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Welcome to Change and Transitions


Welcome to Change and Transitions As you are getting settled, please do the following: Read through the historical quotes concerning change (the green sheet in your ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome to Change and Transitions

Welcome to Change and Transitions
  • As you are getting settled, please do the
  • Read through the historical quotes concerning
    change (the green sheet in your handouts
    immediately behind the powerpoint slides).
  • Select the one quote that most closely
    represents your current feelings about leading
  • Jot down a couple thoughts as to why you
    selected that particular quote

  • A focus on RtI

John Vail, Ed.S. Kalamazoo RESA September 10, 2009
Primary Sources
  • Diffusion of Innovations Fifth Edition
  • Everett M. Rogers, 2003.
  • Managing Transitions 2nd Edition Making the
    Most of Change
  • William Bridges, 2003.
  • Balanced Leadership School Leadership that
  • Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning
    (McREL), 2006.
  • Professional Learning Communities at Work Best
    Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement
  • Richard DuFour Robert Eaker, 1998.
  • Influencer The Power to Change Anything
  • Patterson, Grenny, Maxfield, McMillan,
    Switzler, 2008

What changes and initiatives have you experienced
during your careers in education?
Reasons for failure?
  • The change moved too fast
  • The change lacked strong principal leadership
  • The change was too big
  • The change was top-down without buy-in from the
  • Gains were celebrated too soon urgency was lost
  • Schools were unwilling to change
  • Leaders failed to develop a critical level of
  • The change moved too slow
  • The change relied too heavily on a strong
  • The change was too small
  • The change was bottom-up without the support of
    central admin.
  • Gains were not celebrated and momentum was lost
  • Schools took on every change that came along
  • Leaders mistakenly insisted on overwhelming

Based on ideas from DuFour Eaker
Social Competence, Academic Achievement, and
Outcomes clearly defined Communicated
Supporting Decision Making
Supporting Staff Performance
Formative Assessments Goals, decision rules
Time, PD, Collaboration
Researched and Evidence Based practices
Supporting Student Performance
A Brief Overview
  • Change is a way of life
  • Change is hard
  • Not all change is for the better
  • Not all change is possible
  • Even the best of changes often have unintended
  • There is a predictability to change
  • in terms of process
  • in terms of peoples response
  • There are things you can do as leadership to
    increase the likelihood of success and
    sustainability of change

Change is Hard!
  • Faced with the choice between changing ones
    mind and proving that there is no need to do so,
    almost everybody gets busy on the proof.
  • John Kenneth Galbraith, American Economist

Activity- Change is Hard!
  • Scurvy and the British Navy

Processing Question
  • Scurvy
  • Why do you think it took so long for a change
    that clearly produced desirable outcomes to
    become a way of doing business?

The rest of the story
  • Why were the authorities so slow to adopt the
    idea of citrus for scurvy prevention? Other,
    competing remedies for scurvy were also being
    proposed, and each such cure had its champions.
    For example, Captain Cooks reports from his
    voyages in the Pacific did not provide support
    for curing scurvy with citrus fruits. Further,
    Dr. Lind was not a prominent figure in the field
    of naval medicine, and so his experimental
    findings did not get much attention. While
    scurvy prevention was generally resisted for
    years by the British Navy, other innovation, such
    as new ships and new guns, were readily accepted.
    So the Admiralty did not resist all innovations.
  • Obviously, more than just the relative
    advantages of an innovation, even when its
    benefits are clearly demonstrated, is necessary
    for its diffusion and adoption.

A little closer to home
  • The are numerous varied schools across the
    country who are being extremely successful
    substantially improving the learning of all of
    their students (especially the at-risk
  • These schools have all made similar substantive
    changes in the way they do business.
  • Leaders in these buildings have succeeded because
    of an intense and unrelenting focus.

(No Transcript)
What hill are you willing to die upon?
"The credit belongs to those who are actually in
the arena, who strive valiantly, who know the
great enthusiams, the great devotions, and spend
themselves in a worthy cause who, at the best,
know the triumph of high achievement and who, at
the worst, if they fail, fail while daring
greatly so that their place shall never be with
those cold and timid souls who know neither
victory nor defeat." Theodore Roosevelt
The Hill that is RtI
  • Write the title or a brief description in your
    own words that describes RtI on the worksheet

Not all change is beneficial
  • Any given change or initiative might
  • focus on the wrong thing
  • propose practices that are inefficient or

Example from the world of special education
  • Intervention Eff. Size
  • Match Instruction with
  • aud/vis strengths .03
  • Focus on right brain-
  • left brain processing .04
  • Instruction based on
  • cultural learning sty. .00
  • Intervention Eff. Size
  • Explicit instruction
  • and prob. Solving .70 1.50
  • Comprehension
  • Strategies 1.00
  • Formative assessment
  • and graphing 1.00

Information compiled from Daniel J. Reschly,
Ph.D., Vanderbilt Univ.
Youre kidding! You count MEAPs!
What do we know about RtI?
  • Is RtI necessary?
  • Whats the evidence?
  • Is RtI effective?
  • What is the evidence?
  • Is RtI efficient?
  • What is the evidence?

In small groups, please discuss and develop the
answers to the questions above on your
Not all change is possible
  • Any given change or initiative might
  • not be supported/communicated/held accountable to
  • be one more in a series or combination of
    initiatives (Christmas Tree Schools)

Not all change is possible.
  • Changes of any sort even though they may be
    justified in economic or technological terms
    finally succeed or fail on the basis of whether
    the people affected do things differently.
  • Bridges, 2003

Does RtI
  • Have commitment from leadership?
  • Have the resources (or at least the potential for
    the resources) to be successful?

Take a few minutes to identify the evidence that
the commitment and resources exist. Identify any
competing initiatives that may detract. If the
answer is no to either, how might you set the
stage for success?
Howdy PardnerThis school aint big enuf for the
both of them. Dealing with the issue of
competing intiatives.
Find a partner from another district or location.
Use the question guide to interview your
partner. Take notes to share.
Unintended consequences
  • Technology
  • Snowmobiles, computers, and cell phones
  • Environment
  • Tortillas, eggs, and global warming
  • Education
  • Your examples

Unintended Consequences and what to do
  • Before committing to an initiative, do your
  • Invite multiple perspectives
  • Try to think in terms of secondary impacts
  • Perform cost-benefit analyses
  • Determine proven effectiveness for your specific
  • Once decided, move decisively but realize that
    unforeseen consequences are just thatunforeseen.
    Be flexible.

Looking ahead
  • What are the possible unintended consequences
    of implementing RtI?
  • Take a few minutes to jot down anything you might
    have to watch out for.

The Good News
  • There is reliable predictability to change.

Predictability in the Change Process Stages of
Innovation-Decision (Rogers, 2003)
  • People who are a part of the change need
  • 1. Knowledge
  • 2. Persuasion
  • 3. Decision
  • 4. Implementation
  • 5. Confirmation

  • Individuals consciously or unconsciously avoid
    messages that are in conflict with their existing
  • Selective Exposure
  • (Individuals) seldom expose themselves to
    messages about an innovation unless they first
    feel a need for the innovation perceive it as
    relevant and consistent with their attitudes and
  • Selective Perception

Rogers, 2003
  • Awareness Knowledge information that an
    innovation exists
  • How-to Knowledge information necessary to use
    an innovation properly
  • Principles Knowledge information dealing with
    the functioning principles underlying how a
    principle works

  • Change agents could perhaps play their most
    distinctive and important role in the
    innovation-decision process if they concentrate
    on the how-to knowledge.
  • Consideration of a new idea does not go beyond
    the knowledge function if an individual does not
    define the information as relevant to his or her
    situation, or if sufficient knowledge is not

Rogers, 2003
  • At the persuasion stage, people seek messages
    that reduce uncertainty about an innovations
    expected consequences. (Rogers, 2003)
  • Sometimes it is necessary for change agents to
    create a demand for the change by creating a
    discontent with the current reality and
    developing a vision of a more attractive
    reality. (McREL, 2006)

  • Individual or group engages in activities that
    lead to a choice to adopt or reject an innovation
  • Most individuals do not adopt an innovation
    without first trying it out on a probationary
    basis to determine its usefulness in their own
  • A demonstration or pilot site can be quite
    effective in speeding up the diffusion process.

  • Involves overt behavior change as the new idea is
    actually put into practice
  • Reinvention (changes or modifications to an
    innovation by the users)
  • Pros
  • Faster rate of adoption
  • Higher degree of sustainability
  • Cons
  • Loss of integrity of implementation
  • Could lead to ineffective practice in terms of

  • Humans often seek to get rid of the discomfort of
    change by confirming their new direction or
  • Data can serve as the evidence that the change
    was either positive or negative.

Activity The Principal as the Change Agent
  • Read the scenario.
  • Find evidence of each of the five stages of the
    innovation-decision process.
  1. Knowledge
  2. Persuasion
  3. Decision
  4. Implementation
  5. Confirmation

What is needed for RtI?
  • What knowledge will people need in order to
    accept and implement an RtI model in your schools?

What is needed for RtI?
  • Who will need persuasion and what will that
    persuasion look like?

What is needed for RtI?
  • What is needed to support a decision to try?
  • What possibilities can you create for trial runs
    or pilot sites

What is needed for RtI?
  • How much reinvention is allowed?

What is needed for RtI?
  • What kinds of data/information will be needed to
    confirm the effectiveness of the change?

Predictability in the peoplePeople and Their
Responses to Change
  • The Innovators
  • The Early Adopters
  • The Early Majority
  • The Late Majority
  • The Laggards

Categories by Rate of AdoptionEverett M. Rogers
Early Majority
Late Majority
Early Adopters
Brief Characteristics by Innovator Type
  • Innovators venturesome, tend to be out of the
    local circle of peer networks, able to work with
    a high degree of uncertainty about an innovation
    at the time they adopt
  • Early Adopters considered by many to be the
    person to check with, respected by peers, role
    model, maintains central position in the
    communication networks of the system, listen to
    and seeks out research and experts.

Brief Characteristics by Innovator Type
  • Early Majority deliberate, interact frequently
    with their peers but seldom hold positions of
    opinion leadership.
  • Late Majority skeptical, pressure of peers is
    necessary to motivate adoption, system norms must
    favor an innovation before they are convinced to
  • Laggards traditional, tend to possess almost no
    leadership opinion, point of reference is what
    has been done in the past, tend to be suspicious
    of changes and change agents.

Things to keep in mind
  • Categories are specific to the innovation being
    initiated. People can change categories for
    different innovations.
  • Innovators and Early Adopters tend to seek out
    experts and listen to research.
  • The early and late majority look to the early
    adopters, and not the experts, for their reasons
    to change.

Where are You?
  • On the Graph provided, identify where you would
    place yourself at this point in time in regards
    to RtI.

Magnitude of change
  • A change is defined by the implications it has
    for the people expected to implement it and/or
    those who will be impacted by it.
  • Important!!
  • The same change can be perceived differently by
    different stakeholders!
  • Leaders sometimes underestimate the impact and
    reaction to change or do not manage the
    transitions well.

Order of Change (McREL, 2006)
  • First order changes are changes that are
    perceived to be a continuation and refinement of
    existing beliefs and practices. They can be
    implemented with current knowledge, skills, and
  • Second order changes are changes that are
    perceived to be a significant break from current
    practices and will require new knowledge, skills,
    beliefs and/or resources.

First or Second Order?
  • Based on the list created at the beginning, can
    you identify people for which your particular
    change would be
  • A first-order change (i.e. an extension of what
    they already do, are, believe in )? Why?
  • A second-order change (i.e. a significant break
    from what they already do, are, believe in )?
  • Add this information to your worksheet.

Predictability in the Transition ProcessThe
Three Phases
  • To start, you must end
  • A time of uncertainty is to be expected and
  • The new beginning is a time to establish focus
    and a new sense of purpose.

Three Phases of TransitionWilliam Bridges
The New Beginning
The Neutral Zone
Ending, Losing, Letting Go
Understanding Transitions
  • I have learned how self-defeating it is to try
    to overcome peoples resistance to change without
    addressing the threat the change poses to their
  • Change is situational, transition is
    psychological. It is the transitions that will
    do you in.

Quotes from Managing Transitions 2nd
Edition William Bridges
The First Phase The Ending
  • Letting go of the old was and the old identity
    people had

The failure to identify and get ready for
endings and losses is the largest difficulty for
people in transition leads to more problems for
organizations in transition than anything else.
William Bridges Managing Transitions
How to get people to let go
  • Identify who is losing what
  • Accept the reality and importance of the
    subjective losses
  • Dont be surprised at overreaction
  • Acknowledge the losses openly and sympathetically

William Bridges Managing Transitions
How to get people to let go
  • Expect and accept the signs of grieving
  • Compensate for the losses
  • Give people information repeatedly
  • Define what is over and what isnt

William Bridges Managing Transitions
How to get people to let go
  • Mark the endings
  • Treat the past with respect
  • Let people take a piece of the old way with them
  • Show how endings ensure the continuity of what
    really matters

William Bridges Managing Transitions
How to get people to let go
  • Finally, whatever must end, must end! Dont drag
    it out. Plan carefully, allow time for healing,
    but make sure that the action is large enough to
    get the job done!

In taking possession of a state, the conqueror
should well reflect as to the harsh measures that
may be necessary, and then execute them at a
single blowCruelties should be committed all at
once. Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian Political
Philosopher It doesnt work to leap a 20-foot
chasm in two 10-foot jumps. American Proverb
William Bridges Managing Transitions
On your worksheet
  • Write a statement describing what is changing,
    what practices need to stop and what practices
    will take their place.
  • How will this be communicated clearly and

Keys to Responding to Resisters(DuFour Eaker,
  • Assume good intentions
  • Identify specific behaviors essential to the
    success of the initiative
  • Focus on behavior, not attitude. Monitor
  • Acknowledge and celebrate small victories
  • Confront incongruent behavior with specific
    concerns and communicate logical consequences.

Behavior Attitude Interaction
  • There is a large literature base demonstrating
    that attitudes follow behavior. People accept
    new beliefs as a result of changing their
  • Pfeffer and Sutton

Behavior Attitude Interaction
  • Attitudes in this world are not changed
    abstractly attitudes are partly the result of
    working, attitudes are partly the result of
    action. You do not fold your hands and wait for
    attitude to change by itself.

Dealing with Resistance
  • Please read about Henry in
  • A Story
  • Identify what the principal did to move Henry
    from a resister to a participator.

Willingness to Lead
  • A common failing of leaders at all levels is the
    failure to be emphatically assertive when
    necessary. Abilities to persuade, build
    consensus, and utilize all the other arts of
    influence are important but they dont always
    do the job. Sometimes it simply comes down to
    using the power of ones position to get people
    to act.
  • Daniel Goleman

The Second Phase The Neutral Zone
  • The psychological no-mans land between the old
    reality and the new one

Dangers of the Neutral Zone
  • Anxiety rises and motivation falls
  • Productivity suffers
  • Old weaknesses reemerge with a vengeance
  • People are overloaded and get mixed signals.
  • People become polarized (poorly managed, this can
    lead to terminal chaos)
  • Organization is vulnerable to attack from the
    outside and sabotage within

Helping people through the Neutral Zone
  • Normalize
  • Redefine
  • Create temporary systems
  • Strengthen communications and relationships
  • Use the time creatively (leaders should model
    this start with yourself!)

The Third Phase Launching a New Beginning
  • A start can and should be carefully planned.
    Starts take place on a schedule as a result of
  • The Four Ps

The Four Ps
  • Purpose
  • Clarify and communicate
  • Picture
  • Give them a vision
  • Plan
  • This is not a plan for the change but a plan for
    the transition (should be detailed,
    person-oriented, and step-by-step)
  • Part
  • Integrate and show people how they fit into the
    new scheme

InfluencerPatterson, Grenny, Maxfield,
McMillan, Switzler, 2008
  • The influencing process
  • Find Vital Behaviors
  • Changing Behavior/Changing Minds
  • Make the Undesirable Desirable
  • Surpass Your Limits (training)
  • Harness Peer Pressure
  • Find Strength in Numbers
  • Design Rewards and Demand Accountability
  • Change the Environment

Vital Teacher BehaviorsThe Story of Ethna Reid
  • Please read the story of Ethna Reid.
  • What are the vital teacher behaviors Dr. Reid
    determined to have the largest impact on student

Be Very Clear in Your Direction
  • If you cry, Forward, you must make it clear the
    direction in which to go. Dont you see that if
    you fail to do that and simply call out the word
    to a monk and a revolutionary, they will go in
    precisely the opposite directions.
  • Anton Chekhov, Russian Writer

Reinforce the New Beginning
  • Rule 1 Be consistent
  • Rule 2 Ensure quick successes
  • Rule 3 Symbolize the new identity
  • Rule 4 Celebrate the success

Something to Consider
  • Schools that take the plunge and actually begin
    doing the work develop their capacity to help
    all students learn at high levels far more
    efficiently than schools that spend years
    preparing through reading or even training

DuFour et.al. 2006
Another Thought
  • Disjointed starts and stops involving too many
    discrete and disconnected initiatives seldom make
    a significant or long-term impact. They do,
    however, keep everyone busy and create the
    illusion of motion.

DuFour et.al. 2006
Identifying Next Steps
  • Looking at what you have written on your
    Planning for Change Worksheet, please identify
  • the first thing(s) that you must do to increase
    the chances for success of RtI in your
  • the resources or support that you believe would
    be most helpful.

Some final quotes for thought
  • Where we all think alike, no one thinks very
  • Walter Lippmann, American Journalist
  • Beginnings are always messy.
  • John Galsworthy, British Novelist
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