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Welcome! Instructional Strategies that Work!


Welcome! Instructional Strategies that Work! Initial Activities The Check Mark Opener On the chart, place a check mark or dot on the factor you feel is most ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome! Instructional Strategies that Work!

Welcome! Instructional Strategies that Work!
  • Initial Activities
  • The Check Mark Opener
  • On the chart, place a check mark or dot on the
    factor you feel is most responsible for academic
  • Pre-assessment
  • Then, at your seat, use The Frame worksheet to
    fill in the strategies you already use, or are
    familiar with.

Instructional Strategies that Work!
  • Jenni Sullivan
  • Anne Wright
  • July 10, 2014

Since We Last Met
  • Work with your table group to finish the prompt
  • Since we last met, our thinking has been
    like__________(what book, movie, or song title),
  • Be prepared to present and post your tables

Todays Goals
  • Develop an understanding of
  • Misconceptions of failure
  • Brain functions during the learning process
  • Use of research-proven instructional strategies
    to better understand the concept of strategies
    in the classroom.
  • Cognitive Strategies vs. Learner Strategies

Cognitive Strategies
  • We move students from novice to expert using
    cognitive strategies designed as well-structured
    to less-structured tasks.
  • A cognitive strategy serves to support the
    learner as he or she develops internal procedures
    that enable him/her to perform tasks that are
    complex (Rosenshine, 1997). The use of cognitive
    strategies can increase the efficiency with which
    the learner approaches a learning task.
  • Cognitive Strategies article is available in
    your materials.

The gap between students current level of
knowledge and the needed degree of expertise has
been referred to as the zone of proximal
development. Vygotsky, 1978
Cognitive Strategies
  • The zone is where the additional instructional
    techniques occur as the student becomes expert.
    Rosenshine and Meister, 1955

Learner Strategies
  • Learner strategies are techniques, principles,
    or rules which enable a student to learn to solve
    problems and complete tasks independently.
  • Learning strategy instruction focuses on making
    the students more active learners by teaching
    them how to learn and how to use what they have
    learned to solve problems and be successful.
  • Learning Strategies article is available in
    your materials.

Create a LINCS card for each
Cognitive Strategy Definition
Reminding word LINCing story
Learner Strategy Definition
Reminding word LINCing story
LINCS directions are in your materials.
LINCS A Starter/Learner Strategy
  • Materials led
  • Easily taught
  • Can be learned quickly
  • Used in variety of applications
  • Simple to learn and use
  • Bridges to more complex strategies
  • Builds confidence

Whats percolating with you?
  • Read the poem, Average by Mike Buscemi
  • Highlight places that stick with you
  • First Turn/Last Turn procedure with a group of
  • Pick or summarize one thought to share with the
    whole group

First Turn/Last Turn
  • Read individually. Highlight 4-6 items that
    speak to you.
  • In turn share one of your items but do not
    comment on it. This is the The First Turn.
  • Group members comment in round-robin order about
    the item (with no cross-talk).
  • The initial person who names the item then shares
    his or her thinking about the item and gets The
    Last Turn.
  • Repeat the pattern around the table.
  • Each group will share 1-2 thoughts with large

Lets take a Break
Setting the Context Climbing the ladder
Marzano, 2000
The Teachers Lounge
  • Is this scenario familiar?

Research Findings on Academic Failure
  • Read the article on your own
  • Mark your thoughts with Reader Think Marks
  • Reflect back on the Indicators of Failure
  • Share your thoughts with your group
  • Each group will write a 10 word sentence
    summarizing your groups findings

Education Levels Culture Does the level of
parents education impact student achievement?
  • Vocabulary Exposure (Meaningful Differences),
    Hart Risley (1995) studied children from 42
    families for a duration of 7-36 months. Each
    month researchers recorded one hour of family
  • Findings
  • An average of 616 words per hour (families
    receiving aid)
  • An average of 1,251 words per hour (working-class
  • An average of 2,153 words per hour (professional
  • Language transcends even when wealth is lost.
  • Culture
  • Bloom (1982)- Culture of home is more critical to
    student achievement than poverty
  • Make a link to the national teacher magazine we
    get at home.says the same thing

Failure Who Will Fail? (HODGKINSON, 1992
  • Indicators of Failure
  • Poverty
  • Level of parent education
  • Linguistically different
  • Learning disabled
  • Teacher quality

Teachers are the key! Teacher quality and
preparedness have a greater impact on student
achievement than do poverty and even
language. (Darling Hammond, 2000)
Shape Up
What is circling around in your mind?
What squares with your beliefs?
What question(s) do you still have?
Concept Attainment Activity A Multi-Sensory
  • Activity
  • Think about your favorite game for the next 30
  • Create a mental picture
  • Draw a graphic representation
  • Share responses to the questions with a partner
  • Did your partner know the game just from the
    picture you drew?
  • Go Visual!! (connect to Grinder!)
  • Concept attainment helps
  • Surface students ability to see the attributes
    of the concept or topic under discussion.
  • Foster deep thinking as students analyze, compare
    and discard various attributes of a concept or
    topic until arriving at an analysis that is
    confirmed by previous examples.

  • We are going on a camping trip and we hope
    everyone can join us!
  • You can only join us, if you bring the correct
    items along!

Concept Attainment More examples
  • Example/Non-example chart/activity
  • KWL(S/Q) Know, Wonder, Learn,
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Multi-Sensory Strategies
  • Feature Analysis
  • Frayer Model
  • Framing Routine

Lets take a Break
The Brain
  • Why is it important to know how the brain works?

Brain Research Activity
  • Each participant will receive a card with Brain
    Research information.
  • Work with your brain group to create a
    presentation of your fact.
  • Each brain group will present to the whole

Brain Experts
  • Form groups with the same card. Read the
    information on your assigned card and complete
    the following task.
  • Your group will be teaching your finding using

Develop a mnemonic device to remember the
Prepare a news item for the six oclock news.
Develop a jingle.
Develop a poem.
Brain Function School Failure Research
  • Learning needs of high-medium and low-performing
    students can be met by using the SAME
    instructional strategies.
  • NO difference was seen in scans between students
    who have learning disabilities and low-achieving

Brain Function School Failure Research
  • No difference seen in brain scans of low
    achievers and normally high achievers who cannot
    perform specific tasks.
  • Scans differ between students who can and those
    who cant perform tasks.
  • ALL STUDENTS benefited from the same
    instructional interventions.

Human Brain Flexible and Adaptable
  • No performance differences seen in children who
    were simply low achievers compared with students
    who had a low IQ.
  • Posner (1995) found brain scans of those who can
    perform a task light up compared with dark
    scans in persons who cannot perform the task.
  • In addition, Posner (1995) found that with only
    15 MINUTES of practice, dark brain scans begin to
    light up.

Learning Disability What is a learning
  • According to the NICHD, a learning disability is
    most accurately defined as low achievement in a
    specific academic area, such as basic reading or

Brain Function School Failure
Research Conclusions
  • No difference seen in brain scans of low
    achievers and normally high achievers who cannot
    perform specific tasks.
  • Scans differ between students who can and those
    who cant perform tasks.
  • ALL STUDENTS benefited from the same
    instructional interventions.

Solving the Problem How can we address student
  • There are three components
  • 1. Staff development in the use of cognitive
  • 2. Instructional design (teaching practices,
    materials, textbooks and, lesson planning) that
    is considerate of the learning needs of students
    prone to failure.
  • 3. Monitoring and analysis of student progress.

Assumptions Yea or Nay
  • On the following slides, read the assumption.
  • Vote thumbs up (Yea) or down (Nay).
  • Compare your answer with the evidence that
    research provides.

Assumption One
  • An individuals rate of learning is determined by
    an inborn, stable factor called IQ.

The more an individual learns, the faster the
individual's rate of learning.
Assumption Two
  • Children of poverty and linguistically different
    children do more poorly on achievement tests
    because the tests are culturally biased.

Skills and intelligence can be learned.
Assumption Three
  • At-risk learners require different instructional

Needs of at-risk learners can be met with
best-practice strategies good for ALL students.
Assumption Four
  • Most students can reach high standards, but
    schools need some watered-down standards for
    about one-third of the students.

98 of students can meet HIGH standards with
well-designed instruction.
Assumption Five
  • Learners fail because their learning style is not
    consistent with the style of instruction.

Attributing failure to learning styles is
misleading and counterproductive.
Something to think about
  • Student learning depends on more than good
  • Good teaching depends on more than good
    instructional strategies.
  • Both good teaching and student learning depend on
    an organized curriculum.

Good Teaching
  • Three Levels To Think About
  • Context (the why)
  • Content (the what)
  • Process (the how think about your learners)

Cognitive Strategies
  • These strategies will cognitively activate
    student learning
  • Mnemonic
  • Reflective questioning
  • Cognitive Mapping
  • Learning Vocabulary
  • Decoding
  • Prompts
  • Feature analysis
  • Deductive reasoning
  • Examples/non-examples
  • Compete stem using a metaphor or analogy

Learner Strategies Learning-to-Learn Skills
  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarizing
  • Understanding question formats
  • Note-Taking
  • Reciprocal Teaching
  • Inquiry discussion (seminar)

With your table group, finish the sentence stems
  • Cognitive strategies are like (a) _________
    because ____________.
  • Learner strategies are like (a) _____________
    because ___________.

Reflect on Today
  • Share three things you have learned
  • Two things you can use immediately
  • One question that you still have
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