Getting It Right: Educating Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness * * This McKinney-Vento 101 presentation was developed by the Texas Homeless Education Office (THEO) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Getting It Right: Educating Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness * * This McKinney-Vento 101 presentation was developed by the Texas Homeless Education Office (THEO)

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Title: Getting It Right: Educating Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness * * This McKinney-Vento 101 presentation was developed by the Texas Homeless Education Office (THEO)


1
Getting It Right Educating Children and Youth
Experiencing Homelessness This
McKinney-Vento 101 presentation was developed by
the Texas Homeless Education Office (THEO)
  • The Texas McKinney-Vento Education for Homeless
    Children and Youths (EHCY) Program is sponsored
    by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), the Region
    10 Education Service Center, and the Texas
    Homeless Education Office (THEO)at the Charles
    A. Dana Center at The University of Texas at
    Austin

2
Welcome
  • This presentation provides in-depth
    information on the McKinney-Vento Act, also known
    as Title X, Part C, of the Elementary and
    Secondary Education Act. It is designed to be
    self-paced, allowing the learner to spend as much
    time as necessary to grasp the concepts
    presented.
  • Should you have questions or need
    clarification as you review this information,
    please contact the Texas Homeless Education
    Office at 1-800-446-3142.

3
How many Khadijahs are in your school?
For almost all of my life, I have never had a
place to call home. I have questioned why I have
to struggle so hard to succeed while others do
not have to question whether they will go to
college. However, there is one thing I have never
questioned My education. My life and
circumstances have given me life skills, that in
turn, have helped make me into the driven and
passionate student I am today. Khadijah
WilliamsHarvard University Class of 2014
4
Contributing Factors to Homelessness
Lack of affordable housing
  • Lack or loss of economic support networks
  • Lack or loss of social support networks

5
How many individuals experience homelessness in
TX?
Texas estimate . . .
79,000 Texas Homeless Network, 2012
on any given night.
6
Challenges of living inhomeless situations
Loss of control and independence
7
Do young children and olderyouth become homeless?
  • 1.7 million youth run away from home each year.
  • High rates of abuse, neglect, parental substance
    abuse, family dysfunction
  • 51 of all children in shelters are under the age
    of 6.

8
How many children and youth experience
homelessness?
  • The Urban Institute estimates that approximately
    10 of all children experiencing poverty will
    experience homelessness in a year
  • Nationwide, 1,065,794 homeless students
    identified by public schools in SY 2011-2012

9
How many children and youth experience
homelessness in TX?
53,200 2007-2008
Texas homeless students served by academic year
as reported by the Texas Education Agency. . . .
80,940 2008-2009
76,095 2009-2010
85,155 2010-2011
95,868 2011-2012
Over 101,607
10
How many children and youth experience
homelessness in TX?
  • According to the 2010 TEXAS census data
    1,584,000 children lived below poverty level in
    TX
  • 10 would be 158,400
  • Actual likely between 160,000 and 180,000(some
    estimates as high as 320,000)

11
Helpful Demographics for Local Region/ISD to
Research and Have on Hand
Sources
www.city-data.com/housing/houses.html Out
of Reach, National Low Income Housing Coalition
_at_ nlihc.org
Population Population Growth
Households Median Age
Median Income Unemployment Rate
Median Home Value
Poverty Rate
Child Poverty Rate
Rental Rates 1 BR 2 BR TX 2 BR
826 14.97/hr. x 42 x 52 1.1 wage
earners OR 2.2 min wage earners
Children ISD In
Poverty Homeless Identified

12
Children are Homeless
Children experiencinghomelessness experiencethe
trauma of loss
  • home / room / neighborhood /
  • family members / school / community /
    possessions / security / safety /
  • self esteem / predictable routines

13
Address Effects of Trauma on Homeless Children
and Families
  • Enable good decision- making by the parent /
    caregiver / unaccompanied youth
  • Help students recover from traumatic events
  • Preserve the best interest of the child or
    youth

14
The Challenge Before Us
  • Children living in homeless situations may
    perform two to three years below grade level in
    school.
  • For many children, every move costs them as much
    as 4-6 months of academic progress.
  • Casey Family Programs

15
Cycle of Homelessness
Source Mary Ann Weinacht, Ed.D., Assoc.
Professor Mary Nan Aldridge, Ph.D., Professor,
Sul Ross State University
Job Family Life Mental/Physical Health Safety
16
When is a person no longer considered homeless?
When they become Permanently Housed.
  • Develop a working definition for district
    procedures
  • Challenges of doubled-up families may remain
    homeless for months and even years

17
Schools were not designed to serve homeless
students!
  • We have to adjust our schools to meet the
    situations in whichthese children and youth are
    living.

18
McKinney-Vento Act
  • Major Requirements
  • School access enrolling students
  • School stability attending school remaining in
    same school while mobile
  • Support academic success
  • Child-centered, best-interest decision-making
  • Case-by-case determinations of homeless status
  • Critical role of the homeless liaison determines
  • homeless status among other duties

19
McKinney-Vento Liaisons
  • The Key to McKinney-Vento Act implementation
  • Every school district must designate a liaison
    who is in charge of implementing the
    McKinney-Vento Act.
  • The liaison ensures identification, enrollment,
    transportation, services, dispute resolution, and
    awareness.
  • The liaison works in coordination with all the
    schools in the district, as well as the community.

20
McKinney-Vento Liaisons
A directory of liaisons is located on the Texas
Homeless Education website at www.utdanacenter.or
g/theo
21
EligibilityWho is Coveredby the McKinney-Vento
Act?
  • Children who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate
    nighttime residence, including
  • Sharing the housing of others due to loss of
    housing, economic hardship, or similar reason
  • 80 of identified homeless children and youth in
    Texas
  • Where would you go if you couldnt stay here?
  • What led you to move in to this situation?

22
EligibilityWho is Coveredby the McKinney-Vento
Act?
  • Living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, camping
    grounds due to lack of adequate alternative
    accommodations
  • Motels 5.5 of identified homeless children
    and youth in Texas
  • Living in emergency or transitional shelters
  • 11.5 of identified homeless children and youth
    in Texas
  • Living in a public or private place not designed
    for humans to live sheds, bus stations, etc.

23
EligibilityWho is Coveredby the McKinney-Vento
Act?
  • Living in cars, parks, abandoned buildings,
    substandard housing, bus or train stations, or
    similar settings
  • 3 of identified homeless children and youth
    in Texas
  • Migratory/migrant children living in above
    circumstances
  • Awaiting foster care placement
  • Relatively restrictive definition in Texas

24
EligibilityWho is Coveredby the McKinney-Vento
Act?
  • Undocumented children and youth have the same
    right to attend public school as U.S. citizens
    (Plyler vs. Doe) and are covered by the
    McKinney-Vento Act
  • Challenges of multiple definitions of
    homelessness that do not pertain to the education
    arena i.e., HUD definition differs from
    education definition

25
EligibilityWho is Coveredby the McKinney-Vento
Act?
fixed . Securely placed or fastened. Not
subject to change or fluctuation. A fixed
residence is one that is stationary, permanent,
and not subject to change. Inhabitant One
who, although he may not be a citizen, dwells or
resides in a place permanently or has a fixed
residence therein, as distinguished from an
occasional lodger or visitor. Domicile The
place where a person has his true fixed permanent
home and principal establishment, and to which
place he has, whenever he is absent, the
intention of returning, and from which he has no
present intention of moving.
26
EligibilityWho is Coveredby the McKinney-Vento
Act?
regular . Normal, standard. Constituted,
conducted, or done in conformity with established
or prescribed usages, rules, or discipline.
Recurring, attending, or functioning at fixed or
uniform intervals. Consistent. A regular
residence is one which is used on a regular
(i.e., nightly) basis. Habitual By habit
constant customary, accustomed, usual common
ordinary regular familiar.
27
EligibilityWho is Coveredby the McKinney-Vento
Act?
  • adequate .
  • Sufficient for a specific requirement.
    Lawfully and reasonably sufficient.
  • Fully sufficient equal to what is required
    lawfully and reasonably sufficient.
  • An adequate residence is one that is sufficient
    for meeting both the physical and psychological
    needs typically met in home environments.

28
Determining Eligibility
  • Some instances are clear others require judgment
    call
  • Use fixed, regular, and adequate as your
    standard
  • Follow a process
  • Get the facts
  • Analyze the facts
  • Is the living situation listed in the MV
    definition?
  • Is the living situation another kind of situation
    that is not fixed, regular, and adequate?

29
Determining Eligibility
  • Doubled-up situations Sharing the housing of
    others due to loss of housing, economic hardship,
    or a similar reason
  • Why did the family/friends move in together?
  • How permanent is the arrangement meant to be?
  • Is it fixed, regular, and adequate?
  • Awaiting foster care placement
  • Collaborate with your local child welfare
    community
  • Consider whether the placement is temporary /
    emergency or intended to be permanent

30
Determining Eligibility
  • Substandard housing
  • Communities vary evaluate housing according to
    local standards/norms, e.g., building codes,
    definition of substandard, etc.
  • Sample considerations
  • Health and safety concerns
  • Number of occupants per square foot
  • Age of occupants
  • State and local building codes
  • Collaborate with local housing agencies to
    establish guidelines that incorporate state and
    local legal requirements and community standards.

31
Determining Eligibility
  • Case-by-case, by the liaison
  • Determining Eligibility brief on THEO website
  • Get as much information as possible
  • Sensitivity Avoid the word homeless
    alternatives include temporary living situation
    or in transition
  • Student Residency Questionnaire
  • www.utdanacenter.org/theo/downloads/factsheets/RP1
    4_SRQ.doc

32
Identification
  • All homeless children and youth must be
    identified
  • The Urban Institute estimates that approximately
    10 of all children experiencing poverty will
    experience homelessness in a year
  • Nationwide, school districts are reporting
    increases in the number of children in homeless
    situations

33
Identifying EligibleChildren and Youth
  • Identification is critical
  • It affects state and local funding
  • Its the law
  • It affects students eligibility for a wide
    variety of services
  • Refer to the Identification Checklist on the THEO
    website

34
Ideas for Identification
  • Outreach is key posters, key contacts (schools,
    shelters, hotels, motels, campgrounds, law
    enforcement, food banks, medical clinics, banks)
  • Make schools welcoming environments
  • Raise school staff awareness of homelessness
  • MV information in district handbooks/websites
  • Database of student addresses

35
Identification Strategies
  • Provide training for a wide variety of ISD and
    school staff.
  • Use a Student Residency Questionnaire upon
    enrollment of all students.
  • Provide outreach materials and posters in schools
    and where there is a frequent influx of
    low-income families and youth in high-risk
    situations.
  • http//www.utdanacenter.org/theo/resources/posters
    .php

36
Required Posting and Notification
The McKinney-VentoAct requires publicnotice of
educational rights of children and youth
experiencing homelessness disseminated inevery
school districtat every campus --and wherever
servicesare accessed.
37
Identification Strategies
  • Coordinate with community service agencies,
    particularly agencies serving youth
  • Ask early childhood and preschool providers for
    help
  • Make sure data entry and database managers know
    how to enter and maintain information in the
    PEIMS database
  • Understand the PEIMS homeless status and
    unaccompanied youth status indicators

38
The Basics on PEIMS Coding Homeless Youth
Indicator
All students in Texas public schools MUST have an
indicator selected for their homeless status
  • 0 default PEIMS status NOT homeless
  • 1 living in a shelter homeless
  • 2 living doubled-up homeless
  • 3 unsheltered homeless
  • 4 living in a hotel, motel homeless

39
The Basics on PEIMS Coding Homeless Youth
Indicator
Unsheltered is defined as a nighttime residence
that is a public or private place not designed
for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping
accommodation for human beings. It includes such
places as cars, parks, campgrounds (if they live
there because they lack an alternative
accommodation), abandoned buildings, and
substandard housing. Substandard housing may be
determined by local building codes, community
norms, and/or a case-by-case determination as to
whether the accommodation is a fixed, regular,
and adequate nighttime residence.
40
The Basics on PEIMS CodingUnaccompanied
Homeless Youth Indicator
  • MV defines UY as a youth not in the physical
    custody of a parent or guardian
  • Living arrangements must meet the Acts
    definition of homeless to qualify for
    McKinney-Vento services and be coded in PEIMS
  • No lower age limit upper age limit to be
    considered a youth is 21 (students may attend
    until age 26, the states upper age limit for
    public education)
  • Can be eligible regardless of whether he/she was
    asked to leave the home or chose to leave

41
The Basics on PEIMS CodingUnaccompanied
Homeless Youth Indicator
  • 0  Homeless Student is not unaccompanied at any t
    ime during the current school yea.  
  • 1  Homeless Student is unaccompanied (i.e., is no
    t in the physical custody of a parent or legal
    guardian) and received services under the
    McKinney-Vento program at any time during the
    current school year. Only districts that receive
    a MV subgrant will use a 1 to code students.
  • 2  Homeless Student is unaccompanied (i.e., is no
    t in the physical custody of a parent or legal
    guardian) and did NOT receive services under the
    McKinney-Vento program at any time during the
    current school year

42
Who needs to knowa students homeless status?
  • Anyone who can aid the students enrollment,
    attendance, or success in school
  • FERPA considerations
  • District policies

43
What happens after astudent is identified?
  • Appropriate follow-up to assure enrollment,
    attendance, and success in school
  • Provide interventions for students with
    attendance or academic performance issues
  • Provide transportation and other support
    strategies

44
When is a person no longer considered homeless?
When they become Permanently Housed
  • Develop a working definition for district
    procedures
  • Recommend time-frames to consider
  • Doubled-up families may be homeless for
    extended periods of times

45
Length of eligibility for MV
  • Once identified, students are eligible for
    services for the duration of the school year,
    even if they become permanently housed (includes
    foster care children if identified as homeless
    prior to the end of the school year)
  • OR
  • For the duration of homelessness

45
46
Length of eligibility for MV
  • Currently identified students should not roll
    to next years identification list without proper
    verification
  • Homeless status is determined on an annual basis
    or as needed during the school year
  • Status can change quickly fire, natural
    disaster, loss of employment, eviction, etc.

46
47
How McKinney-Vento Comes into Play with Children
in Foster Care
  • When McKinney-Vento applies to children involved
    with CPS
  • When a McKinney-Vento-type provision exists for
    children in foster care Fostering Connections
    some state laws
  • When McKinney-Vento does not apply and no similar
    provision exists for children in foster care

48
When McKinney-Vento Applies
  • When child is awaiting foster care placement
    federal MV language
  • Children in CPS custody in certain particularly
    unstable placements are considered McKinney
    eligible, i.e., ran away from foster placement,
    in a shelter or transitional living program
  • Children in care under a safety plan will
    likely qualify
  • Children with a 2085FC will likely NOT qualify

49
When McKinney-Vento Applies
  • Awaiting foster care
  • In a shelter
  • Ran away from foster care and living in
    ahomeless situation NOT in another foster home
  • Aged out and is living in a homeless situation
  • Other - living in a homeless situation

50
When McKinney-VentoDoes Not Apply
  • When children are in foster care they are not
    awaiting foster care placement and therefore
    are not McKinney-Vento eligible
  • Texas discerns between formal and informal
    out-of-home care

51
Substitute and Foster Care
  • Substitute Care Care of childrenoutside
    immediate family
  • Formal processes - not homeless(foster home,
    group home, residential treatment centers,
    kinship care, adoption, legal guardianship)
  • Informal processes - homeless(relative care,
    non-relative care, shelter care, transitional
    living, unaccompanied youth who meet M-V
    guidelines)

52
Substitute and Foster Care
  • Does CPS have custody/ward of state?
  • Is the home licensed or certified?
  • Is it a kinship or foster home?
  • Has there been a home study?
  • Is the family receiving financial support from
    CPS?
  • If the answer is no informal MV eligible
  • If the answer is yes formal not MV eligible

53
Awaiting Foster Care MV Eligible? The
Jones family is a kinship home for their
grandchildren who were removed from their
mothers care when CPS substantiated allegations
of abuse. CPS has custody of the children, and
provides services and financial support to the
Jones family. Are the children considered
awaiting foster care? NO. Are they MV eligible?
No. How do you know? What questions should you
ask?
54
Foster Care Liaison Database
The updated foster care liaison database with
contact information is available
at www.tea.state.tx.us/FosterCareStudentSuccess/
liaisons
55
School Selection
  • Homeless students may attend one of two schools
  • School of Origin School the child/youth attended
    when permanently housed or school in which
    child/youth last enrolled
  • Local Attendance Area School Any public school
    that nonhomeless students living in the
    attendance area in which the child/youth is
    actually living are eligible to attend
  • Best Interest In determining the best interest,
    the local educational agency shall to the extent
    feasible, keep a homeless child or youth in the
    school of origin, except when doing so is
    contrary to the wishes of the childs or youths
    parent or guardian.

56
School Selection
  • Students can stay in their school of origin the
    entire time they are homeless, or until the end
    of any academic year in which they move into
    permanent housing
  • If a student becomes homeless between academic
    years, he or she may continue in the school of
    origin for the following academic year
  • School of Origin does NOT apply to feeder
    patterns only to a specific campus once a
    student changes campus (i.e., promotion) SoO no
    longer applies

57
School Selection
  • The School of Origin never rolls off as an
    option for a student who is homeless to attend if
    it is in the best interest of the student and is
    feasible for the student to attend that school
  • If a student is sent to a school other than that
    requested by a parent or guardian, the district
    must provide a written explanation and the right
    to appeal

58
School Selection
  • Texas law allows homeless students to enroll in
    the DISTRICT of their choice if they meet the
    definition of homeless - not dependent on
    residency of student, guardian(s), or
    parent(s)- districts are not obligated to
    transportation to a school selected under
    this provision of State law

59
Feasibility
  • Feasibility criteria in the U.S. Department of
    Educations July 2004 Policy Guidance
  • age of the child or youth
  • distance of a commute and the impact it mayhave
    on the students education
  • personal safety issues
  • students need for special instruction (e.g.,
    special education and related services)
  • length of anticipated stay in the temporary
    location
  • time remaining in the school year
  • Student-centered, individualized determination

60
School Selection Key Questions
  • How permanent does the familys living situation
    appear?
  • How deep are the childs ties to current school?
  • How strong is the child academically?
  • Does one school have programs and activities that
    address the unique needs or interests of the
    student that the other school does not have?
  • Would the timing of the school transfer coincide
    with a logical juncture such as after testing,
    after an event that is significant to the child,
    or at the end of the school year?
  • How would the length of the commute impact the
    child?
  • Are there any safety issues to consider?
  • Guiding the Discussion on School Selection
    School Selection Checklist

61
School Enrollment
  • Homeless children have the right to enroll
    immediately, even if they do not have required
    documents
  • If a student does not have immunizationsor
    immunization or medical records, the liaison must
    assist with obtaining them and the student must
    be enrolled in the interim
  • Enrolling schools obtain school records from the
    previous school

62
School Enrollment
  • Children and youth who are homeless must be
    enrolled immediately in any school open to other
    children living in the same attendance zone
  • Immediate enrollment includes attending classes
    and participating fully in all school activities.
  • Texas law agrees that enrollment of homeless
    students is not dependent on the residency of the
    parent or guardian. TX Ed Code 25.001(b)(5)

63
School Enrollment
  • Immediate enrollment in school applies even if
    the student is lacking school records,
    immunizations, or other documents.
  • Immediate enrollment in school applieseven if no
    parent or guardian is present.
  • TX law allows youth to enroll in school on their
    own, as long as they are not in the district
    primarily to participate in extracurricular
    activities and not expelled/no current
    delinquent/criminal conduct. TX Ed. Code
    25.001(b)(4), (d)

64
School Enrollment
  • The terms enroll and enrollment include
    attending classes and participating fully in
    school activities.
  • Schools must provide students with a free,
    appropriate public education therefore, schools
    must make an appropriate placement decision for
    McKinney-Vento eligible students upon their
    enrollment

65
School Enrollment
  • Students attending their school of origin are not
    to be considered transfer students
  • Students in homeless situations should not be
    required to fill out dual residency forms, have
    any type of residency documents notarized (i.e.,
    letters from the host family they are staying
    with), or provide any proof of residency
  • Adults enrolling homeless students do not need to
    change the address on their drivers license

66
Transportation
  • LEAs must provide homeless students
    transportation to their school of origin, ata
    parents or guardians request (or at the
    liaisons request for an unaccompanied youth)
  • Districts may choose the manner used to transport
    the student
  • Students must not be penalized for district
    delays in arranging transportation
  • Use transportation compacts or contracts

67
Transportation to School of Origin
  • If the students temporary residence and the
    school of origin are in the same LEA, that LEA
    must provide or arrange transportation
  • If the student is living outside of the school of
    origins LEA, then the LEA where the student is
    living and the SoOs LEA must determine how to
    divide the responsibility and cost, or they must
    share them equally

68
Transportation
  • If the distance of students place of residence
    to the school of origin is within the districts
    normal cut-off distance (e.g., 2 miles) for
    providing student transportation, the district
    must verify if the student has a means to get to
    school. If not, transportation must be provided,
    even though other students attending the same
    school and living the same distance from the
    campus do not receive transportation services.

69
Transportation
  • In addition to providing transportation to the
    SoO, LEAs must provide homeless students with
    transportation services comparable to those
    provided to other students
  • School districts must eliminate barriers to
    school enrollment and retention of students
    experiencing homelessness (including
    transportation barriers)

70
Transportation
  • Foster care children are entitled to remain in
    the current school they were attending at the
    time of placement -- when possible -- but
    there is not a funding mechanism in place for
    this in Texas outside of the payments received by
    foster parents.
  • School districts are not obligated to provide or
    pay for this transportation for foster students,
    and this transportation cannot be paid with M-V
    funds.

71
Transportation Strategies
  • Develop collaborative relationships
  • Use specialty school buses, including special
    education and magnet school buses
  • Develop formal or informal agreements with LEAs
    where children cross district lines
  • Reimburse parents (or youth) for gas
  • Link homeless students with carpools
  • Explore community resources, public transportation

72
Child Nutrition Programs
  • US Department of Agriculture policy allows
    homeless students immediate access to freemeals
    upon identification by liaisonsor shelter
    providers (categorical eligibility)
  • In doubled-up situations, host families may count
    guest family on their application
  • Foster care children are eligible for free school
    meals

73
Immunizations
  • All homeless students have 30 days provisional
    enrollment to supply immunization records or
    begin the required course of immunizations
  • Liaison must be notified when immunizations are
    lacking and must help student obtain them
  • Provisional enrollment applies regardless if the
    student is enrolling in school for the first time
    or is entering the district from out-of-state

74
Immunizations
  • Provisional enrollment applies regardless of any
    immunization delinquencies that might exist, or
    that would keep nonhomeless students from
    enrolling and attending school
  • 30-day provisional enrollment is counted from the
    time of enrollment in the current district

75
Resolution of Enrollment Disputes
  • Admit child or youth immediately pending
    resolution of dispute
  • School must provide parent/guardian or youth with
    written explanation of the decision, including
    statement of rights
  • Referral to liaison for dispute resolution
  • Liaison ensures unaccompanied youth is
    immediately enrolled

76
Access to Services Title I
  • Any student who is homeless and attending any
    school in the district is eligible for Title I
    services
  • LEAs must set aside funds as are necessary to
    provide services comparable to those provided to
    children in Title I schools to serve homeless
    children who do not attend participating schools
  • LEAs can choose to provide services not
    ordinarily provided to other Title I students
    that are not available from other sources

77
Access to Services Title I
  • Title I funds can be used for transportation to
    the school of origin, as well as for other
    transportation needs of homeless students (for
    example routes home after tutoring or
    extra-curricular activities)

78
Title IA Set-Aside Funds
  • Additional instructional services in Title I
    schools or non-Title I schools
  • Partial support for the liaison position if Title
    I duties are performed
  • Tutoring programs in shelters
  • Eyeglasses
  • Educational trips
  • Uniforms
  • Transportation to the school of origin
  • X No prom dresses
  • X No housing costs (rent/utilities, motel stays)

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Preschool
  • Liaisons must ensure that families and children
    have access to Head Start, Even Start, and other
    public preschool programs administered by the LEA
  • Homeless 3- and 4-year-olds are automatically
    eligible for Pre-K. (Tex. Ed. Code 29.153)
  • Head Start was reauthorized in December 2007
    many provisions address serving homeless
    preschool aged children

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Unaccompanied Homeless Youth
  • MV defines UY as a youth not in the physical
    custody of a parent or guardian
  • Living arrangement must meet the Acts definition
    of homeless to qualify for McKinney-Vento
    services
  • No lower age limit upper age limit (as with all
    McKinney-Vento eligible students) is the states
    upper age limit for public education (Texas age
    limit 26)
  • Can be eligible regardless of whether he/she was
    asked to leave the home or chose to leave
    sometimes there is more than meets the eye in a
    youths home-life situation.

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Unaccompanied Homeless Youth
  • Train all district and school staff who work with
    youth (enrollment staff, secretaries, guidance
    counselors, principals, teachers, etc.) on the
    definition, rights, and needs of unaccompanied
    youth
  • Develop caregiver forms, self-enrollment forms
    for unaccompanied youth, and other forms to
    replace typical proof-of-guardianship such forms
    should be crafted carefully so they do not create
    further barriers or delay enrollment for sample
    forms visit www.serve.org/nche/downloads/toolkit/a
    ppd.pdf

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Unaccompanied Homeless Youth
  • Schools are mandated to report suspected abuse
    schools are NOT required to report runaways
  • Medical consent
  • Emergency care can be given to a minor of any age
    without parental consent if this is deemed
    medically necessary by a physician
  • Students 18 and older can consent to their own
    medical care
  • Married minors are emancipated and can grant
    consent for their own healthcare
  • 16-year-olds may consent to some medical care

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Support for Success
  • Liaisons must assist unaccompanied youth
  • Mentorship is critical
  • Work to identify the students experiencing
    homelessness in your school
  • Avoid using the word "homeless" in initial
    contacts with school personnel and youth.
  • Share information about the McKinney-Vento Act
    and homelessness with colleagues.

84
Support for Success
  • Put up a MV rights poster in your office.
  • Enlist youth to help spread the word among their
    peers.
  • Make it part of your routine to talk to youth
    about the McKinney-Vento Act and services for
    youth who have left home. You may be surprised by
    the students who meet the Acts definition!

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Strategies
  • Get in touch with local agencies that may serve
    homeless youth
  • Shelters, drop-in centers, street outreach
  • Soup kitchens, food banks
  • Boys Girls Clubs
  • Child welfare, law enforcement
  • Teen-parent programs
  • GLBTQ youth organizations

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Strategies
  • Help youth make the most of high school
  • Position higher education as a realistic goal and
    start planning early
  • Encourage and support participation in college
    access programs (Upward Bound, Talent Search,
    Gear-Up, Early/Middle College High School, etc.)
  • Encourage and support participation in
    extra-curricular activities
  • Assist with credit accrual and recovery

87
Strategies
  • Help youth prepare for college admissions.
  • Help youth search for scholarships.
  • http//www.naehcy.org/letendre_ab.html
  • Help youth with the Free Application for Federal
    Student Aid (FAFSA) and financial planning for
    college.
  • SAT/ACT fee waivers
  • Consider community college as a cost-effective
    step toward a 4-year degree
  • Help youth advocate with Financial Aid
    Administrators, if necessary.

88
Financial Aid and FAFSA Basics
  • Families are expected to contribute to higher
    education costs
  • For dependent students filling out the FAFSA
    requires income and asset information for both
    the student and the parent, and a parent
    signature
  • For independent students, no parental signature
    or income and asset information is needed

89
Independent Status forUnaccompanied Youth
  • College Cost Reduction and Access Act of 2008
    (CCRAA)
  • Grants independent student status to
    unaccompanied homeless youth and self-supporting
    youth at risk of homelessness.
  • These youth can apply for aid without parental
    signature or consideration of parental income.
  • Status must be verified by Local liaison,
    RHYA-funded shelter director or designee,
    HUD-funded shelter director or designee, OR
    College Financial Aid Administrator (FAA)

90
Independent Status forUnaccompanied Youth
  • College Cost Reduction and Access Act (CCRAA)
    uses the McKinney-Vento definition of homeless
    also includes a student living in the dorms if
    he/she otherwise would be homeless
  • At risk of homelessness when a students
    housing may cease to be fixed, regular, and
    adequate
  • Includes a homeless student fleeing an abusive
    parent, even if the parent would provide housing
    and support.

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Strategies
  • Do a MV-FAFSA Round-Up Week at your school!
  • Assist with the identification of students in
    homeless situations
  • Ensure that homelessness will not keep youth out
    of college
  • Ensure that ALL eligible students complete the
    FAFSA as unaccompanied homeless youth

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MV-FAFSA Round Up Week
  • Ready-made packets are available onTHEOs
    website
  • Sample script, sample letters for seniors
  • FAFSA Tips for School Counselors tip sheet
  • McKinney-Vento ID Checklist for counselors
  • Links to sample FAFSA verification letters and
    in-depth information about independent students,
    homelessness, and the FAFSA
  • Implementation support you need from THEO

93
Contact Us
Thank you for viewing this detailed introduction
to the McKinney-Vento Act. For more
information, please visit the THEO website at
www.utdanacenter.org/THEO or call
1-800-446-3142
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