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IC3 Basics, Internet and Computing Core Certification

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Hardware Computer Business Applications – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IC3 Basics, Internet and Computing Core Certification


1

Hardware
Computer Business Applications
2
Computer System Components and IPOS
  • A computer system requires many components to do
    its job
  • Input Some device or method to input data so it
    can be processed
  • Process Circuits and programs in order to
    process the data
  • Output Some type of output device to give the
    result its processing to the user
  • Storage Some mechanism for storing data

3
Common System Components
This figure shows several devices that are common
components of a computer system.
4
The Motherboard
  • The motherboard is a circuit board inside the
    microcomputers plastic case. It contains
    integral components including
  • The central processing unit or CPU
  • Basic controllers
  • Expansion ports and slots
  • Memory

5
Motherboard
6
Computer System Components
7
The Central Processing Unit
  • The CPU is a tiny silicon chip that executes
    commands from a computers hardware and
    software the principal computer chip that
    contains several processing components, which
    determines the computers operating speed also
    known as the brains of the computer.
  • The system clock is an electronic pulse that
    controls the speed of the CPU. The rate of the
    pulse is measures in gigahertz (GHz).

8
The Central Processing Unit (continued)
  • The CPU has two primary sections
  • The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
  • This section performs arithmetic and logical
    operations.
  • The Control Unit
  • This section coordinates all activity within the
    CPU. It uses programming instructions to control
    what actions the CPU performs and when it
    performs them.

9
A CPU Chip
This figure shows a CPU chip for a small
computer. The CPU determines which of the
millions of switches that it contains should be
turned on or off by processing program statements
that tell it what to do.
Computer programs are written in programming
languages, and each program statement causes one
or more actions to occur in the CPU.
10
Microprocessor
11
Types Computer Memory
  • Data being processed by a CPU is stored in system
    memory.
  • Memory are computer chips that store data and
    programs while the computer is working.
  • Data stored in memory is not permanent. If the
    power fails, everything in memory is lost.
  • Data must be stored on a disk or some other
    device when not being processed so it is not lost
    each time the computer shuts down.

12
Types of Computer Memory
  • There are two types of memory found on a
    motherboard
  • RAM Random Access Memory
  • ROM Read-Only Memory

RAM chip
13
Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • RAM is short-term memory where data is processed
    while a program is running.
  • Data stored here can be accessed and modified as
    needed.
  • This type of memory loses any data it holds if
    the computer is shut down.
  • RAM is also called main memory.

14
RAM Chips
15
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
  • ROM is memory placed on the motherboard by the
    manufacturer and contains instructions, such as
    BIOS ROM, that tell the computer how to start
    itself.
  • This data cannot be accessed or modified by
    application programs.
  • The contents of this memory are not lost when the
    computer is shut down.

16
Storage Devices
  • If you want to keep a permanent copy of data, you
    must store it on some type of storage medium.
  • Storage Device are external hardware used to
    store and retrieve data such as disk drive,
    CD/DVD drive, flash drive, or tape drive.
  • Storage devices are categorized by the method
    they use to store data, including magnetic and
    optical storage devices.

17
Data Representation
  • Byteone character of data
  • Kilobyteone thousand bytes of data
  • Megabyteone million bytes
  • Gigabyteone billion bytes
  • Terabyteone trillion bytes
  • Petabyteone quadrillion bytes
  • Exabyteone quintillion bytes
  • Zettabyteone sextillion bytes
  • Yottabyteone septillion bytes

18
Storage Devices - Magnetic
  • There are many types of magnetic storage devices,
    including
  • Floppy disks Small, portable disks that hold a
    limited amount of data. (1.44 MB)
  • Hard disks Large-capacity and fast-access
    storage devices. (Measured in gigabytes or
    terabytes)
  • Magnetic tape drives Used for making system
    backups and storing large quantities of data.

19
Hard Disk
20
Floppy Disks
21
Magnetic Tape
22
Storage Devices - Optical
  • There are several optical storage devices in use
    today, including
  • CD-ROM Can hold large amounts of data, but is
    read-only access.
  • CD-R This drive allows you to read and to write
    to a compact disk.
  • CD-RW This drive allows you to read and write to
    a compact disk several times.
  • DVD This is the size of a CD, but can hold much
    more data, including full-size movies

23
Laser Reads cd or dvd
24
Flash Drive or Quick Drive
  • A small portable device that is capable of
    storing digital contents such as images,
    documents and other kinds of files.

25
Network Drives
  • A network drive is located on another computer or
    a server where space is provided for storage of
    data from many computer terminals.
  • Network drives may appear as the Q\ or R\ drive
    on a terminal to distinguish it from the drives
    that are part of the computer terminal. Our
    network drive is H\.

26
Caring for Storage Media
  • Keep away from magnetic fields such as those
    contained in televisions and computer monitors.
  • Avoid Extreme temperatures
  • Remove media from drives and store them properly
    when not in use.
  • When handling DVD and other optical disc, hold
    them at the edges.
  • Never try to remove the media from a drive when
    the drive indicator light is on.
  • Keep discs in a sturdy case when transporting.

27
Input and Output Devices
  • Input devices data entered into the computer
    through a variety of devices such as keyboards,
    microphone, scanner, flash drive or mouse.
  • Output devices allows a user to view or listen to
    the data a computer processes such as a monitor,
    printer, headphones, or speakers.
  • Some devices can perform both input and output
    operations. (Modems)

28
Input Devices The Keyboard
  • The keyboard is the most common input device.
  • As you press keys on the keyboard, an electrical
    signal representing that key is sent to the
    computer.
  • Keyboards are divided into sections
  • Typewriter keys The standard alphabetic and
    numeric characters you would find on a
    typewriter.
  • Function keys Special keys that perform some
    specific function for the application being run.
  • Numeric keypad Used for mathematical operations.
  • Directional keys Used to move the cursor around
    the screen.

29
Standard Input Devices-Keyboard
  • Most commonly used input device. Besides a
    traditional keyboard, popular types include
  • Security
  • Foldable or flexible
  • Laser virtual keyboard
  • Ergonomic
  • Cordless or wireless
  • Specialized

29
29
30
Security Keyboard
31
Foldable Keyboard
32
Laser Virtual Keyboard
33
Ergonomic Keyboard
34
Input Devices The Mouse
  • The mouse is a pointing device that rolls around
    on a flat surface and controls the location of
    the pointer on the screen.
  • The mouse performs the following functions
  • Pointing Place the on-screen pointer at a
    specific place.
  • Clicking Press and release the mouse button.
  • Dragging Holding down the mouse button and
    dragging an object to a new location by dragging
    the mouse.
  • Double-clicking Pressing and releasing the mouse
    button twice very quickly.
  • Right-clicking Pressing the right mouse button.

35
Standard Input Devices (continued)
  • Mouse
  • Most commonly used pointing device. Types
    include
  • Mechanical
  • Optomechanical
  • Optical
  • Wireless

Wireless Mouse and Receiver
Optical mouse
35
35
36
Other Input Pointing Devices
  • In addition to the mouse, there are other devices
    that control the on-screen pointer, including a
  • Joystick Joysticks consist of a metal or plastic
    handle mounted on a base that you can move in any
    direction to move the pointer or other object.
  • These are typically used for video games.
  • They frequently have buttons that can be pushed
    or clicked to control input/output.
  • Trackball A pointing device that works like a
    mouse turned upside down the ball is on top,
    operated by your thumb and fingers.
  • These are frequently found on notebook computers.

37
Trackball and Joystick
Joystick
Trackball
38
Other Input Devices (Part I)
  • A graphic tablet is a flat drawing surface
    connected to the computer.
  • The user draws on the surface, and the figures or
    writing on the tablet can be input to the
    computer for processing.
  • Touch display screens contain pictures or shapes
    that the user can press to input that
    information.
  • Voice recognition devices allow a user to speak
    to a computer and have their words input to an
    application program.
  • These usually require a microphone and special
    voice recognition software to be installed on the
    computer.

39
Graphics Tablet and Touch Display Screen
Graphics Tablet
Touch Display Screen
40
Other Input Devices (Part II)
  • Scanners are devices that can convert a graphical
    image into a digital image and input it to the
    computer.
  • Types of scanners include
  • Image scanners for scanning images and text.
  • Bar code scanners to read product bar codes.
  • Magnetic scanners to read the magnetic strip on a
    credit card.
  • Optical Character Reader (OCR) scanners read
    answers on a scantron answer sheet.
  • Video input from a camcorder or VCR can be input
    using video capture cards.
  • Digital cameras takes pictures are stored
    digitally and then transferred to the computers
    memory.
  • Their images can be input directly into the
    computer.

41
Scanners
Magnetic Scanner
Image Scanner
Bar Code Scanner
42
Scanner and Digital Camera
Digital Camera
Optical Character Reader Scanner
43
Standard Input Devices (continued)
  • Touchpad
  • Common feature on laptops a specialized surface
    that converts the motion and position of your
    fingers to a position on the screen.
  • Pointing Stick
  • A pressure-sensitive device located on the
    keyboard of many notebook computers and moved
    with the forefinger.

43
43
44
Touchpad and Pointing Stick
Touch Pad
Pointing Stick
45
Standard Input Devices (continued)
  • Stylus
  • Pen-like writing instruments to input information
    to a PDA or other mobile device.
  • Environmental Probes and Sensors
  • Used with a Web browser to monitor elements of
    the work area such as humidity, pollution, or
    security

45
45
46
Stylus
47
Specialized Input Devices (continued)
  • Remote Controls
  • An input device used for televisions, lights, and
    fans as well as for industry and business
    applications.

47
47
48
Specialized Input Devices (continued)
  • Security Devices
  • Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning
    device and software that converts the scanned
    information into a digital format.
  • The way biometric technology works
  • Enrollment User establishes baseline measurement
  • Submission User presents proof of identity
  • Verification System compares samples

48
48
49
Fingerprint Scanner
50
Specialized Input Devices (continued)
  • Virtual Devices
  • Use the synchronized positioning of
    light-emitting and sensing devices to detect user
    input for example, a virtual computer keyboard.

50
50
51
Output Devices - Monitors
  • Monitors are used to display video output to a
    user.
  • Monitors may be monochromatic or color.
  • Monochromatic monitors display output in a
    single-color display.
  • Factors that influence the quality of a monitor
    are
  • Screen size The diagonal measurement in inches
    of the display area.
  • Resolution The number of pixels that can be
    displayed in the display area.
  • Dot pitch The distance between each pixel in the
    display area.

52
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Monitor
53
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor
54
Gas Plasma Display Monitor
55
Output Devices - Printers
  • Printers are used to create a hard copy of a
    document or image.
  • Printers vary by speed, quality, and price.
  • The most popular types of printers are
  • Laser Produce images using the same techniques
    as copier machines.
  • Ink-Jet These use fine nozzles to spray ink onto
    the page as the paper passes through.
  • Dot matrix These work similarly to a typewriter
    in that ink is transferred to the paper by some
    part of the printer striking a ribbon to transfer
    an image.

56
Laser Printer
57
Inkjet Printer
58
Dot Matrix Printer
59
Specialized Output Devices (continued)
  • Specialized Printers
  • Line printer High-speed printer attached
    primarily to large computers.
  • Thermal Forms characters by heating paper.
  • Mobile Small, battery-powered printer.
  • Label and postage Prints labels, including
    postage, on adhesive-type paper.
  • Plotters are printers that use pens to draw lines
    to create maps, charts, and blueprints. used by
    engineers, architects, and artists.

59
59
60
Plotter
61
Other Output Devices
  • Multifunction printer Combines various output
    options such as printing, scanning, and copying.
  • Projectors are used to project a large image of
    what is on the computer screen.
  • Speakers allow you to hear recorded music or
    speech from your computer.

62
Multifunction Printer, Projector, and Speaker
Multifunction Printer
Projector
Speaker
63
Specialized Output Devices
  • Fax machines and fax modems Transmit and receive
    documents through phone lines or computer.
  • Control devices/robots Robotics is the study,
    design, and use of robot systems for
    manufacturing.

63
63
64
Fax Machine
65
Specialized Output Devices (continued)
  • Output Devices for the Physically Challenged
  • Various special devices are available
  • Screen magnifiers Enlarge information on the
    computer screen.
  • Screen readers Use speech synthesizers to read
    content for people who are blind or visually
    impaired.
  • Voice synthesizers A voice changes written
    computer text into synthetic speech.

65
65
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