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Asia and Africa in the 20th Century


... etc. Percentage of Arable Land Global Soil Degradation Women s ... nationalists and communists Negotiated Independence: India India & Pakistan ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Asia and Africa in the 20th Century

Asia and Africa in the 20th Century
  • .

Africa and Asia in 1900
Africa Asia The Road to Independence
Road to Independence
  • Pre-World War I
  • Nationalism
  • Indian National Congress Muslim League
  • Egyptian Nationalism
  • Dinshawai Incident
  • Save the King movement in Vietnam
  • Violence
  • Boer Wars
  • Islamic Fundamentalism
  • the Mahdi in Egypt
  • Guerilla Warfare in Vietnam

Top The members of the 1st Indian National
Congress Bottom Muhammad Ahmad the Mahdi
Road to Independence World War I
  • Promises of Self-Determination
  • India wanted self-government
  • Rowlatt Act (1920)
  • Arabs wanted independence
  • Mandate System (right)
  • Balfour Declaration
  • Locals fill colonial posts
  • Economic strain of the war
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Increased nationalism
  • Gandhi and satyagraha
  • Ho Chi Minh
  • May Fourth Movement

Road to Independence Interwar Years
  • Egypt
  • Continued nationalism
  • England withdrawal began 1922
  • Left khedival regime in power
  • South Africa
  • Self-government granted in 1910
  • Part of commonwealth in 1933
  • India
  • The Great Depression
  • Anti-government protests
  • Gandhis Salt March (1931)
  • Government of India Act (1935)

Road to Independence World War II
  • Cost of Empire
  • Need to rebuild home country
  • Declining support for colonialism
  • Atlantic Charter (1941)
  • Soviets loathe colonialism
  • Except for Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania,
    Kazakhstan, Georgia, Armenia, etc.
  • Japan conquers colonies in East Asia

The Atlantic Charter was drafted by U.S.
President Franklin Roosevelt (left) and British
Prime Minister Winston Churchill (right). In it
they voiced support for "the right of all peoples
to choose the form of government under which they
will live."
Post-World War II Independence
  • Three routes to independence
  • Negotiated Independence
  • Parts of Asia and Africa gained their
    independence without much bloodshed
  • India Pakistan
  • Japan Korea
  • Ghana the Congo
  • Incomplete Independence
  • Places with sizeable settler populations or Cold
    War importance struggled to gain their
  • South Africa, Kenya, Algeria
  • Vietnam
  • Civil War
  • China resumed civil war between nationalists and

Negotiated Independence India
  • India Pakistan gained their independence August
  • Communal violence ensued as millions of Muslims
    moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and
    Sikhs moved to India
  • Violence broke out over Kashmir
  • Jawaharlal Nehru (right) became the first prime
    minister of India
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first prime
    minister of Pakistan

Negotiated Independence Japan
  • United States occupied Japan from August
  • Feared Soviets would influence Japan
  • Japanese cooperated with the U.S.
  • Political and social changes
  • Military disbanded and military spending limited
  • Shintoism was abolished as state religion
  • New parliamentary system with constitution
  • Women received the right to vote
  • Large estates were divided and redistributed to
  • Zaibatsu combines were temporarily dissolved

Negotiated Independence Korea, et al.
  • Korea was divided at 38th parallel
  • Korean War resulted in a Soviet backed North
    Korea and U.S. backed South Korea
  • Hong Kong remained a British colony until 1997
  • Singapore gained independence from Britain in
  • Chiang Kai-shek established the Republic of China
    on Taiwan

Negotiated Independence Africa
  • African nationalism
  • Negritude movement
  • Pan-Africanism
  • World War II
  • West built factories in Africa
  • Africans migrated to cities looking for work
  • Kwame Nkrumah gained independence for Ghana in
  • First successful mass movement
  • 1960 is known as the Year of Africa

Incomplete Independence South Africa
  • Gained home rule in 1910
  • Had over 4 million white residents
  • Denied civil rights to black population
  • Whites institute apartheid in 1948
  • Reserved best jobs for whites
  • Reserved 87 of land for whites
  • Black Africans Indians couldnt vote
  • ANC led mass protests against apartheid
  • Sharpeville Massacre (1960)
  • ANC leader Nelson Mandela arrested and sentenced
    to life in prison in 1964

Incomplete Independence South Africa
  • Black protests of apartheid increased in the
  • Bishop Desmond Tutu encouraged international
    embargo of South Africa
  • Gained worldwide attention due to TV
  • End of Apartheid
  • Nelson Mandela freed in 1990
  • Apartheid laws repealed in 1990-1991
  • First free election occurred in 1994
  • New constitution passed in 1996
  • Includes U.S. style Bill of Rights

Incomplete Independence Kenya
  • White coffee planters felt ethnic Kenyans were
    not ready for self-government
  • Called rebels the Mau Mau
  • Violence erupted in the 1950s
  • British captured native fighters and resettled
    them in camps
  • Jomo Kenyatta other leaders were imprisoned for
    eight years
  • Kenyatta negotiated Kenyan independence in 1961
  • Elected president in 1964

Incomplete Independence Algeria
  • Algeria was viewed as an extension of France
  • One million settlers created a maintain at all
    costs attitude
  • France dependent upon Algerian oil gas fields
    and vineyards
  • National Liberation Front (FLN) made up of
    Berbers and Arabs demanded independence
  • Settlers and rich Arabs and Berbers continue
    fight against the FLN
  • Form the Secret Army Organization (OAS)
  • After 8 years of violence and thousand of
    casualties, France eventually negotiated
    independence in 1962
  • Millions of French settlers and wealthy Arabs and
    Berbers emigrated to France

Incomplete Independence Vietnam
  • World War II
  • Viet Minh (communists) successfully resisted
    Japanese occupation
  • Provided assistance during famine
  • Instituted communist reforms
  • Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent from
    France in 1945
  • French refused to recognize independence and
    tried to reoccupy the region
  • Defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954

Leaders of the Viet Minh Vo Nguyen Giap (left)
and Ho Chi Minh (right)
Vietnam War (1954-1973)
  • France leaves after being defeated at Dien Bien
  • Ho Chi Minh agrees to divide Vietnam into two
  • Communists dominated northern Vietnam
  • Elections were promised within two years to
    decide who should rule a united Vietnam
  • U.S. sends in advisors to help South Vietnam in
  • U.S. viewed conflict as part of the Cold War
  • U.S. supported anti-communist dictator Ngo Dinh
  • Diem attempted to suppress communists in South
  • Viet Minh (Viet Cong) sent military supplies to
    aid southern communists (National Liberation

Vietnam War (1954-1973)
  • Richard Nixon continued to escalate U.S. presence
    in Vietnam
  • Resort to carpet bombing chemical warfare
  • Some historian argue the bombing of Cambodia
    triggered the Khmer Rouge
  • Pol Pot killed approximately 20 of the Cambodian
  • U.S. ended involvement in 1973
  • Communists unite Vietnam in 1975

Some Buddhist monks expressed opposition to the
war by practicing self-immolation. This monk,
Thich Quang Duc is a national hero in Vietnam
The Khmer Rouge
Africa Asia After Independence
Asia Africa After Independence
  • Challenges facing independent states
  • Political Instability
  • Most countries end up one-party states or
    military dictatorships
  • The Cold War
  • Colonial Legacy
  • The Population Bomb
  • Parasitic Cities Endangered ecosystems
  • Womens Subordination
  • Neocolonialism

Dictatorships in the 20th Century
One Party States
Democracy in 20th Century
Military Dictatorships
  • Why military dictatorships?
  • Military is more resistant to religious and
    ethnic rivalries
  • Military used to suppress ethnic and religious
  • A monopoly of force
  • A degree of technical training
  • Most are staunchly anticommunist
  • Military dictatorships often bring political
    stability but economic development is rare

Clockwise from top left Idi Amin of Uganda,
Mobutu Sese Seko of the Congo, Muammar al-Gaddafi
of Libya
Military Dictatorship Egypt
  • Gamal Abdel Nasser
  • Seized power in 1952
  • Embarrassed by defeat in Arab-Israeli War of 1948
  • Instituted a series of reforms
  • Land reform, education, subsidized food costs,
    emphasized industrial growth
  • Reforms foiled by corruption, lack of foreign
    investment, population growth
  • Supported Pan-Arabism
  • Opposed Israel
  • Built the Aswan Dam

One-Party State Ghana
  • Kwame Nkrumah
  • Originally committed to social economic reform
  • Reforms hindered by lack of education,
    industrialization, and decline of cocoa prices
  • Leftist (socialist) leanings won support from
    Soviets alienated Western investors
  • Ruled as a authoritarian dictator
  • Crushed political opposition, staged events,
    manipulated history, etc.

Democracy Botswana
  • Democratic since gaining independence in 1966
  • Stable economy based upon diamonds, tourism,
  • Per capita GDP 12,500
  • World average 7,400
  • Predominantly Christian
  • AIDS/HIV rate was 24 in 2006

Democracy India
  • Advantages
  • Military defends secular democracy
  • Came to independence with a larger industrial and
    scientific center, better communication systems,
    and a larger, more skilled middle class
  • Disadvantages
  • Population growth, poverty, unemployment,
    religious ethnic diversity, and natural
  • Military conflicts with Pakistan over Kashmir
  • Early Government
  • Reforms to help lower castes and women
  • Spearheaded the nonalignment movement

Democracy India
  • Indira Gandhi
  • Tried to limit freedom of press
  • Proposed involuntary sterilization to slow
    population growth
  • Indian Economy
  • Mix of private and state initiatives
  • Green Revolution
  • Introduced improved seed strains, fertilizers,
    and irrigation
  • Credited for averting a global famine
  • Growing middle class
  • Worlds largest film industry

The Cold War
  • U.S. and Soviet Union attempted to influence new
  • Bandung Conference 1955
  • Conference participants claimed to be
  • Nasser and Nkrumah attended the conference
  • Many independence movements received help from
    the Soviet Union or Cuba
  • United States often interfered in these nations
  • The Congo and the Cold War
  • Nkrumah overthrown by C.I.A. in 1966
  • Proxy wars fueled ethnic tension genocide
  • Hutus in Rwanda massacred 750,000 ethnic Tutsis
    in 1995

Colonial Legacy
  • All new nations were artificial nations
  • European colonial boundaries rarely took into
    account the ethnicities, interests, and histories
    of the people
  • European control often intensified existing
  • Minority Tutsi were favored over the majority
    Hutu in Rwanda
  • Europe often cut-and-run at the end of colonial
  • Often led to ethnic strife in new nations
  • India, Nigeria, the Congo, Palestine, etc.
  • Pakistan quickly divided into two nations
    Pakistan Bangladesh
  • New rulers create a national identity
  • Separatist movements emerged and led to civil war
    in Morocco, India, the Sudan, Nigeria

Population Bomb
  • Why?
  • Introduction of new food crops (Columbian
    Exchange), colonialism ended local warfare,
    railroads cut down on famine, improved hygiene
    medicine, resistance to birth control, declining
    infant mortality rates

Population Density
Population Cartogram
AIDS in the Twentieth Century
Parasitic Cities
  • Massive post-independence urbanization occurred
    in most countries
  • No expanding industrial centers meant few jobs
    low wages
  • Urban poor could become politically volatile
  • Little or no urban planning
  • Slum areas with no electricity, running water,
    or basic sewage
  • Cities are not productive thus parasitic
  • Puts pressure on rural areas
  • Draw food and resources from depleted countryside
  • Contributes to soil depletion, deforestation,
    desertification, etc.

Percentage of Arable Land
Global Soil Degradation
Womens Subordination
  • New nations often supported womens suffrage,
    equal legal rights, education, occupational
    opportunities (in theory)
  • In reality, most societies remained patriarchal
  • Men dominated most political positions
  • Prominent female leaders were often related to
    powerful men
  • Indira Gandhi, Benazir Bhutto, Corazon Aquino
  • Arranged marriages, early marriage ages, and
    large families
  • Dietary customs increase chances of malnutrition
  • Female infanticide is common in many places
  • China, India, East Africa
  • Religious revivalism erodes womens rights
  • Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, India, the Sudan

  • Most nations continued to rely upon trading cash
    crops or raw materials to industrialized nations
    in return for manufactured goods
  • Price of commodities (cash crops and minerals)
    often fluctuate
  • One or two bad years could destroy an emerging
    nations economy
  • Some organizations have been formed to limit
  • OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting
  • Government corruption and lack of reforms also
    contribute to neocolonialism
  • Nations turn to international organizations or
    industrial nations for help
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World

Middle East after World War II
Arab Independence
  • Saudi Arabia became independent after World War I
  • Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Jordan gained
    independence after World War II with little
  • Complete autonomy was difficult
  • Egypt due to Suez Canal
  • Cold War tensions
  • Other states due to oil
  • OPEC

Creation of Israel
  • Israel was created by a UN mandate in 1947
  • Israel seized control of Jerusalem all of
    Palestine except the West Bank Gaza Strip in
  • Israel easily wins the Arab-Israeli War of 1967
    and the Yom Kippur War in 1973

Arab Nationalism
  • Problems facing Arab nationalism
  • Cold War splits nations as some allied with the
    U.S. and others the USSR
  • Differing government types (monarchy, military
    dictatorships, Islamic revolutionary)
  • Sunni-Shia split
  • Anwar Sadat facilitated peace process between
    Arab world Israel (1978-1980)
  • His reward? He was assassinated in 1981
  • Sadats assassination made Saddam Hussein leader
    of the Arab world

Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • Created in 1964 by Yasser Arafat to promote
    Palestinian rights
  • Often resorted to terrorism against Israel
  • Negotiated limited Palestinian self-rule in 1993
    and 1995
  • PLO was replaced by Hamas as the leading
    anti-Israeli organization in Palestine

Yasser Arafat, founder of the PLO, and Yitzak
Rabin, Israels prime minister, shake hands after
signing the Olso Accords in 1994
Iranian Revolution
  • Preliminary Phase
  • Iran was never colonized
  • Shah Reza Pahlavi ruled as a dictator
  • Used oil profits to modernize Iran
  • Reforms angered the middle class, religious
    leaders, merchants, rural poor, urban laborers,
    and the army
  • The Event
  • In the late 1970s a decline in oil prices caused
    massive unemployment and rural unrest

Iranian Revolution
  • Initial Phase
  • Sit-ins, riots, urban protests
  • Government exiled religious leaders
  • Military was unwilling to defend the Shah
  • Radical Phase
  • Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile in France
    overthrew the Shah in 1979
  • Ayatollah proclaimed himself jurisprudent
  • Ayatollah quickly repressed constitutional
    leftist revolutionaries

Images of the Revolution
Images of the Revolution
Recovery Phase
  • Shiite Fundamentalism
  • Purge Iran of the satanic influences of the
    U.S. Europe
  • Banned alcohol, coeducational classrooms, mixed
    swimming, western entertainment
  • Institute Sharia law
  • Iran Hostage Crisis
  • Iranians stormed the U.S. embassy taking 70
    Americans captive
  • Government Reforms
  • Nationalized banks, insurance companies, large
  • Attempts at land reform and economic development
    were minimal due to the Iran Iraq War