolithic period, Majiayao culture,
Banshan type, mid-3rd millennium BCHeight 19
inches, 48.2 cm
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Narrow-necked jar with vertical handlesChinese,
Majiayao culture, Neolithic period, mid-3rd
millenium B.C
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2500-1500 BCJomon Period, Japan
  • Jomon (cord impressions) ware made throughout
    Japan during the Japanese Neolithic Age. It was
    characterized by elaborate coil-built vessels
    fashioned from unrefined clay. The clay often
    contained organic matter, pebbles, and shell
    fragments that added textural excitement to the
    wares coil construction. Elaborate flaring tops,
    fanciful rims, and cross-hatching contributed to
    the visual drama of this distinctive style.

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The Jomon Period10,000-300 BCE Japan
  • Early Jomon (Rope Pattern) Pottery

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Middle Jomon Period Pottery
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  • Middle Jomon Period Pottery

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Forms of JOMON
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Narrow-bottomed, flaring tops of Jomon used for
ceremonies and religious rituals
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2500-1100 BCMinoan Culture, Crete
  • On the island of Crete, Minoans used terra-cotta
    pipes in drainage systems for their baths. They
    built huge vessels, more than five feet tall, to
    store grain, olive oil, and food. Their pots were
    distinctively decorated with naturalistic designs
    of marine life and plants. Masterful sailors, the
    Minoans traded pottery vessels filled with oil
    and wine for tin from Asia Minor, copper from
    Cyprus, and luxury goods from Egypt.

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Map of Mediterranean
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  • Jug from Ayios Onoufrios.
  • Early Minoan I or beginning of Early Minoan II
  • c. 2500. Clay.

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Beak spouted cup. Early Minoan 2200-2000 BC
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  • A beaker jug in Kamares style
  • Middle Minoan IIA
  • 1800 BC.

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  • Original Minoan Flask, 13
  • 1500BC

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  • Minoan octopus Vase
  • 1500BC

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  • Minoan Amphora
  • 1500 BC

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  • 3 Handled Octopus Vase
  • Minoan

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  • Original Pythos (storage vessel)
  • 16" (40 cm) Tall
  • 1450 BC

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  • Original Minoan Amphora
  • 1200BC

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  • Mycenaen Amphora

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Mycenaen Amphoras
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King Minos lived in the Palace of Knossos on the
Island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea
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  • The Palace of Knossos
  • The palace of the Minoan king on the island of
    Crete, in the town of Knossos. 
  • These ruins are amazingly well preserved from
    about 1700 BC.

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The Palace of Knossos
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Knossos-throne-room
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Pithois-large storage jars found at the Palace of
Knossos
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PITHOI
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  • Pottery from the Palace of Knossos

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  • Snake Goddess
  • Crete
  • 1600 BC

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1600-1100 BCShang Dynasty, China
  • The Bronze Age potters of the Shang dynasty
    developed highly sophisticated casting
    techniques. They used fired clay molds to cast
    elaborate bronze vessels. Kilns continued to be
    built in the ground, and the earths natural
    insulation increased fuel efficiency. The
    development of effective chimneys also improved
    kiln technology. Around 1400 BC, the first
    stoneware (highly- fired pottery) was made using
    kaolin, a white primary clay, found in large
    deposits in China. During the protoporcelain
    (before porcelain) period, potters learned how to
    use wood ash in combination with minerals, such
    as silica and alumina, to achieve a successful
    glaze.

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Shang Dynasty pottery
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Shang
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An exceptionally rare Neolithic period Chinese
pottery Li (tripod vessel), which dates to the
Yangshao Culture, approximately 5th/3rd
Millenium BC
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  • A rare ancient Chinese black pottery three-legged
    pot, known as a li, which dates to the Shang
    dynasty, over 3,000 years ago.

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Covered hu-type vessel with animal-mask (taotie)
designChinese, Shang dynasty, 12th century B.C
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Ceramics of the pastSection 2
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1200 500 BCOlmec Culture, Middle AmericaThe
Olmec culture, centered in the eastern gulf
coastal region of Mexico, is thought to be the
earliest civilization on pre-Columbian Central
America. The jaguar, believed to be a god, was
the center of the Olmec religion. Many of their
stone sculptures and molded clay figurines
depicted were-jaguars, half-human, half-jaguar
beings. Olmec baby figures alone with
were-jaguars were believed to be earthly forms of
gods. These earthenware baby figures, which were
produced in great numbers, are thought to
represent infant offerings to the rain god who
symbolized rebirth and regeneration, or perhaps,
they represent, the rain spirits themselves.
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Olmec Culture
  • In South America, the were-jaguar is a legendary
    creature with an ancient lineage and formidable
    pedigree. Often, these beings were portrayed as
    shamans who were favored by the jaguar god.

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Olmec Culture
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Olmec Double Jaguar Carving - Mexico, Ca. 400 BC.
4",
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  • Olmec Culture, Figure of a ruler 1000-600 B.C.

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  • Ritual ballplayer 1500-1000 B.C.

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The Road to Eldorado
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1100 400 BC Chavin Culture, South
AmericaThe Chavin people lived in the central
Andean region of South America. They introduced
the whistle jar (which whistled when the jars
contents were poured out) and the stirrup vessel.
Both were thought to have been used in funeral
ceremonies and buried with the dead, Chavin style
was the precursor for the Peruvian cultures.
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Whistle JarFluid moving from one chamber to
another displaces air in the second chamber which
is forced across the sounding edge of a whistle.
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Whistle Jar
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  • Chavin Culture, Stirrup Vessels,
  • Peru, South America
  • Famous for their whistling jays

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  • Chavin Culture
  • Stirrup Vessels, Peru, South America

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  • Chavin Culture, Stirrup Vessels, , Peru, South
    America

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Machu Picchu
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700 BC Black-Figure Technique,
GreeceThis elegant style of two-color
thematic decoration employed the use of a black
slip to paint heroic and mythical figures on a
red clay background. Artists detailed features
and fine lines by scraping through the slip with
sharp tools to expose the lighter clay beneath.
By controlling the amount of oxygen in the kiln,
artists were able to achieve a glossy black and
red decoration.
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Greek AmphoraBlack Figure Painting
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600 BCRed-Figure Technique, GreeceThis style
of decoration used reserves, or unpainted
figures. The reserves retained the color of the
red clay while the black firing slip was used to
paint fine details on the figure and around the
reserves. The striking red figures stood out from
the black background when a firing sequence of
reduction followed by oxidation was used.
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Greek AmphoraRed Figure Painting
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700 400 BCLife-sized Terra-Cotta Sculpture,
ItalyEtruscans molded and painted brilliant
colored life-sized terra-cotta figures to
decorate their temples and sarcophagi.
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This small (5.5 inches high) terracotta sculpture
was made in Greek southern Italy in the late
fourth century BCE. It depicts two adolescent
girls playing the game of "knucklebones"
(astragaloi in Greek). The game was usually
played like the modern game of "jacks" one threw
the knucklebones in the air and attempted to
catch as many as possible. They were also used
like modern "dice." Most knucklebones were made
out of the actual ankle bones of sheep or goats,
but fancier ones were made of ivory, bronze, or
terracotta.
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This sarcophagus shows an Etruscan man and his
wife reclining on a couch, as at a banquet,
embracing. (In Etruscan culture, both men and
women attended feasts, something that shocked the
Greeks who were used to male-only symposia.) She
pours perfume from an alabastron into his hand,
an action associated with funerary rites, and
it's possible that her left hand originally held
a pomegranate, symbol of eternal life. While the
large size of the artefact suggests it was a
sarcophagus, it might also have been a large
cinerary urn - both inhumation and cremation were
used by the Etruscans.
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Ishtar GateBabylon (IRAQ)Glazed tiles
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600 BC Tin-Lead Glazes, Middle
East Persian, Assyrian, and Babylonian
walls and buildings were decorated with
glazed tile reliefs. Potters added tin oxide to
lead glazes to achieve a white background on the
red clay for painting colored decorations. Later,
they made intricate, multicolored tiles by using
raised lines of slip, which kept glaze colors
from running into each other during the firing.
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Hanging Gardens of Babylon
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ChinaTomb of the Terracotta Soldiers
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221 -202 BCLife-sized Terra-Cotta Sculpture, Qin
Dynasty, ChinaIt was the Chinese custom for the
dead to be buried with food, pottery, and other
items thought to be needed in the afterlife.
Excavations near Emperor Qins imperial tomb
unearthed an army of 7000 life-sized soldiers
with their weapons and horses. There realistic,
painted terra-cotta figures (each face was an
individual portrait) demonstrate astonishing
skill in both ceramic sculpture and firing
technique.
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African sculpture
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300 BC AD 1400 Life-sized Terra-Cotta
Sculpture, Africa In western Africa, the
Nok (300 BC), followed by the Ife (800 BC AD
1400), developed great technical skills in clay
as they fashioned and fired life-sized
terra-cotta human figures. Nok sculptures are
distinguished by purity of form and decorative
restraint. Ife figures embody idealized
naturalism. Ife craftsmen were skilled in bronze
casting by the eleventh century and expertly
produced ceramic crucibles and molds.
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Found in north central Nigeria off the edge of
the Jos plateau. The oldest known example of
terracotta sculpture in Africa, south of the
Sahara. Dates from 2500-800 B.P  (500 BC to 200
AD).
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Ife
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Ife Sculpture
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Copper Head Nigeria, Late 14th Century
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206 BC AD 221Han Dynasty, ChinaThe Han
dynasty was the beginning of a united Chinese
Empire. During this period, the silk trade
reached from the East Roman Empire to India and
Persia. Chinese potters probably acquired the art
of lead glazing from these contacts. Clay vessel
shapes were based on bronze originals and
decorated in similar fashion with cut relief and
applied handles and bands. An extensive amount of
Minqui (tomb pottery) was produced consisting of
pottery models of family and servants, buildings,
grain towers, farm animals, and vessels for food
and drink to accompany the deceased to the spirit
world.
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Han Dynastydouble-handle tripod caldron pottery
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Ancient Glazed "Celadon Green" "Hun'ping"
Funerary Urn/Spirit Jar 300 A.D.
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Han Dynasty Bronze Funerary piece
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Towered PavilianChinese Han Dynasty206 BC-220
AD
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Model of goat yard and herdsmanHan Dynasty, 2nd
3rd Century
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Silla PeriodKorea
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57 BC AD 935 Silla Period, KoreaThe pottery
of this period was strongly influenced by the
Chinese. Potters produced ash-glazed stoneware
and lead-glazed earthenware.
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100 700 ADThe Mochica Culture, South
AmericaThe Moche civilization flourished on the
north coast of Peru. Although their culture had
no writing system, Moche potters recorded
historical and mythological events, and narrated
their life and customs on richly decorated
ceremonial pots. Expert artists, the Moche
modeled figures and fashioned portrait vessels,
stirrup jars, bird-shaped whistle jars, and
musical instruments.
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Moche Culture sacrifice of warriors (1 AD - 800
AD)This piece shows how defeated warriors were
brought to islands on rafts to be sacrificed
there.
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Moche portrait vessel
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200 ADFeldspathic Glazes, Yueh Ware,
ChinaDuring this period, potters discovered a
leadless glaze compound made of feldspar, sand,
potash, quartz, and other ingredients that
required high temperatures to fuse. The first
feldspar-glazed stoneware, Yueh ware (a precursor
of Celadon ware) was distinguished by colors
ranging from pale gray-green to bluish-green on a
white porcelaineous clay body. Yueh vessels
imitated the bronze styles of the Han dynasty.
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  • Eastern Jin dynasty (ca. 317-420), second
    half of 4th centuryStoneware with celadon glaze
    (Yue ware) H. 7 1/2 in. (19.1 cm)

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200 BC AD 476The Roman Empire, EuropeThe
Romans brought a number of technological
innovations to Northern Europe. They introduced
the potters wheel, produced relief-decorated
ware from molds, and developed large, parallel
flue kilns. Workshops were turned into factories
as great quantities of pottery were mass-produced
for their growing cities and large armies. They
manufactured fired-clay building materials, such
as bricks, roof tiles, ceramic floor tiles, and
decorative ornaments. Arrentine ware a red gloss
ware, was the most common Roman pottery. It was
made in stamped molds, covered with a fine red
slip terra-sigillata and fired in an oxidizing
atmosphere to achieve a glossy, rich red finish.
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Rome
  • Terra sigillata as an archaeological term refers
    chiefly to a specific type of plain and decorated
    tableware made in Italy
  • These vessels have glossy surface slips ranging
    from a soft lustre to a brilliant glaze-like
    shine, in a characteristic colour range from pale
    orange to bright red.
  • The products of the Italian workshops are also
    known as Arretine ware

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Roman red gloss terra sigillata bowl with
relief decoration
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Terra sigillata beaker
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A decorated Arretine vase
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200-600Haniwa Figures, Japan
  • Japanese potters made unglazed earthenware Haniwa
    figures. These figures, mounted on clay
    cylinders, were sculpted, impressionistic
    representations of men, women, animals, or
    buildings. It is thought that the Haniwa were
    placed around burial mounds to protect the
    deceased and to keep the mounds from eroding.

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Haniwa man figure playing a harp, Tumulus
period
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300-980Classic Period, Teotihuacan, Mexico
  • Clay artists in Central Mexico produced a variety
    of hand built and molded pottery. They used the
    fresco, an unfired technique, to decorate
    magnificent tripod ritual vessels. These
    decorations were symbolic motifs painted in
    brilliant colors on thin layers of stucco or
    plaster that covered the fired vessel.

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Teotihuacan style ceramic from Tomb of Curl Nose
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MEXICO CITY A tiny remote-controlled camera
peered inside the tomb of a Mayan ruler that has
been sealed for 1,500 years, revealing red
frescoes, pottery and pieces of a funerary shroud
made of jade and mother of pearl.
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Codex style vase with sixty hieroglyphs700-900 AD
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618-906 Tang Dynasty, China
  • During this period, one of the richest eras of
    Chinese art and learning, ceramic art reached an
    outstanding level of achievement. Tang potters
    produced and exported dense white porcelain ware.
    Earthenware figurines, decorated with lead glazes
    colored yellow (iron), blue (cobalt), and green
    (copper), were produced in tremendous quantities
    for tomb furnishings. These models were
    constructed from parts that were molded
    separately and assembled with clay slip. Tang
    models are striking in their naturalism and
    vitality.

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Tang Dynasty
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Tang Dynasty Tomb Pottery Prancing Horse
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Horse, Tang Dynasty 8th Century
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Horse Tang Dynasty8th Century
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Horse DetailTang Dynasty8th Century
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Camel with Musical Instrument pipa7th
centuryEarthenware with white ivory glaze
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Tomb GuardianTang DynastyEarthenware with
three color glaze
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Painted human-faced animal tomb-guardian in the
Zhaoling Mausoleum Tang Dynasty
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Incense BurnerTang Dynasty6th-7th Century
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632-1150 Early Islamic Wares, Middle East
  • Islamic potters were never able to produce
    porcelain because the clays in this region were
    deficient in high-firing minerals. In their
    attempts to imitate Chinese Tang imports, they
    made spectacular breakthroughs in glaze
    technology. They used a glaze made of ashes of
    tin over earthenware clay to get a white opaque
    glaze upon which they painted designs with
    various coloring oxides. Cobalt, the most popular
    oxide, gave a rich blue color to the designs.
    (This blue and white combination would later be
    imitated by the Chinese.) they discovered and
    perfected luster painting, a glazing technique
    in which a metallic pigment, such as silver,
    copper, gold, or platinum, is applied over an
    already fired glaze. A metallic film appears in
    the surface of the piece when it is fired again
    under lower temperatures in a reduction
    atmosphere. Islamic potters mastered the secret
    of under glaze painting by coloring a clay slip,
    similar in composition to the clay body, with
    metallic oxides. This made the painting strong
    enough not to disappear under a liquid glaze.

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Iraq tin glazed earthenware with blue and white
decoration 9th century.Chinese later used
Porcelain to recreate this look. Cobalt was
exported from the Middle East
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Early Chinese blue and white porcelain,
manufactured circa 1335
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Blue and white ware-vase,China
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Tang DynastyMeiping, China Blue and White ware
(cobalt blue on porcelain)
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Early Islamic Nishapur slip-painted bowl900-1000
AD
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Luster-ware bowl from Susa, 9th century
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Lustreware-Lustre painted baluster
jar1100-1300 ADCentral Asia
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800-1400Southwest Indian, North America
  • Three main cultures inhabited the southwest each
    produced distinctively stylized decorated
    pottery. The Hohokam, who occupied southern
    Arizona, developed a culture based on irrigation
    farming. Their red-on-buff pottery was
    characterized by an out swept curving line from
    the vessels mouth to form an abrupt inward curve
    to the foot. The Anasazi of northern Arizona and
    New Mexico, Southern Colorado and Utah were
    superior builders of pueblos (multiple unit
    houses). The Anasazi produced precisely decorated
    black-on-white pottery. The Mogollon, who
    inhabited southwestern New Mexico, linked the
    Southwest and Mexico. Their pottery is
    characterized by great simplicity and limited
    variation of forms.

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Southwest IndianMogollon Pottery
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Anasazi Pottery
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Anasazi Pottery
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950-1325Mayan Post-Classic Period, Middle America
  • The Mayan people flourished on the Yucatan
    Peninsula, Guatemala, and El Salvador. They
    recorded their history in hieroglyphics on stone
    slabs. Early Mayan pottery was strongly
    influenced by that of Teotihuacan (Mexico).
    Later, Mayan potters molded terra-cotta figures
    depicting gods, nobility, acrobats, warriors,
    ball players, and ordinary men and women
    performing domestic chores.

184
Vase with appliqued snakesMaya, Late Classic
period, A.D. 550850
185
Human effigy incense burner or cache vesselMaya,
Postclassic period, A.D. 12501500
186
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918-1382The Koryo Dynasty, Korea
  • Decorated Celadon ware best exemplifies the work
    of this time, the Golden Age of Korean ceramics.
    Slip-filled incised patterns under a celadon
    glaze, Punchong ware (or Mishima, as called by
    the Japanese), was an important, new,
    distinctively Korean, decorative technique.
    Naturalistic motifs of ducks, grasses, willows,
    and flowers were used to suggest spiritual calm
    an beauty.

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KOREAN PORCELAINOUS STONEWARE CELADON BOWL, Koryo
dynasty, 935-1392
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KORYO DYNASTY INLAIDCELADON BOWLKorea,
12th/13th Centuries
190
Korean pottery Punch'ong bottle vase Choson
Dynasty 15/16th
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Korean pottery Punch'ong
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1000Early Stoneware, Germany
  • German potters in the Rhine Valley had an
    abundance of good clay and a bountiful supply of
    wood for their kilns. The clay contained a high
    sand content, which allowed it to tolerate high
    temperatures without collapsing. This combination
    enabled potters to produce stoneware.

194
Early Stoneware, Germany
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960-1279The Song Dynasty, China
  • Song potters were masters of harmonious,
    well-proportioned form, and they beautifully
    refined vessel shapes. The fashion for porcelain
    (a high-fired white translucent ware that makes a
    musical sound when struck) began with the Song
    emperors, who were patrons of the arts.
    Porcelain, however, was only a small part of Song
    production. Most pottery made during this time
    was stoneware. Song pottery is divided into two
    categories northern and southern.

197
960-1127Northern Song, China
  • Several different styles were prominent during
    this period. Among them were Ting ware, a glazed
    porcelaineous body that featured a smooth, ivory
    white glaze over delicately impressed or engraved
    motifs and Tzu-Chou ware, a light gray-colored
    stoneware covered with white slip and vigorously
    painted with dark brown or black decoration.

198
Northern Song DynastyTing Ware(Ding
ware)http//qingci.org/?p672
199
Shallow BowlDing Ware12th Century
200
A fine and rare carved 'ding' bowl. Northern
Song dynasty
201
Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) ding-ware porcelain
bottle with iron-tinted pigment under a
transparent colorless glaze, made in the 11th
century, found in Hebei province

202
Water VesselDing Ware8th- 10th Century
203
Northern Song DynastyTzu-Chou ware (Cizhou
ware)si-zsh-u
204
"Cizhou" green-glazed painted vase (Meiping), 11
3/8 inches high, Northern Song/Jin DynastyIt
has an estimate of 30,000 to 40,000. It sold
for 74,500.
205
Wine Bottle12th CenturyNorthern Song Cizhou
Ware
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Southern Song DynastyCeladon
208
1128-1279Southern Song, China
  • Glaze development expanded during the Southern
    Song period. Some of the more popular glazes
    were Celadon, a translucent green or green-blue
    color originally made to imitate jade Tenmoku, a
    thick, dark brown glaze breaking to lighter
    brown and Oil Spot, which appeared to have oil
    spots breaking on the surface. Crackle, a glaze
    having a network of deliberate surface crack, was
    also developed during this time. Two types of
    kilns were used a single-chambered, downdraft,
    bee-hive type and the dragon kiln, a tunnel built
    into a hillside. Later, the dragon kiln was
    divided into many sections or chambers, which
    allowed large quantities of pottery to be fired
    at the same time but at different temperatures in
    the different sections. Individual saggars (fire
    containers) were used to stake the ware and to
    protect each pot from ashes from the wood which
    fueled the kiln.

209
Sky blue glaze porcelain incense burner, Jun ware
Southern Song Dynasty(A.D.960-1127)
210
Southern Song dynasty, Kuan ware, celadon glazed
porcelain
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Song Dynasty Jun Kiln Porcelain Zun Vessel
212
Bluish-white glazed bowl with kids playing
pattern
213
Southern Song DynastyTenmoku Glazes
214
Tenmoku
  • Yohen refers to changes that take place in the
    kiln, and it is also used for Bizen, where the
    glaze runs during firing. Sometimes this is
    called a "hares-fur" effect. Yohen also refers to
    the build-up of ash on the kiln floor and the
    natural glazing brought about by this ash.  
  • Yuteki is an oil spot effect that occurs when
    there is an overload of iron oxide which is
    allowed to cool slowly and forms effulgent spots
    on the surface. It is a very difficult technique.

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Tenmoku (or temmoku) is the name used by potters
and ceramic restoration experts to describe
glazes that are richly colored by iron dioxide.
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Tenmoku is the Japanese word for a type of tea
bowl first produced in China during the Song
Dynasty (960-1279).
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Southern Song DynastyOil Spot Glazes
220
Chinese pottery ewer, oil spot glaze, Song
Dynasty
221
Oil Spot temmoku
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Southern Song DynastyCrackle Glaze
225
Five celadon libation cup, crackle glaze, fluted
mouth with dragon handle, old collectors number
on bottom, Song Dynasty, height 3
226
Southern Song dynasty (11271279)Porcelaneous
stoneware with crackled blue glaze
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The shard market with Song Dynasty saggerslined
with fused translucent porcelain bowls.
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