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20th Century Timelines Episode Ten: Century of the Globe 19002000


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Title: 20th Century Timelines Episode Ten: Century of the Globe 19002000

20th Century Timelines Episode Ten Century of
the Globe (1900-2000)
  • http//www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/millennium/learni

The Shape of the Twentieth Century The history
of the twentieth century can be
summarized--excessively briefly--in five
propositions First, that the history of the
twentieth century was overwhelmingly economic
history. Second, that the twentieth century saw
the material wealth of humankind explode beyond
all previous imagining.
Third, that because of advances in technology,
productivity, and organization--and the feelings
of social dislocation and disquiet that these
advances generated--the twentieth centurys
tyrannies were the most brutal and barbaric in
history. Fourth, that the twentieth century saw
the relative economic gulf between different
economies grow at a rapid pace. .
Fifth and last, that economic policy--the
management of their economies by governments--in
the twentieth century was at best inept. Little
was known or learned about how to manage a market
or a mixed economy.
Commanding Heights
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/lo/story

POS 150 WW Contemporary Social and Political
Issues Online Fall 2004
One Hundred Years Ago Bob Hope was born (May
1903) The Wright Brothers Flew (Dec,
1903) Average Life Expectancy was 47 14 of homes
had a bathtub 8 of homes had a telephone A three
minute call from Denver to New York cost 11
dollars There were 8, 000 cars in the US and only
144 miles of paved roads The maximum speed in
most cities was 10 miles per hour
One hundred Years Ago Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa
and Tennssee were more heavily populated than
California. California, 1.4 million, was only
the 21st most populous state in the Union Average
pay was 300 dollars a year The highest paid
professional was a veterinarian at 4000 dollars
a year 95 of all births in the US took place at
home Sugar cost 4 cents a pound. Eggs were 14
cents a dozen. Coffee was 15 cents a pound Most
women only washed their hair once a month and
used borax or eggs yolks to shampoo.
One hundred Years Ago Canada passes a law
prohibiting poor people from entering the country
for any reason. The five leading causes or death
in the US were 1. Pneumonia, 2. Tuberculosis 3.
Diarrhea, 4. Heart disease and 5. Stroke The
American flag has 45 stars. Arizona, Oklahoma,
New Mexico, Hawaii and Alaska had not been
admitted to the Union. The population of Las
Vegas, Nevada was 30. Canned beer and iced tea
had not been invented. There were no Mothers or
Fathers Day One in ten US adults could not read
or write. Only 6 of All Americas had graduated
from high school.
One hundred Years Ago Marijuana, heroin, and
morphine were all available over the counter at
corner drugstores. According to one pharmacists,
Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to
the mind, regulates the stomach and bowels, and
is, in fact, a perfect guardian of
health. Eighteen percent of households in the US
had a least one full-time servant or
domestic. There were only 230 reported murders a
year in the entire US. Worldwide cities in the
industrial north claimed the top 10 largest
cities in the world. London was the largest at
6.5 million. Population of the world is 1.5
The Larger Twentieth-Century World Context The
20th century revealed a world dominated by
Western European Imperial interests. Events of
World War I, the depression, and World War II
told a long story of how European nation-states
in their competitive quest for alliances, more
colonies, and new markets destroyed what they had
From a global perspective the first half of the
20th century is a story of how Western Europe
lost its relative position of global power. The
disappearance of the European dominance in 1945
created a power vacuum. Within two years the
United States and the Soviet Union replaced the
old power structures as the new super powers. The
Cold War replaced the fiery World War II inferno.

The Lure of the Superpowers With the demise of
western European imperialism, former colonies,
often poorly prepared to be independent, became
new nation states. Colonial experiences shaped
the transition to independence. Many of the 100
newly formed nation-states that joined the United
Nations lacked the infrastructure and political
stability necessary for nation building as they
faced severe economic problems.
These new nations were wooed by
competing interests of both the Soviets and
the U.S. Since the immediate task in the
aftermath of World War II was rebuilding, each
side offered foreign aid and military support as
well as advantageous trade agreements to those
who became allies.
Both sides competed to establish networks of
regional alliances. Many former colonies,
however, refused and joined a network of
non-aligned nations led by India.
The Cold War The Iron Curtain divided the
communist East and the capitalist West. The arms
race of the Cold War continued for forty years.
However, both U.S. and Soviet leadership were
challenged by their own allies. Marshall Tito
successfully ended Soviet influence in Yugoslavia
in 1948.
Hungary (1956) and later Czechslovakia (1968)
suffered the consequences of Soviet invasion
following unsuccessful revolts against Soviet
rule. In Asia competitive interests along a
shared, common border and the issue of Chinese
aid led to a split between China and the USSR.
Events indicated that not all communists shared
the same interests.
In the West, France withdrew from NATO,
challenging the leadership of the United States.
At times the Cold War brought the Super Powers
into direct confrontation. The Cuban missile
crisis led the world to the brink of nuclear war.
The weakness of both sides was demonstrated
during the 70's by the U.S.defeat in Viet Nam and
the failure of the Soviet invasion of
In the end, the West out-produced the East. In
1989 the Berlin Wall was torn down by East and
West Germans as Communist guards watched. The
Soviet Empire disintegrated two years later
leaving the global stage to the American military
and the global market.
Technology and Transportation 20th century
technologies altered the lives of ordinary
peoples and the structure of their societies. A
person whose life spanned the greater part of
the 20th century witnessed more technological
change than any other generation in human
Humans were liberated from the efforts of slow,
non-mechanized travel. 20th Century
transportation became inexpensive, dependable,
and fast. The horse and buggy was replaced by
trains, automobiles, and planes, enabling large
migrations of peoples around the globe from
agricultural regions to urban centers and to
suburban clusters outside the city cores.
Streetcars and subways and later complex highway
systems allowed peoples in industrialized
societies to commute long distances to work by
the end of the century.
Urban Migration These changes were coupled with
environment consequences as valuable agricultural
lands and forest were cleared for highways. Air
pollution in urban centers increased. Urban
migrations served as a prelude to international
migrations of peoples seeking work.
They sent money home to their families, became
immigrants in a new land or simply returned home
again. Turks migrated to Germany, Indians to
South Africa, Chinese to Canada, Egyptians to the
Gulf States and Mexicans to the United States.
The Communications Revolution Between 1850 and
1913 world trade expanded tenfold, aided by the
use of telephones and telegraphs. As the century
ended, world trade had fully recovered from the
devastation of two world wars and a depression.
Global trade was facilitated by the computer, the
Internet, multinational corporations, and other
parts of a true communications revolution. The
sun never set on the global exchange nor on the
news. Older forms of communications technology
such as telephones and telegraphs have were
augmented but not replaced by newer forms of
Newspapers and radios were supplemented by
television. CNN was the first to establish
continual international reporting around the
globe. Now reports from even the most remote
regions of the planet were transmitted by cell
phone and modem to be circulated via web sites,
television, radio, newspapers and magazines.
The realization that not all peoples share the
same interpretation of events or the same
understanding of the past has led to the need to
understand multiple perspectives. At the same
time, others recognized the importance of
developing a clear understanding of one's own
history and cultural traditions.
Future Challenges As we enter the 21st century,
economies in many parts of the world are
booming, yet 20 of the world's peoples earn less
than 500 a year. The earth's population has
grown from 2.50 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion
Diseases like small pox have been eradicated yet
the mobility of peoples traveling the globe
increases the possibility of another pandemic
like the flu outbreak of 1918 or
the spread of a new disease like AIDS. Crop
failure and natural disasters no longer need to
result in famine, provided an infrastructure
exists for the purchase, delivery, and
distribution of food.
The global market seeks new consumer products and
new technologies, Meeting these demands may have
global consequences such as deforestation, the
extinction of plant and
animals, or global warming. Religious
differences, ethnic cleansing, competing
commercial interests, or territorial disputes
could result in new warfare.
Yet within the rich cultural traditions of our
multi-ethnic world, individuals are seeking
solutions to these current challenges. If there
is a legacy from the 20th century, perhaps it is
the resilience of human societies to develop
solutions to global issues using ideas and
technology within their own cultural context.
Ideas about how something has been done in one
society may prove useful to the rest of us. Like
a mountain meadow covered with wildflowers of
every color and size, the diversity of peoples
and cultures offers us a vast array of human
experience from which we can learn lessons of the
past and anticipate the new creativity of the
human mind.
We are free to pick and choose which ideas and
legacies will enrich our lives in the 21st
Important Dates from the 20th Century 1901
Marconi sends first tranatlantic wireless
message 1903 Wright brothers fly 1903 Panama
Canal begun 1908 Ford Builds the Model T
1914 World War I begins 1914 Sanger founds
birth control movement, 1917 Russian
Revolution begins, 1928 Fleming discovers
penicillin 1928 First regular TV broadcast
1929 Depression moves to the United States 1933
Hitler takes power 1934 Mao leads Long March
to Chinese revolution 1945 Atomic bomb dropped
on Hiroshima
1947 Transistors lead way to computer age. 1947
India gains independence, 1953 DNA
mapped 1962 Carsons Silent Spring 1969
Armstrong walks on the moon
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1989 - the Berlin Wall was torn down 1991 - The
Soviet Empire disintegrated.
science investigated both the internal world of
the mind and the external world of physics
EUROPE Twentieth-century world wars, ideological
fanaticism, and genocide smashed
nineteenth-century optimism and belief in human
USA Population increases, faster and cheaper
modes of transportation, and the end of European
empires led to mass population movements in the
twentieth century.
NORTH AMERICA In many ways, the twentieth
century belongs to America. Americans developed,
exploited, and marketed worldwide new
technologies like the automobile, telephone,
television, and computer.
JAPAN The post-World War II economic boom
affected Asia as well as Europe and America. With
the help of American aid, Japan rebuilt and
began to challenge the American export market in
the field of cars and electronics. The economies
of other Asian "dragons" like Singapore, Hong
Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea also grew at
extraordinary rates.
Web Links http//turnerlearning.com/cnn/millennium
People 20th Century Albert Einstein 1879
1955 He bumped Newton from the pinnacle of
physics and painted a fantastic new picture of
our universe. In the process, Albert Einstein
changed the political and scientific balance of
power in our century and for the foreseeable
Henry Ford 1863 1947 His revolutionary assembly
line enabled him to sell his cars at a price the
average American family could afford, and to
double his workers' wages while cutting hours.
What had been a toy of the rich became a
necessity of life, spawning gas stations,
superhighways and traffic jams around the world.
Sigmund Freud 1856 1939 Freud's emphasis on the
power of the unconscious to influence behavior
broadened our view of human nature and sexuality
and gave rise to the age of self-examination.
Mohandas Gandhi 1869 1948, Gandhi's powerful
strategy, called satyagraha, involved nonviolent
noncooperation, boycotts of all things British,
civil disobedience, marches and fasts. His
methods use for Indian independence have been
adopted by protest movements throughout the
Adolf Hitler 1889 1945 Along with his mastery
of propaganda, his ideology of racial purity and
his ruthless political skills, Hitler possessed a
diabolical personal magnetism. By the time Hitler
was defeated in 1945, as many as 77 million
people had died, leaving him responsible for more
death than any other man in the history of the
Edwin Hubble 1889 1953 His 1924 discovery that
the Andromeda nebula is located beyond the known
boundaries of the Milky Way forced other
astronomers to revise their thinking The
existence of multiple galaxies meant the universe
was far larger than imagined.
Helen Keller 1880 1968 An illness when she was
19 months old left her deaf, blind and mute. With
the help of a teacher named Anne Sullivan -- "the
miracle worker" -- Helen Keller learned to
understand language, read, write, hear, and
speak. She remains proof that disability does not
mean inability.
Martin Luther King 1929 1968 Martin Luther King
Jr.'s crusade for equality started with a protest
of the bus system in Montgomery, Ala., in 1955,
and peaked in the nation's capital. King won the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, and in 1986 became
only the third American whose birthday is
observed as a national holiday. His call to "let
freedom ring" still resonates.
Vladimir Lenin 1870 1924 He led the October
1917 revolution that delivered Russia to the
Bolsheviks and started the worldwide spread of
the Soviet-style communism. A fighter against
czarist injustice he laid the foundation for
decades of totalitarianism.
Nelson Mandela 1918 He roused South Africa's
black majority and sympathizers abroad -- to
rebel against the system of racial tyranny known
as apartheid. Nelson Mandela's courage and
resolve earned him a Nobel Peace Prize, the
presidency of his country and the admiration of
millions around the world.
Mao Zedong 1893 1976 His Long March lead the
Red Army, from resistance against the Japanese to
defeat of the Nationalists and the rise, in 1949,
of the People's Republic. A brilliant warrior,
Mao was a despotic dictator. Mao cast a giant
shadow on the world, and a darker one on his own
Guglielmo Marconi 1874 1937, Guglielmo
Marconi's transmission of a signal the Morse
Code letter S -- across the Atlantic in 1901 was
a worldwide sensation. It opened the airwaves for
today's complex network of global communications.
Kwame Nkrumah 1909 1972 His radical push for
Ghanaian self-governance in the 1950s triggered
decolonization throughout the African continent,
which led to the end of European domination.
Orville (1871 1948) and Wilbur (1867 1912)
Wright In 1903, Orville and Wilbur succeeded in
flying the first powered airplane. Flight time
12 seconds. Mankind's view of the world -- and of
its own power -- had changed forever.
How the World Has Changed Worlds 5 Largest
Urban Areas (million population) 1000 Cordova
.45 Kaifeng (China) .40 Constantinople
(Istanbul) .30 Angkor .20 Kyoto .18
How the World Has Changed Worlds 5 Largest
Urban Areas (million population) 1800 Peking
(Beijing) 1.1 London .86 Canton
.80 Edo (Tokyo) .69 Constantinople
(Istanbul) .57
How the World Has Changed Worlds 5 Largest
Urban Areas (million population) 1900 London 6
.5 New York 4.2 Paris 3.3 Berlin 2.7 Ch
icago 1.7
How the World Has Changed Worlds 5 Largest
Urban Areas (million population) 2000 Tokyo 2
6.5 Sao Paulo 18.3 Mexico City 18.3 New
York 16.8 Mumbai (Bombay) 16.5
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