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Lecture 2A: The Big Picture, Application Architecture and Lifecycle

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Lecture 2A: The Big Picture, Application Architecture and Lifecycle IT 202 Internet Applications Based on notes developed by Morgan Benton – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lecture 2A: The Big Picture, Application Architecture and Lifecycle


1
Lecture 2AThe Big Picture,Application
Architecture and Lifecycle
  • IT 202Internet Applications
  • Based on notes developed by Morgan Benton

2
For Today
  • How this course fits in the CCS curricula
  • History of Networked Applications
  • The Big Picture
  • Semester Roadmap
  • Information Technology
  • Systems Architecture
  • Networked Computing Infrastructure
  • The Internet
  • Application Development
  • Rationale
  • Acquisition
  • Development Lifecycle

3
How does this course fit in?
Client-server computing
Interface Design/ Human Factors
Databases
MIS BPR E-commerce
Supply Chain Management
4
Brief History of Computing
  • 4 Major phases
  • Centralized
  • Time-shared
  • Decentralized
  • Networked
  • Two points to get from this
  • See where weve come from
  • Guess where were going

5
Whats an Internet Application?
  • Three Ingredients
  • Information Technology (e.g. networks)
  • Information Content
  • Applications and Users

6
Social Applications
  • Characteristics of User Groups
  • Number of Users
  • Narrowness of purpose
  • Duration of activity
  • Social relationships
  • Examples of types of groups
  • Individuals
  • Task group/Work group
  • Interest group
  • Citizenry

7
Styles of Social Applications I
  • Communication Style
  • Direct vs. Publication dimension (support?)
  • Synchronous (immediate) vs. Asynchronous
    (deferred)
  • Same place vs. Different place

Synchronous Asynchronous
Same Place Brainstorming, DSS, etc. Sticky notes
Different Place Chat, videoconferencing E-mail, message boards
8
Styles of Social Applications II
  • Coordination Styles
  • Parallel
  • Pooled
  • Sequential
  • Reciprocal/Reactive
  • The content of this slide is borrowed from Murray
    Turoffs CIS 679 course notes, but based on
    Coordination Theory which was initially developed
    by Thomas Malone at MITs Sloan School of Business

9
Types of Social Applications
  • Remote Conferencing (synchronous)
  • Groupware (async)
  • Discussion Forums/Chat
  • Cyberspace Applications
  • Broadcast, mass publication
  • Information Retrieval
  • E-commerce
  • Recommender systems

10
Information Management
  • What is information?

Wisdom Knowledge Information Data
11
Finding Useful Information
  • Information Search and Retrieval
  • Push vs. Pull
  • Automated vs. Personalized
  • Recommendations
  • User Control

12
Information Overload
  • According to Hiltz and Turoff (1981), users
    experience the greatest amounts of information
    overload at intermediate levels of use. New
    users and more experienced users have lower
    levels.
  • It is very important to be careful about how
    information serving is designed
  • Hiltz, S. R. and Turoff, M. (1981) The Evolution
    of User Behavior in a Computer Conferencing
    System. Communications of the ACM 24(11),
    November 1981

13
Organizational Applications
  • Apps are designed to support activity
  • Within departments
  • Across departments, within same organization
  • External to the organization, i.e. with
    customers, suppliers, business partners, etc.

14
Types of Organizational Apps
  • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
  • Management Information Systems (MIS)
  • Executive Information Systems (EIS)
  • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
  • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
  • Knowledge Management (KM)
  • Data Mining (DM)

15
E-Commerce Framework
Consumer Business Government
Consumer C2C C2B C2G
Business B2C B2B B2G
Government G2C G2B G2G
16
Steps in a Sale
  • Matching buyers and sellers
  • Negotiating terms and conditions
  • Consummation
  • Customer Service

17
Critical Societal Infrastructure
  • It is important to understand just how important
    computing and networked applications have become
    to the smooth operation of our society
  • What would happen if there was a sudden failure
    in networked computing?

18
The Productivity Paradox
  • Despite the obvious hours and days of effort that
    are saved by computers, it is often hard to see
    an impact on measures of productivityi.e. people
    are working more than ever, not making
    significantly much more money, etc.

19
Roadmap for the Semester
  • Understanding the theory and practice of
    implementing Internet applications
  • By the end of the semester you may be able to
    identify a niche that you would like to pursue
    for your own career

20
Information Technology
  • the suite of computing and communications
    technologies that empower users and organizations
    to capture, store, communicate, and manipulate
    information. These technologies provide an
    infrastructurethose capabilities not specific to
    any application, but which support all
    applicationstogether with the application-specifi
    c software. (Messerschmitt)

21
Information Content
  • Networked applications restricted to transmission
    of bit-encoded info, but MANY types of info can
    be encoded
  • On the internet a mime-type code often tells a
    client program (e.g. web browser, mail client)
    how to interpret a given bit stream (for more
    info see RFCs 2045-2049)

22
System Architecture
  • a system is something that puts together
    building blocks that interact to accomplish some
    higher-level purposea purpose that the building
    blocks themselves could not individually
    accomplish. Systems can be social (like an
    organization) or technical (like a networked
    computer system). (Messerschmitt)

23
Building blocks of a Networked Application
Architecture
The Internet
Databases
User
LAN
Desktop Computer
Server
24
Elements of an Architecture
  • Decomposition
  • Functionality
  • Interaction
  • These elements combine together to form emergent
    propertiesi.e. those properties that only appear
    because the elements work in unison

25
Systems Hierarchy
26
Network Infrastructure I
  • Supports four important capabilities
  • Communication across distance
  • Communication across time
  • Computation and logic
  • Human-Computer Interface

27
Network Infrastructure II
Communication Across Distance
Databases
Communication Across Time
Human Computer Interface
Computation And Logic
28
System Layers An Example
Web Host Machine (aka a server)
e.g. Amazon.com website
Web Application
PHP, ASP, JSP, ColdFusion, etc.
Application Server
Apache Web Server, IIS, etc.
Web Server
Linux, Windows, etc.
Operating System
to the Internet
also relies on other components not shown
here, such as a database server, DBMS, etc.
29
Network Functions
  • Primarily Communication
  • Domain Name resolution via DNS (Domain Name
    Server/Service)
  • Authorization/Authentication
  • Reliable packet transmission

30
Networking Concepts
  • Topologies
  • Star
  • Mesh
  • Token Ring
  • Combinations
  • Backbone
  • Switch

31
Storage
  • File Systems
  • Databases (DBMS)
  • Isolate application from changes in computer
    systems
  • Provide standard data handling operations
  • Support multiple applications
  • Provide safety and integrity

32
Two Different Applications Using the Same Data
Application Servers
Database DBMS
Security Mechanism
33
Intranet/Extranet
Security Mechanism
Firewall
34
So how do these things get built?
  • Organizations acquire networked applications in
    one of three ways
  • Buy them off-the-shelf
  • Outsource them
  • Build them internally
  • (or some combination of these three)
  • These decisions are quite complex and there are
    no hard and fast rules that apply

35
Application Lifecycle
  • Requirements Analysis
  • System Design
  • Implementation
  • Building and Testing
  • Deployment
  • Maintenance
  • Retirement

What well do this semester
36
Development Methodologies
  • There are many waterfall, spiral, evolutionary,
    prototyping, XP
  • Each is more or less suited to different
    situations
  • Software development is still a young
    disciplinesome estimates are that as many as 80
    of all projects are at least partial failures
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