Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

Description:

Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: you Last modified by: Jaime Yetter Created Date: 6/12/2007 12:19:41 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:210
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 102
Provided by: You
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach


1
Sustaining Biodiversity The Species Approach
  • Chapter 9

2
Core Case Study The Passenger Pigeon Gone
Forever
  • Passenger pigeon hunted to extinction by 1900
  • Commercial hunters used a "stool pigeon
  • Archeological record shows five mass extinctions
  • Human activities hastening more extinctions?

End of Slide
3
Passenger Pigeon
4
9-1 What Role Do Humans Play in the Premature
Extinction of Species?
  • Concept 9-1A We are degrading and destroying
    biodiversity in many parts of the world, and
    these threats are increasing.
  • Concept 9-1B Species are becoming extinct 100 to
    1,000 times faster than they were before modern
    humans arrived on the earth (the background
    rate), and by the end of this century, the
    extinction rate is expected to be 10,000 times
    the background rate.

5
Human Activities Are Destroying and Degrading
Biodiversity
  • Human activity has disturbed at least half of the
    earths land surface
  • Fills in wetlands
  • Converts grasslands and forests to crop fields
    and urban areas
  • Degraded aquatic biodiversity

End of Slide
6
Extinctions Are Natural but Sometimes They
Increase Sharply
  • Background extinction
  • Extinction rate
  • Mass extinction causes?
  • Levels of species extinction
  • Local extinction
  • Ecological extinction
  • Biological extinction

End of Slide
7
Some Human Activities Cause Premature
Extinctions the Pace Is Speeding Up (1)
  • Premature extinctions due to
  • Habitat destruction
  • Overhunting

End of Slide
8
Some Human Activities Cause Premature
Extinctions the Pace Is Speeding Up (2)
  • Conservative estimates of extinction 0.01-1.0
  • Growth of human population will increase this
    loss
  • Rates are higher where there are more endangered
    species
  • Tropical forests and coral reefs, wetlands and
    estuariessites of new speciesbeing destroyed
  • Speciation crisis

End of Slide
9
Animal Species Prematurely Extinct Due to Human
Activities
10
Passenger pigeon
Great auk
Dodo
Golden toad
Aepyornis (Madagascar)
Fig. 9-2, p. 185
11
Effects of a 0.1 Extinction Rate
12
Number of species existing
Effects of a 0.1 extinction rate
5 million
5,000 extinct per year
14 million
14,000 extinct per year
50 million
50,000 extinct per year
100,000 extinct per year
100 million
200
0
50
100
150
Number of years until one million species are
extinct
Fig. 9-3, p. 186
13
Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological
Smoke Alarms
  • Endangered species
  • Threatened species, vulnerable species
  • Characteristics of such species

End of Slide
14
Endangered Natural Capital Species Threatened
with Premature Extinction
15
Kirklands warbler
Knowlton cactus
African elephant
Grizzly bear
Florida manatee
Siberian tiger
Utah prairie dog
Humpback chub
Golden lion tamarin
Swallowtail butterfly
Northern spotted owl
Giant panda
Whooping crane
Black-footed ferret
Blue whale
Mountain gorilla
Florida panther
California condor
Hawksbill sea turtle
Black rhinoceros
Fig. 9-4, p. 187
16
Characteristics of Species That Are Prone to
Ecological and Biological Extinction
17
Characteristic
Examples
Low reproductive rate (K-strategist)
Blue whale, giant panda, rhinoceros
Blue whale, giant panda, Everglades kite
Specialized niche
Elephant seal, desert pupfish
Narrow distribution
Bengal tiger, bald eagle, grizzly bear
Feeds at high trophic level
Fixed migratory patterns
Blue whale, whooping crane, sea turtle
Rare
African violet, some orchids
Snow leopard, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, rare
plants and birds
Commercially valuable
California condor, grizzly bear, Florida panther
Large territories
Fig. 9-5, p. 188
18
Stepped Art
Fig. 9-5, p. 188
19
Percentage of Various Species Threatened with
Premature Extinction
20
Fishes
34 (51 of freshwater species)
Amphibians
32
Mammals
25
20
Reptiles
14
Plants
Birds
12
Fig. 9-6, p. 189
21
Science Focus Estimating Extinction Rates Is Not
Easy
  • Three problems
  • Hard to document due to length of time
  • Only 1.8 million species identified
  • Little known about nature and ecological roles of
    species identified
  • Document little changes in DNA
  • Use speciesarea relationship
  • Mathematical models

End of Slide
22
9-2 Why Should We Care about Preventing Premature
Species Extinction?
  • Concept 9-2 We should prevent the premature
    extinction of wild species because of the
    economic and ecological services they provide and
    because they have a right to exist regardless of
    their usefulness to us.

23
Species Are a Vital Part of the Earths Natural
Capital
  • Instrumental value
  • Use value
  • Ecotourism wildlife tourism
  • Genetic information
  • Nonuse value
  • Existence value
  • Aesthetic value
  • Bequest value
  • Ecological value

End of Slide
24
Natural Capital Degradation Endangered
Orangutans in a Tropical Forest
25
Natural Capital Natures Pharmacy
26
Rosy periwinkle Cathranthus roseus, Madagascar
Hodgkin's disease, lymphocytic leukemia
Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia, Pacific Northwest
Ovarian cancer
Rauvolfia Rauvolfia sepentina, Southeast Asia
Anxiety, high blood pressure
Neem tree Azadirachta indica, India Treatment
of many diseases, insecticide, spermicide
Foxglove Digitalis purpurea, Europe Digitalis
for heart failure
Cinchona Cinchona ledogeriana, South America
Quinine for malaria treatment
Fig. 9-8, p. 190
27
Endangered Scarlet Macaw is a Source of Beauty
and Pleasure
28
Science Focus Using DNA to Reduce Illegal
Killing of Elephants for Their Ivory
  • 1989 international treaty against poaching
    elephants
  • Poaching on the rise
  • Track area of poaching through DNA analysis of
    elephants
  • Elephants damaging areas of South Africa Should
    they be culled?

End of Slide
29
Are We Ethically Obligated to Prevent Premature
Extinction?
  • Intrinsic value existence value
  • Edward O. Wilson biophilia phenomenon
  • Biophobia

End of Slide
30
Science Focus Why Should We Care about Bats?
  • Vulnerable to extinction
  • Slow to reproduce
  • Human destruction of habitats
  • Important ecological roles
  • Feed on crop-damaging nocturnal insects
  • Pollen-eaters
  • Fruit-eaters
  • Unwarranted fears of bats

End of Slide
31
ABC Video Bachelor pad at the zoo
32
ABC Video Hsing Hsing dies
33
ABC Video Penguin rescue
34
9-3 How do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction?
  • Concept 9-3 The greatest threats to any species
    are (in order) loss or degradation of its
    habitat, harmful invasive species, human
    population growth, pollution, climate change, and
    overexploitation.

35
Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to
Species Remember HIPPCO
  • Habitat destruction, degradation, and
    fragmentation
  • Invasive (nonnative) species
  • Population and resource use growth
  • Pollution
  • Climate change
  • Overexploitation

End of Slide
36
Causes of Depletion and Premature Extinction of
World Species
37
NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION
Causes of Depletion and Premature Extinction of
Wild Species
Underlying Causes
Population growth
Rising resource use
Undervaluing natural capital
Poverty
Direct Causes
Habitat loss
Pollution
Commercial hunting and poaching
Habitat degradation and fragmentation
Climate change
Sale of exotic pets and decorative plants
Overfishing
Introduction of nonnative species
Predator and pest control
Fig. 9-10, p. 193
38
Natural Capital Degradation Reduction in the
Ranges of Four Wildlife Species
39
Fig. 9-11a, p. 194
40
Indian Tiger
Range 100 years ago
Range today
Fig. 9-11a, p. 194
41
Fig. 9-11b, p. 194
42
Black Rhino
Range in 1700
Range today
Fig. 9-11b, p. 194
43
Fig. 9-11c, p. 194
44
African Elephant
Probable range 1600
Range today
Fig. 9-11c, p. 194
45
Fig. 9-11d, p. 194
46
Asian or Indian Elephant
Former range
Range today
Fig. 9-11d, p. 194
47
Stepped Art
Fig. 9-11, p. 194
48
Science Focus Studying the Effects of Forest
Fragmentation on Old-Growth Trees
  • Tropical Biologist Bill Laurance, et al.
  • How large must a forest fragment be in order to
    prevent the loss of rare trees?

End of Slide
49
Case Study A Disturbing Message from the Birds
(1)
  • Habitat loss and fragmentation of the birds
    breeding habitats
  • Forests cleared for farms, lumber plantations,
    roads, and development
  • Intentional or accidental introduction of
    nonnative species
  • Eat the birds

End of Slide
50
Case Study A Disturbing Message from the Birds
(2)
  • Seabirds caught and drown in fishing equipment
  • Migrating birds fly into power lines,
    communication towers, and skyscrapers
  • Other threats
  • Oil spills
  • Pesticides
  • Herbicides
  • Ingestion of toxic lead shotgun pellets

End of Slide
51
Case Study A Disturbing Message from the Birds
(3)
  • Greatest new threat Climate change
  • Environmental indicators
  • Economic and ecological services

End of Slide
52
Distribution of Bird Species in North America and
Latin America
53
Number of bird species
609
400
200
1
Fig. 9-12, p. 195
54
The Ten Most Threatened Song Birds in the United
States
55
Black-capped vireo
Golden-cheeked warbler
Cerulean warbler
Spragues pipit
Bichnells thrush
Florida scrub jay
California gnatcatcher
Kirtland's warbler
Henslow's sparrow
Bachman's warbler
Fig. 9-13, p. 196
56
Science Focus Vultures, Wild Dogs, and Rabies
Unexpected Scientific Connections
  • Vultures poisoned from diclofenac in cow
    carcasses
  • More wild dogs eating the cow carcasses
  • More rabies spreading to people

End of Slide
57
Some Deliberately Introduced Species Can Disrupt
Ecosystems
  • Most species introductions are beneficial
  • Food
  • Shelter
  • Medicine
  • Aesthetic enjoyment
  • Nonnative species may have no natural
  • Predators
  • Competitors
  • Parasites
  • Pathogens

End of Slide
58
Some Harmful Nonnative Species in the United
States
59
Fig. 9-14a, p. 199
60
Deliberately Introduced Species
Purple loosestrife
European starling
African honeybee (Killer bee)
Nutria
Salt cedar (Tamarisk)
Hydrilla
Marine toad (Giant toad)
Water hyacinth
Japanese beetle
European wild boar (Feral pig)
Fig. 9-14a, p. 199
61
Fig. 9-14b, p. 199
62
Accidentally Introduced Species
Sea lamprey (attached to lake trout)
Argentina fire ant
Brown tree snake
Eurasian ruffe
Common pigeon (Rock dove)
Formosan termite
Zebra mussel
Asian long-horned beetle
Asian tiger mosquito
Gypsy moth larvae
Fig. 9-14b, p. 199
63
Stepped Art
Fig. 9-14, p. 199
64
Case Study The Kudzu Vine
  • Imported from Japan in the 1930s
  • The vine that ate the South
  • Could there be benefits of kudzu?

End of Slide
65
Kudzu Taking Over an Abandoned House in
Mississippi, U.S.
66
Some Accidentally Introduced Species Can Also
Disrupt Ecosystems
  • Argentina fire ant 1930s
  • Pesticide spraying in 1950s and 1960s worsened
    conditions
  • Burmese python

End of Slide
67
Argentina Fire Ant Accidentally Introduced into
Mobile, Alabama, U.S.
68
Prevention Is the Best Way to Reduce Threats from
Invasive Species
  • Prevent them from becoming established
  • Learn the characteristics of the species
  • Set up research programs
  • Try to find natural ways to control them

End of Slide
69
Characteristics of Invader Species and Ecosystems
Vulnerable to Invading Species
70
What Can You Do? Controlling Invasive Species
71
Other Causes of Species Extinction (1)
  • Population growth
  • Overconsumption
  • Pollution
  • Climate change

End of Slide
72
Other Causes of Species Extinction (2)
  • Pesticides
  • DDT Banned in the U.S. in 1972
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Biomagnification

End of Slide
73
Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
74
DDT in fish-eating birds (ospreys) 25 ppm
DDT in large fish (needle fish) 2 ppm
DDT in small fish (minnows) 0.5 ppm
DDT in zooplankton 0.04 ppm
DDT in water 0.000003 ppm, or 3 ppt
Fig. 9-19, p. 202
75
Stepped Art
Fig. 9-19, p. 202
76
Case Study Where Have All the Honeybees Gone?
  • Honeybees responsible for 80 of
    insect-pollinated plants
  • Dying due to?
  • Pesticides
  • Parasites
  • Bee colony collapse syndrome

End of Slide
77
Case Study Polar Bears and Global Warming
  • Environmental impact on polar bears
  • Less summer sea ice
  • PCBs and DDT
  • 2007 Threatened species list

End of Slide
78
Polar Bear with Seal Prey
79
Illegal Killing, Capturing, and Selling of Wild
Species Threatens Biodiversity
  • Poaching and smuggling of animals and plants
  • Animal parts
  • Pets
  • Plants for landscaping and enjoyment
  • Prevention research and education

End of Slide
80
White Rhinoceros Killed by a Poacher
81
Individuals Matter Jane Goodall
  • Primatologist and anthropologist
  • 45 years understanding and protecting chimpanzees
  • Chimps have tool-making skills

End of Slide
82
Rising Demand for Bush Meat Threatens Some
African Species
  • Indigenous people sustained by bush meat
  • More hunters leading to local extinction of some
    wild animals

End of Slide
83
Bush Meat Lowland Gorilla
84
Animation Humans affect biodiversity
85
Active Figure Habitat loss and fragmentation
86
Video Bird species and birdsongs
87
9-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from
Premature Extinction? (1)
  • Concept 9-4A We can use existing environmental
    laws and treaties and work to enact new laws
    designed to prevent species extinction and
    protect overall biodiversity.
  • Concept 9-4B We can help to prevent species
    extinction by creating and maintaining wildlife
    refuges, gene banks, botanical gardens, zoos, and
    aquariums.

88
9-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from
Premature Extinction? (2)
  • Concept 9-4C According to the precautionary
    principle, we should take measures to prevent or
    reduce harm to the environment and to human
    health, even if some of the cause-and-effect
    relationships have not been fully established,
    scientifically.

89
International Treaties Help to Protect Species
  • 1975 Convention on International Trade in
    Endangered Species (CITES)
  • Signed by 172 countries
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (BCD)
  • Focuses on ecosystems
  • Ratified by 190 countries (not the U.S.)

End of Slide
90
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act (1)
  • Endangered Species Act (ESA) 1973 and later
    amended in 1982, 1983, and 1985
  • Identify and protect endangered species in the
    U.S. and abroad
  • Hot Spots
  • Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) colony

End of Slide
91
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act (2)
  • Mixed reviews of the ESA
  • Weaken it
  • Repeal it
  • Modify it
  • Strengthen it
  • Simplify it
  • Streamline it

End of Slide
92
Confiscated Products Made from Endangered Species
93
Science Focus Accomplishments of the Endangered
Species Act (1)
  • Species listed only when serious danger of
    extinction
  • Takes decades for most species to become
    endangered or extinct
  • More than half of the species listed are stable
    or improving
  • Budget has been small

End of Slide
94
Science Focus Accomplishments of the Endangered
Species Act (2)
  • Suggested changes to ESA
  • Increase the budget
  • Develop recovery plans more quickly
  • Establish a core of the endangered organisms
    survival habitat

End of Slide
95
We Can Establish Wildlife Refuges and Other
Protected Areas
  • 1903 Theodore Roosevelt
  • Wildlife refuges
  • Most are wetland sanctuaries
  • More needed for endangered plants
  • Could abandoned military lands be used for
    wildlife habitats?

End of Slide
96
Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Wildlife Farms
Can Help Protect Species
  • Gene or seed banks
  • Preserve genetic material of endangered plants
  • Botanical gardens and arboreta
  • Living plants
  • Farms to raise organisms for commercial sale

End of Slide
97
Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species (1)
  • Techniques for preserving endangered terrestrial
    species
  • Egg pulling
  • Captive breeding
  • Artificial insemination
  • Embryo transfer
  • Use of incubators
  • Cross-fostering

End of Slide
98
Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species (2)
  • Limited space and funds
  • Critics say these facilities are prisons for the
    organisms

End of Slide
99
What Can You Do? Protecting Species
100
Case Study Trying to Save the California Condor
  • Largest North American bird
  • Nearly extinct
  • Birds captured and breed in captivity
  • By 2007, 135 released into the wild
  • Threatened by lead poisoning

End of Slide
101
The Precautionary Principle
  • Species primary components of biodiversity
  • Preservation of species
  • Preservation of ecosystems

End of Slide
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com