Autism Spectrum Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Autism Spectrum Disorders PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: f2d9-Njc0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Description:

Autism Spectrum Disorders. Continued development of new skills. Regressive. neurological ... Professional Development in Autism Center www.pdacenter.org ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:370
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: marylandco
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Autism Spectrum Disorders


1
Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Characteristics and Instructional Supports

2
Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Neurological Basis
  • Genetic link
  • Appears in first few years of life
  • Characteristics vary across individuals
  • Incidence is increasing 1 in 166 children under
    18
  • More boys than girls

3
Varying DiagnosesPervasive Developmental
Disorders
Regressive neurological disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Continued development of new skills
Aspergers Syndrome
Progressive permanent loss of skills
Retts Syndrome
PDD-NOS
4
Core Characteristics of ASD
  • Communication
  • Verbal skills vary
  • May be more proficient with gestures or pictures
  • May use vocabulary that is different than
    original meaning
  • Repetitive words may be used out of context
  • Concrete vs. abstract understanding of vocabulary
    and idiosyncratic phrases
  • Lack of reciprocity in conversation

5
Core Characteristics of ASD
  • Social Skills
  • Interpretation of others words or tone
  • Interpretation of others behavior
  • Judgment of meaning and expectations
  • Initiation and response
  • Understanding of rules

6
Core Characteristics of ASD
  • Restricted Repertoire of Interests or Behavior
  • Repetitive behavior (for stimulation, to reduce
    anxiety, in times of stress, etc.)
  • Perseveration getting stuck
  • Talking about a favorite topic
  • Completing a task
  • Physical movement
  • High level of interest in one topic and low in
    others

There is comfort in routine and sameness
Favorite areas of interest may be highly
motivating
7
Core Characteristics of ASD
  • Sensory Processing Movement
  • Hyper-sensitive (over reactive)
  • Hypo-sensitive (under reactive)
  • Spatial positioning in space
  • Motor Planning

TACTILE (touch)
AUDITORY (Hearing)
OLFACTORY (smell) TASTE
VISUAL (sight)
VESTIBULAR (movement)
8
Other Characteristics of ASD
  • Executive function
  • Difficulty organizing and handling multiple tasks
  • Difficulty with transition and change
  • Getting Stuck (perseveration)
  • Physical movement
  • On tasks
  • On topics
  • Processing speed

9
Other Characteristics of ASD
  • Anxiety and stress
  • Problematic behavior
  • Self-stimulatory (ritualistic, self-stimulatory,
    stereotypical-repetitive, self-injurious)
  • Impulsive, with lack of judgment
  • Without understanding social rule
  • Act without fear (no interpretation)
  • To communicate when there is no other way!

Bad behavior, my friends, is just violent speech
Jamie Burke 2003
10
A spectrum disorder different children are
affected to different degrees in each area
  • If youve seen one child with Autism, you have
    seen one child with Autism.

Autism?
11
Thoughts to ponder
  • Competence is defined more by social skills than
    by intellectual skills.
  • Without social competence what happens?
  • Students are more likely to learn from teachers
    who
  • demonstrate caring and make an effort to
    understand who they are and what they mean by
    their behavior and other forms of communication.

12
Outcomes for All Students(Schwartz, 2000)
Membership
Relationships
Inclusion Skills
13
Membership
  • Neighborhood school placement
  • Participation in physical spaces, activities with
    peers
  • Accommodations to participate in general
    education instruction
  • Participation in
  • teacher-designed groups
  • student-designed groups
  • class-wide activities
  • school-wide activities
  • out of school activities

14
Relationships
  • Companion
  • Learner
  • Teacher
  • Helper
  • Helpee
  • Friend
  • Students need
  • Opportunity to interact
  • Opportunity for various roles
  • Communication method
  • Social skills
  • Adults who value them (role model)
  • Informed peers

15
Knowledge/Skills
  • Adults need to provide
  • Accommodations and modifications
  • Individualized interventions
  • Communication system
  • Collaboration
  • Positive Behavioral Supports
  • Social
  • Communication
  • Academic
  • Self-Management
  • Personal Hygiene

16
Evidence-based strategies
  • A specific intervention or instructional
    approach that has a base of high quality research
    over a range of different individuals, in a range
    of places, over a range of behaviors.

17
Evidence-based strategies
  • Instruction based on a behavioral model
  • Clear cues
  • Direct explicit instruction
  • Prompting as needed to get the response
  • Reinforcement of performance
  • (what actually motivates the student, not just
    praise or stickers!)
  • Repeated practice
  • Within the context of every-day activities

18
Evidence-based strategies
  • Self-management of behavior - how to respond in
    social and stressful situations
  • Scripts modeling and video-taping scenarios
  • (peer tutors are helpful!)
  • Social Stories
  • Descriptive statements of the setting, subject,
    etc.
  • Directive statements about how to respond
  • Affirmative statements that describe beliefs
    about the situation
  • Control statements analogies to promote
    understanding
  • Cooperative statements to identify who is
    available to help and how that help will be
    provided.

19
Telling My Friends that I am Back
  • Sometimes I leave the room to take a walk and
    calm down.
  •  When I come back into the classroom I will go to
    my seat and quietly tell my neighbor I am back.
  •  My teachers like it when I come back into the
    room and am using a quiet voice.
  • My friends will be happy when I am back in the
    classroom. When I am quiet, my friends can
    finish doing their school work.
  • I also like to be happy and finish my work.
  • If I have difficulty being quiet, I can squeeze
    my rubber ball.
  • If I am having trouble staying in my seat or
    finding my work, I can raise my hand to get help
    from my teacher. She will say Ill be right
    there and then she will come to my desk.

20
Evidence-based strategies
  • Positive Behavior Support
  • Functional Assessment what is motivating and
    maintaining the inappropriate behavior
  • Use SUPPORTS to prevent the behavior and minimize
    the need for the behavior
  • TEACH alternative replacement behavior
  • A RESPONSE PLAN when the behavior occurs should
    be more focused on minimizing the effectiveness
    of the behavior than punishing it

21
Effective Program Elements
  • Individualized planning
  • Emphasis on social skills development
  • Predictability and routine
  • Planning for transitions and change to routine
  • Systematic, behaviorally based instruction
  • Family involvement
  • Functional approach to problem behavior

(Dawson Osterling, 1997 Iovannone, Dunlap,
Huber, and Kincaid, 2003)
22
A Supportive Environment
  • Identify sensory influences
  • Design VISUAL cues and schedules
  • Design organized physical environments
  • Set physical and activity boundaries
  • Organize tasks
  • Use assistive technology
  • CHOICE

23
CHOICE Types of Choices
  • WITHIN Which materials to use?
  • BETWEEN This or that?
  • WITH WHOM Which partner?
  • WHERE Location for activity?
  • WHEN When to take a break?
  • REFUSAL Snack or not?
  • TERMINATE Keep going or finished?

Be prepared to honor choices!
Be prepared to follow up with next steps
24
CHOICE Incorporate into regular routines
  • Recess activities
  • Snack time
  • Seating options to complete classwork
  • Center activities
  • Book
  • Materials (markers, crayons, pens ,etc.)
  • Job in cooperative groups

25
SCHEDULES Daily w/ details
  • Sample daily schedule with times words.
  • Some classes include further details.
  • Use of a picture clock may also be helpful.

26
SCHEDULES Individual
  • Located on a wall within the classroom part of
    a transition area for the student

27
SCHEDULES To promote interaction
  • This schedule was placed purposefully by the
    classroom teachers desk to facilitate more
    interaction during check-in times.

28
SCHEDULES As an activity
  • This schedule operates as an activity on its
    own.
  • Each morning the student works with an adult or
    peer to assemble the schedule.
  • This gives the student a chance to ask questions
    or learn more about the day.

29
SCHEDULES Between-Task Schedules
  • To break down a block of time into more specific
    activities
  • Ex. Guided Reading Read aloud with teacher,
    Complete worksheet, SSR

30
SCHEDULES Within task
  • To break down a specific task into a series of
    steps.
  • This strip also serves as a reminder to the
    student when s/he is at the sink washing hands.

31
Boundary Setting
  • Use visuals to clearly define areas
  • Furniture where class meets for literature
  • Tape to show proper desk/chair placement
  • Activities color code materials

32
Organize a Task
  • Develop work system geared to students skill
    level - Use visual cues so student can
    understand
  • What work?
  • How much work?
  • How will I know when the work is finished?
  • What comes next?

33
When Im done
When Im done, I can go to the computer.
When Im done, I can read a book.
34
Countdown Card
Countdown cards show a visual of the amount of
time remaining. Consider moving each time
segment to the back as student completes work.
Time is made much more concrete using this
card.
How much longer? 5 4 3 2 1
35
TURN TAKING
  • Move name to back
  • Move name to envelope
  • Move name off card
  • For pairs, write names on each side

? TURN Sam Kyla Jack Shawn
36
To help students learn the content
  • Software that can help
  • Boardmaker www.mayer-johnson.com
  • Writing w/ Symbols 2000 BuildAbility -
    www.donjohnston.com
  • PixWriter Picture It www.slatersoftware.com
  • Kidspiration, Inspiration www.inspiration.co

37
Boardmaker Adapted stories
  • www.adaptedstories.com (fee for subscribing
    monthly story w/ activities)
  • http//lserver.aea14.k12.ia.us/atteam/at/al.html
    (free)
  • www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/pep/teachercreate.ht
    ml (free)

38
  • Closing Thoughts, Questions, Comments?

Maryland Coalition for Inclusive Education
www.mcie.org
About PowerShow.com