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Problem-based Learning

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Problem-based Learning Sue Gallagher Occupational Therapy Dept. Quinnipiac University What it is A teaching/learning methodology based on the assumption that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Problem-based Learning


1
Problem-based Learning
  • Sue Gallagher
  • Occupational Therapy Dept.
  • Quinnipiac University

2
What it is
  • A teaching/learning methodology based on the
    assumption that humans are driven to solve
    problems and that we will seek and learn whatever
    knowledge is needed for successful problem
    solving

3
PBL
  • Uses complex, real-world problems to motivate
    students to
  • identify what information is needed,
  • where/how to seek the info,
  • how to organize the info into meaningful
    concepts,
  • and how to communicate with others

4
PBL history
  • McMaster University Medical School, Ontario,
    Canada in the late 1960s
  • Student-centered approach using adult learning
    principles of self-directed learning, and
    supporting the development of life long learning
  • Adopted by many universities and medical schools
    worldwide as an important alternative educational
    model

5
Problem-based learning has as its organizing
center the ill-structured problem that ...
  • is messy and complex in nature
  • requires inquiry, information-gathering, and
    reflection
  • is changing and tentative
  • has no simple, fixed, formulaic, right solution
  • From http//www2.imsa.edu/programs/pbln/tutorials
    /intro/intro6.php

6
The PBL Group
  • Small groups of 6-8 students with one facilitator
  • Each group should establish their own norms
    how to record information, what happens if
    someone is repeatedly late/absent, member who
    doesnt do their research, etc.
  • Meet once weekly for 2 hours

7
The PBL Process
  • Not a linear process, but one that goes back and
    forth as needed to clarify and redefine the
    learning and the problem
  • Present a problem
  • Identify the facts
  • Identify the possible hypotheses based on the
    facts
  • Identify learning issues and possible resources

8
Process, cont
  • Students independently research learning issues
    using a wide variety of resources
  • Next session
  • Students share findings and discuss in
    relationship to the problem
  • Rule out/rule in hypotheses
  • Identify/clarify learning issues
  • New installment of problem is introduced
  • Restart the process
  • Group process discussion at the end of each
    session

9
Role of the facilitator
  • Facilitates access to resources and information
  • Create group dialogue opportunities
  • Guide, probe, and support students initiatives
  • Provide feedback regarding problem solving
    strategies, clinical reasoning, and problem
    framing
  • Model life long learning and professional skill
    development

10
Basic how-to for case/problem writing
  • Consider the level of course and maturity of
    students
  • How can the problem help meet course objectives?
    (grid)
  • Identify real world context regarding the content
  • Provide cues to stimulate questions, thinking,
    and discussion
  • Case unfolds over time

11
RISK FACTORS CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3
A. Intrinsic Psychological Biological Factors Pre-clinical Health Disorders BOBBY
Neurological self-regulation issues, addiction, sleep difficulties, attention arousal Cocaine addiction, attention, self regulation
Sensory Systems vestibular, tactile, visual, etc., overload, deprivation
Motor Systems postural control, perception, eye-hand coordination, pain, stress, anxiety states, etc. Stress
Affective Systems emotion, motivation, depression, boredom, burnout Aggression, depression?
Physical Fitness inactivity, issues of weight, lifestyle balance, smoking, etc. Related to drug addiction
Central Nervous System cognition, perception, language, communication Drug affecting CNS
Reproductive puberty, menopause, pregnancy issues, birth control, irresponsible sexual practices Irresponsible sexual practices, lack of BC father
Immune System, endocrine, metabolic issues diet, nutrition, digestion, allergies, etc. Drugs affecting immune system
12
Good cases or problems
  • Leave the student wondering or guessing
  • Are sequenced as in real life
  • Ask questions that dont have readily-found
    answers from texts
  • Challenge students to come to consensus, reach a
    conclusion, or make a judgment
  • May have many right answers

13
Problem examples
  • Newspaper stories (Andrea Yates- legal system,
    mental health system, PPD and medias impact)
  • Reality shows (Real World- interpersonal
    relationships, communication)
  • Projects design or redesign something
    (childrens book about having a sibling with
    autism)
  • Debates (I am Sam debate over child custody)
  • Client records (usually need embellishing in
    order to bring the case to life)
  • Movies (My Left Foot, Homeless to Harvard)
  • Actors useful for interviews, assessment,
    intervention
  • An article dissecting different components until
    the article can be fully understood

14
Key Values of PBL
  • Partnership
  • Honesty and Openness
  • Respect
  • Implicit in PBL and the tutorial process is an
    awesome respect for the beginning student.
    Federman, 1999, p. 93)
  • Trust

15
PBL in the QU OT dept
  • 3 consecutive semesters, beginning spring of
    junior year
  • Risk Factors Impacting Occupation
  • Research is the focus
  • Health Conditions and Evaluation
  • Research Communication/group process
  • Health Conditions and Intervention
  • Research Group process Clinical reasoning
  • Group process is reinforced through the use of
    designated group roles

16
Group Roles
  • Group process coach
  • Time keeper
  • Accuracy coach
  • Recorder
  • Coordinator
  • Discussion leader

17
Assessment
  • Peer Evaluation
  • Self Evaluation
  • Facilitator Evaluation of student performance
  • Reflection Essays or Projects

18
Tell me, I will forgetShow me, I may
rememberInvolve me, and I will
understand. Chinese proverb as interpreted by
Ei-Ichiro Ochiai
19
Resources
  • http//www.udel.edu/pbl/
  • http//www2.imsa.edu/programs/pbln/tutorials/intro
    /intro6.php
  • Wilkerson, LuAnn and Wim H. Gijselaers, eds.
    "Bringing Problem-based Learning to Higher
    Education." New Directions for Teaching and
    Learning 68 (Jossey-Bass San Francisco, 1996).
  • http//edweb.sdsu.edu/clrit/learningresource/PBL/W
    hatisPBL.html
  • http//www.cmiproject.net/about_cmi.htm (Case
    Method of Instruction)

20
Resources, cont.
  • Duch, B.J., Groh, S.E., Allen, D.E. (2001). The
    power of problem-based learning A practical how
    to for teaching undergraduate courses in any
    discipline. Sterling, VA Stylus.
  • McKeachie, W.J. Svinicki, M. (2006).
    Problem-based learning Teaching with cases,
    simulations, and games. In W.J. McKeachie M.
    Svinicki (Ed.), McKeachies teaching tips
    Strategies, research, and theory for college and
    university teachers
  • Amador, J.A., Miles, L., Peters, C.B. (2006).
    The practice of problem-based learning A guide
    to implementing PBL in the college classroom.
    Bolton, MA Anker Publishing Co.
  • Baptiste, S.E. (2003). Problem-based learning A
    self-directed journey. Thorofare, NJ Slack, Inc.
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