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Autism Spectrum Disorders


Autism Spectrum Disorders Childhood Disintegrative Disorder CDD is a very rare condition All aspects of the development are typical until 3 to 5 years. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Chapter 23

Debbie Phillips KIN 583
Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorder Characterized by an
    impairment in
  • Social Reciprocity
  • A typical Communication
  • Repetitive Behavior
  • Disorder categories occur along a continuum.
  • Synonym for the category is PDD Pervasive
    Development Disorder.

Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • The symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Neurologically Based
  • Scientific evidence of genetic pre-disposition
  • Also likely to be gene-environment interactions

Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Diagnostic categories within the Autism Spectrum.
    These are defined by the presence or absence
    of behaviors in the following areas
  • Social Reciprocity
  • Communication
  • Repetitive behaviors

Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Autistic Disorder
  • Autism is a discrete diagnosis within the ADS.
  • Defined by a pattern of six symptoms distributed
    across three areas.
  • At least two symptoms must be in the area of
    social reciprocity.
  • See Table on following slide.

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Diagnostic Criteria for Autistic Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Aspergers
  • Dr. Hans Asperger observed children with typical
    language who had difficulty with socialization
    and repetitive behaviors.
  • Diagnosed if three symptoms - 2 related to Social
    Reciprocity and one to habitual behaviors are
  • Considerable overlap between diagnosis of high
    functioning Autism and Aspergers disorder.
  • Children with Aspergers disorder may not be
    diagnosed until school age.

Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Pervasive Development Disorder Not otherwise
    specified. (PDD-NOS)
  • Used to describe children who do not have the
    number of distributions of symptoms for another
    diagnosis within the ASD.
  • Fewer symptoms of autism are present.

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • CDD is a very rare condition
  • All aspects of the development are typical until
    3 to 5 years.
  • At this age all domains begin to regress
    (language, cognitive ability, play, motor skills,
    bowel and bladder skill deteriorate)
  • Represents a common final pathway for a number of
    neurologic insults.

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Retts Disorder/Syndrome
  • Involves the loss of previously obtained language
    and social milestones.
  • Associated with mutation in methyl-CpG- binding
    protein 2 and a gene on the X chromosome.
  • Mostly see in Girls
  • Affected children lose language and social

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Diagnostic Features of Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Core symptoms are divided into three areas
  • Qualitative- Impairments in Social Reciprocity.
  • Atypical Communication Development
  • Atypical Behavior

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
  • The Genetics of Autism
  • Family and Twin Study
  • Candidate Gene Studies
  • Association with Genetic Disorders of know
    Etiology (genetic disorders)
  • Brain Structure and Function in Autism Spectrum

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders Cont.
  • Obstetric Complications studies have not
    strongly shown any specific prenatal or birth
    complications with the development of ASD.
  • Environmental Exposures
  • Teratogen substances that result in birth
    defects maternal medications, drugs of abuse,
    chemical and radiation.
  • Vaccinations significant controversy
  • Infections Prenatal infections increase the

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Gender and Autism Spectrum Disorders.
  • There is a 41 male to female predominance of

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Early Identifications of Autism Spectrum
  • Symptoms must be present by 3 years of age.
  • Delayed language development, repetitive
    behaviors and atypical social responsivity are
    common parental concerns.
  • Early diagnosis is based on the recognition of
    the core features of ASD as they appear in early
  • Atypical development of pretend play, pointing
    to share interest, use of eye gaze to engage
    another person in communication and social
    interest. (as young as 18 months).

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Evaluation of the Child with ASD.
  • Multidisciplinary Assessment
  • Diagnostic Measures
  • Laboratory Testing

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Associated conditions ASD may be associated
    with intellectual disabilities and other
  • Intellectual Disabilities ¾ have intellectual
  • Learning Disabilities Specific impairment in
    executive function
  • Epilepsy about ¼ with ASD
  • Tic Disorders Up to 9

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Associated conditions Cont.
  • Sleep Disorders 50 to 70
  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms Increase in pain,
    reflux, diarrhea, constipation and bloating.
  • Psychiatric Conditions greater risk for
    depression, mood disorders, ADD and anxiety.

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Genetic Disorders with Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Chromosome 15 Deletion

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Treatment Approaches
  • Educational
  • Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Developmental-Individual Difference-Relationship
    Base model
  • Relationship Development Intervention
  • Classroom-Based Programs

Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Behavioral Intervention
  • Pragmatic Language and Social Skills Training
  • Medication
  • Stimulant Medications
  • Selective Serotonin reuptake Inhibitors
  • Atypical Neuroleptics
  • Mood Stabilizers
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