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Title: Advancing the language and literacy of English Learners in an era of the Common Core Standards


1
Advancing the language and literacy of English
Learners in an era of the Common Core Standards
  • Laurie Olsen, Ph.D.
  • Alameda County Office of Education English
    Learner Institute
  • January 26, 2013
  • lolaurieo_at_gmail.com

2
English Learners
There is no equality of treatment merely by
providing students with the same facilities,
textbooks, teachers and curriculumfor students
who do not understand English are effectively
foreclosed from any meaningful education
Lau v. Nichols, Supreme Court
3
The task To get them to English proficiencyTo
ensure access to curriculum while learning English
A moving target under the Common Core Standards
?
__________________________________________________
_____________________
Proficient for Academic work
No English
4
Research on EL
District Initiatives
Families, Community
State Federal Accountability Reforms
Civil Rights
Growing Gap Declining progress towards
English proficiency New barriers to access
Persistent Long Term English Learner challenge
Politics
Capacity Prof. development, teacher placement,
credentialling,
5
Entering era of converging forces
Long Term English Learner Research
The Common Core Standards
English Learner Research
6
Long Term English Learner Research
7
Long Term English Learners are created..
Long Term EL
Struggling Students
8
English Learner Typologies
  • Newly arrived with adequate schooling (including
    literacy in L1)
  • Newly arrived with interrupted formal schooling -
    Underschooled - SIFE
  • English Learners developing normatively (1-5
    years)
  • Long Term English Learner

9
Reparable Harm researchCalifornians Together
Survey (2010)
  • Data from 40 school districts
  • Data on 175,734 English Learners in grades 6 -
    12
  • This is 31 of Californias English Learners in
    grades 6 12
  • Districts vary in EL enrollment, size and context

10
Data collected on English Learners 6 - 12
  • of years since date of entry
  • Secondary ELs who enrolled in K/1
  • 6 by CELDT level
  • 6 by academic failure (Ds, Fs)
  • Definition
  • Placement

11
Across all districts59 of secondary school ELs
are long term(103,635 in sample)
Differs significantly from district to district
(21 - 96)
12
Definitions vary
  • Nine of 40 have a formal definition
  • Length of time (years) is part of every
    definition
  • The number of years used in the definitions vary
    from 5 years to 7
  • Six districts include lack of progress or
    evidence of academic failure along with the
    number of years

13
Their double challenge our legal responsibility
English learners cannot be permitted to incur
irreparable academic deficits during the time in
which they are mastering English School
districts are obligated to address deficits as
soon as possible, and to ensure that their
schooling does not become a permanent deadend.
14
Definition (AB 2193)
An English Learner in secondary schools
who.. Has been continuously or cumulatively
enrolled in US schools for 6 years Not met
reclassification criteria Evidence of inadequate
progress (e.g., slow, inadequate or stalled
progress in English language development Is
struggling academically (e.g., GPA of 2.0 or
below grades of D or F in two or more core
classes)
15
Building Block1Know who your English Learners
are --the extent and magnitude of the LTEL issue
in your schools
16
Annual Expectations for English Learners
Years in US 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 years
CELDT BEG EI INT INT EA ADV
CST ELA FBB FBB BB BB Basic Prof
CST Math FBB FBB BB Basic Prof Prof
17
Recent survey
  • Data from 35 school districts (mix of suburban,
    rural and urban geographic diversity small to
    very large vary in concentration of English
    Learners)
  • Data on 108,609 ELLs in grades 3 - 5

18
Indicators of Risk
  • After 5 years havent reached CELDT proficiency
  • After 5 years stalled at Intermediate Level III
    on CELDT for more than two years
  • After 5 years scoring at FBB or BB on CST-ELA

19
By fifth grade
  • Almost half of students who enrolled in
    Kindergarten as English Learners are redesignated
  • 52 of those who enrolled as an ELL in
    Kindergarten are still English Learners
  • Half of those have not yet reached CELDT
    proficiency
  • 1/3 have been stalled at Intermediate level for
    MORE than two years
  • ½ are scoring at FBB or BB on CST-ELA

20
Action Items ?
  • Adopt a clear definition
  • Develop expectations for progress based on number
    of years of enrollment
  • Use those expectations to identify students at
    risk of becoming Long Term English Learners
  • Disaggregate achievement data by number of years
    in U.S. schools
  • See BB1 Checklist and data template

21
A school by the numbers
years Beg (I) Early Int (II) Interm (III) Early Adv (IV) Adv. (V)
1 yr. or less 45 30 21 1 0
2 years 9 46 28 1 0
Three years 6 28 45 3 1
Four years 3 17 57 12 3
Five Years 12 59 17 6
Six years 1 13 51 20 12
22
Roster by Expectations
A STUDENT ROSTER
Name CELDT years CELDT Expectation CST Expectation ELD Benchmark Expectation
Almanzar, L. III 5 No No No
Barajas, J. IV 5 ? No ?
Cruz, D. IV 6 No ? No
Escobedo, M. III 6 No No No
23
  • BUILDING BLOCK 2
  • KNOW WHAT TO WATCH FOR!

24
Typical behavioral profile
  • Learned passivity, non-engagement, underlying
    discomfort in classes
  • Dont ask questions or ask for help
  • Tend not to complete homework or understand the
    steps needed to complete assignments
  • Not readers
  • Typically desire to go to college high hopes
    and dreams but unaware of pathway to those dreams
  • Do not know they are doing poorly academically
    think they are English fluent

25
By 6th grade, they have distinct language issues
  • High functioning in social situations in both
    languages but limited vocabulary in both
  • Prefer English are increasingly weak in their
    home language
  • Weak academic language with gaps in reading and
    writing skills
  • Are stuck in progressing towards English
    proficiency

26
The continuum learning English as a second
language
1 3 years
7 10 years
? ? ? ? ?
__________________________________________________
_____________________
No English
CELDT Proficient
Proficient for Academic work
Oral, social English
CST Basic
I II III IV V
27
Big discrepancy between CELDT Proficiency and
Basic on CST/ELA
Percent English Learners attaining these
benchmarks statewide
28
What is an AMAO?Annual Measurable Achievement
Objective
  • AMAO 1 progress towards English proficiency
    measured by CELDT levels (target 54.6)
  • AMAO 2 attainment of English proficiency which
    is defined as CELDT proficient (overall Early
    Advanced, no domain less than Intermediate) -
    (target 43.2 those lt5yrs)
  • AMAO 3 academic performance in English
    measured by scoring proficient on CST in ELA and
    Math (target 67)

29
Which levels on CELDT are meeting growth target
AMAO 1 (Alameda County)?
meeting growth target of 1 level
Beginning (I) 70.5
Early Intermediate (II) 68.5
Intermediate (III) 46.2
Early Advanced (IV) 21.6
Advanced (V) 56.1
30
To get this data for your site.
  • www.cde.ca.gov
  • Dataquest
  • Level (county)
  • Subject English Language Development Test
    (CELDT)
  • Select county and submit
  • Click CELDT results by prior proficiency
  • Select the district and then the site

31
Alameda Co. selected districts
AMAO 1 AMAO 1 AMAO 2B (5 yrs) AMAO 2B (5 yrs)
District A met 66.0 met 45.6
District B met 58.2 Not met 36.5
District C met 58.5 Not met 43.8
District D met 65.2 met 52.7
State target 56
45.1
32
Action Items ?
  • Examine AMAOs for adequate growth and patterns
  • Conduct walkthroughs and observations, shadow
    students to monitor active participation and
    engagement
  • Build staff understanding of CELDT and data and
    normative expectations
  • Celebrate progress
  • See BB2 Checklist and data template

33
Understand what practices contribute towards the
creation of LTELs and what may need to change
Building Block 3
34
No services - mainstream
  • Three out of four spent at least two years in no
    services or mainstream
  • This trend has increased in California schools in
    past decade

35
Trend Towards the weakest EL Program Models
36
Other contributing factors
  • Inconsistent program placements
  • Inconsistent implementation within programs
  • Social segregation and linguistic isolation
  • Transnational moves transnational schooling

37
Unintended consequences
  • Narrowed curriculum ? academic gaps lack of
    academic language
  • Professional development and monitoring are tied
    to fidelity in implementation of core curriculum
    packages that arent adequate for the language
    development strategies English Learners need
  • Interventions as solution ? schedule filled
    with inadequate and inappropriate support
    classes, interventions that arent designed for
    English Learners

38
CONFUSION
English Language Development (ELD)
???
English Language Arts Universal Access
Preview/Review
Reading Support, English Intervention Classes
39
The National Literacy Panel
Instructional strategies effective with native
English speakers do not have as positive a
learning impact on language minority students..
Instruction in the key components of reading is
necessary but not sufficient for teaching
language minority students to read and write
proficiently in English.
40
On the issue of interventions
  • CAL (Double the Work) - reading interventions
    designed for native speakers arent appropriate
    for ELLs
  • National Literacy Panel - good literacy and
    reading interventions work for both ELL and
    proficient students - but they work BETTER for
    English proficient students (gap grows) and do
    not address some key needs of LTELs
  • From the 1.5 generation research on college
    students, and linguistics research - appears that
    WRITING may be a more powerful emphasis than
    READING strategies for LTELs

41
In secondary schools.. (from the Californians
Together survey)
  • 3 of 4 districts have no approach to serving Long
    Term English Learners
  • Majority of CA districts place their Long Term
    English Learners into mainstream
  • Three CA districts place Long Term English
    Learners by English proficiency level with other
    English Learners (in NYC, this is the common
    placement)

42
Typical program placementsfor English Learners
Intensive or strategic interventions!
SDAIE
Still English Learner, but in Mainstream
1 3 years
? ? ? ? ?
__________________________________________________
_____________________
No English
Oral, social English
CELDT Proficient
Proficient for Academic work
CST Basic
I II III IV V
43
Placements NOT designed for them..
  • Placed/kept in classes with newcomer and
    normatively developing English Learners by
    CELDT level
  • Unprepared teachers
  • No electives and limited access to the full
    curriculum
  • Over-assigned and inadequately served in
    intervention and reading support classes

44
Secondary school version..
  • An EL is an EL is an EL ? a struggling student is
    a struggling student is a ..
  • Mainstream curriculum and classes
  • Perhaps ELD by CELDT level
  • Support classes, intervention classes (based on
    CST scores) that are designed for native English
    speakers and focused primarily on reading
  • CAHSEE prep
  • No electives
  • Difficulty fitting in A-G

45
So farfrom the LTEL research
  • Clearly defined EL program models (ELD plus
    access), consistently implemented
  • Consistency in placement and EL language approach
    (no ping-pong)
  • Importance of full academic curriculum
  • Strategies that promote student engagement as
    active learners
  • Importance of scaffolding instruction
  • No more Interventions EL Program especially
    interventions designed for native English
    speakers
  • No more Mainstream EL Program

46
Three converging forces
Long-term English Learner Research
The Common Core Standards
X
English Learner Research
High leverage Instructional Strategies
47
Building Block 4Know the research, undo
misconceptions that lead to harmful practices,
48
New generation of research
  • National Literacy Panel on Language Minority
    Children and Youth
  • California Department of Education
    Research-based Practices for English Language
    Learners (commissioned papers)

49
1 Early childhood education makes a difference
  • Early years of development (cognitive,
    linguistic, social) are crucial
  • Quality preschool lays the foundation for better
    outcomes for children once they enter
    kindergarten
  • Preschool reduces disparities and longstanding
    achievement gaps between groups
  • Most powerful language policy/approach for
    preschool is primary focus on home language
    development

50
So..
  • Begin with preschool programs
  • Active outreach/recruitment to English Learner
    communities
  • Attention to supporting the transition from
    preschool into kindergarten
  • Articulation, alignment between the two systems
    (preschool and K-12)

51
2 Importance of rich oral language development
  • There are four domains to language development
    oral language is key
  • Producing language encourages learners to process
    language more deeply than when just listening or
    receptive.
  • Verbal interaction is essential in the
    construction of knowledge
  • Oral language is the bridge to academic language
    associated with school and the development of
    literacy --

52
National Literacy Panel finding
  • Oral language development and proficiency is
    critical to literacy and is often (and
    increasingly) overlooked in instruction
  • It is not enough to teach reading skills alone to
    language minority students extensive oral
    English development must be incorporated into
    successful literacy instruction
  • Oral proficiency and literacy in the first
    language facilitates literacy development in
    English

53
So
  • Multiple and frequent structured opportunities
    for students to be engaged in producing oral
    language should be features of classroom
    instruction
  • The amount, type and quality of student talk that
    is generated is a mark of good instruction
  • Emphasize complex vocabulary development
  • Model rich, expressive, amplified oral language

54
3 Academic Language is essential complex,
precise language is essential
55
  • Social, oral fluency (BICS) takes less time to
    develop than academic proficiency (CALP)
  • Academic language and literacy for ELs develop
    most powerfully where background knowledge is
    also being built and in the context of engaging
    with academic content
  • Learning a second language for academic success
    requires explicit language development across the
    curriculum - ELD alone is not sufficient

56
SOCIAL CONTEXTS ACADEMIC CONTEXTS
SIMPLE, BASIC, FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE ? ?
RICH, COMPLEX, PRECISE LANGUAGE X X
57
So.
  • Identify key academic vocabulary and discourse
    patterns and explicitly teach them
  • Monitor the rigor and complexity of the language
    used in text and instruction
  • Set a high bar for sophisticated, complex,
    precise language in both social and academic
    domains

58
4 Language develops in contextSo
  • Intentional language development across the
    curriculum
  • Full curriculum including rich science and
    social studies

59
5. To access the curriculum, English Learners
need specially designed instruction
60
SDAIE works when
  • Materials are designed for maximum contextual
    cues, etc.
  • Teachers understand which strategies are meant
    for which levels of proficiency
  • Students are grouped by level
  • Instruction is paced appropriately - and key
    power standards focused upon
  • L1 is used as a support

61
So
  • Language objectives for content lessons based on
    analyzing the linguistic demands of the content
  • Identify key academic vocabulary and discourse
    patterns and explicitly teach them
  • Professional development related to making
    content accessible to English Learners
  • Home language support
  • Home language instruction when possible
  • Generic approaches must be differentiated
    (e.g., Balanced Literacy)

62
6 ELD instruction can advance knowledge and
use of English and they need ELD through high
levels of proficiencyDaily dedicated
timeLeveled by proficiency
63
These are related but not the same
English Language Arts
ELD
Academic language across curriculum
64
7 Development of the home language is
important
65
The home language plays a significant role in
development
  • The best foundation for literacy is a rich
    foundation in language - not necessarily in
    English, but in the language strongest for the
    child and his or her family.
  • Children have more extended and complex
    vocabulary and language skills if their home
    language is developed
  • Bilingual children perform better than
    monolinguals on select cognitive tasks
  • English Learners make more academic progress when
    they have the opportunity to learn in both their
    home language and English
  • Systematic, deliberate exposure to English
    ongoing development of L1 highest achievement
    in both languages by end of 3rd grade and beyond.

66
  • The research indicates that instructional
    programs work when they provide opportunities for
    students to develop proficiency in their first
    language. Studies that compare bilingual
    instruction with English only instruction
    demonstrate that language minority students
    instructed in their native language as well as in
    English perform better, on average, on measures
    of English reading proficiency than
    language-minority students instructed only in
    English.
  • National Literacy Panel on Language Minority
    Children and Youth

67
Wayne Thomas and Virginia Collier A national
study of school effectiveness for Language
Minority Students Long term academic
achievement 2001 The astounding effectiveness
of dual language education for all 2004 www.crede
.ucsc.edu/research/llaa/1.1_final
68
And, there are benefits to bilingualism so..
  • Home language instruction and development
    whenever possible to high levels of proficiency
  • Transfer focus and contrastive analysis
  • Native speakers classes through to Advanced
    Placement
  • Create a climate that honors and affirms the
    value of bilingualism

69
Common belief system
  • Sooner and more fully immersed in English, the
    better
  • Good teaching and standards-based curriculum work
    for all students and are sufficient for ELLs
  • English is the most important subject for ELLs
    the more hours, the better
  • Home language holds students back

70
Action Steps ?
  • Know the research
  • Determine which aspects of the research are most
    important to make known at this point in to order
    to clarify myths/misconceptions that may be in
    the way of delivering a strong EL research-based
    program

71
Three converging forces
Long Term English Learner Research
The Common Core Standards
?
English Learner Research ?
72
What are the Common Core Standards (CCS)?
  • College and career readiness standards developed
    by National Governors Association and CCSSO in
    2009
  • Adopted in 2010 by California SBE, along with 47
    other states
  • To be implemented in 2014-15 school year
  • Internationally benchmarked so all students
    prepared to succeed in global economy and society

73
Increased Rigor so Students are College and
Career Ready
  • The new standards are the result of a state-led
    effort to increase rigor and build consensus on
    what students should know as they advance from
    kindergarten through high school, so they will
    graduate better prepared for college and the
    modern workplace.

74
College and Career Readiness Standards
  • Rationale
  • Preparation for
  • University
  • Community College
  • Technical Programs
  • Vocational Programs
  • By 2018, 61 of jobs in California will require
    post secondary education.
  • This is 2 percentage points below the national
    average of 63.
  • California ranks 29th in post secondary
    intensity for 2018.

75
Structure and OrganizationCCS Anchor Standards
  • Define what a college and career ready person can
    do in the 21st century at the end of high school
  • Backwards map from 12th grade to kindergarten
  • Show progression for each standard from
    kindergarten to 12th grade
  • Have a consistent numbering system across the
    K-12 ELA standards

76
Four Shifts
  • Language development across the curriculum
  • Increased focus on oral language and multiple
    opportunities for developing speaking and
    listening skills
  • Use of more informational, rigorous and complex
    texts
  • Emphasis on collaboration, inquiry and teamwork

77
Major Shift 1From Old Paradigm
Academic content
then
Learn English
OR
Academic vocabulary as overlap
Academic Content
Language
78
To new CCS Paradigm language is central to all
academic areas
MATH
SCIENCE
Language
instructional discourse expressing and
understanding reasoning
LANGUAGE ARTS
79
Shift Increased focus on Speaking and Listening
  • Comprehension and Collaboration
  • Day to day, purposeful academic talk one to one,
    small group and large group setting
  • Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
  • Formal sharing of information and concepts,
    including through the use of technology
  • for all students, across the curriculum

80
Shift Focus on more complex, rigorous text (
incr. in informational)
  • ELLs will need background knowledge to comprehend
    and critically engage with academic text and at
    the levels of CCCS.
  • Practices of a narrowed curriculum and years
    spent in English and math interventions, support
    classes and instruction (little or no science,
    social studies, arts) have resulted in gaps in
    ELL students essential academic background
    knowledge.

81
Shift Active engagement in collaboration
  • The CCSs recognize that students need to develop
    skills to collaborate in academic work skills
    for teamwork, active and skillful participation
    in discussions, and inquiry-based collaboration.
  • (Anchor standard Speaking and
    Listening 1)

82
CCSs alone do not address a pathway towards
English proficiency for ELLs
  • New English Language Development standards
    aligned to the CCSs (adopted November 2012)
  • Implementation of CCSs must be accompanied by
    full implementation of the new ELD standards

83
New ELD Standards aligned to CCS
  • Language development focused on making meaning,
    collaboration, comprehension, communication
    with content integral to language learning
  • From traditional notion of grammar with syntax
    and discrete skills at center to language within
    context of discourse, text structure, syntax and
    vocabulary in meaningful contexts
  • Descriptors of 3 proficiency levels
    collaborative communication, interpretation,
    production of language, metalinguistic awareness,
    accuracy of production
  • New adoption of materials in 2016 new ELD
    assessment for 2015-16

84
CALIFORNIA NEXT GENERATION ELD STANDARDSaligned
to the Common Core ELA
LANGUAGE MODES Interacting in Meaningful Ways
LANGUAGE PROCESSES Learning How English Works
Emerging
Expanding Bridging
85
The CCS as Opportunity for ELLs
  • Many aspects of the CCS align with research-based
    best practices for English Learners
  • Many aspects of the CCS align with what ELLs need
    to avoid becoming LTELs
  • Yet the level of rigor and language expectations
    pose challenges for ELLs.

86
Need for explicit attention to ELLs
  • One in four California students are English
    Learners.
  • English Learners face specific language barriers
    to participation and access, and have special
    needs.
  • Most general school improvement efforts in the
    past have inadequately addressed the achievement
    gap for English Learners.
  • The California Common Core Standards (CCSS)are a
    major reform of public education that do not
    explicitly state how English Learners needs
    should be addressed.

87
Currently
  • Persistent achievement gap
  • Large number of Long Term English Learners
  • Narrowed curriculum and lack of access
  • Disproportionately high drop out rates

88
Current statewide practices provide weak
foundation
  • Weak or non-existent ELD programs
  • Lack of use of research-based and consistent
    programs
  • Insufficient use of SDAIE strategies to assist
    comprehension and engagement
  • Inadequate curriculum materials to scaffold
    access to content

89
  • Many ELLs fail to reach CELDT proficiency, a
    low-bar for academic access and participation.
  • Many ELLs become Long Term English Learners
    stalled in progress towards proficiency and
    amassing academic gaps.
  • CCCS calls for ramped up rigor.
  • CCCS implementation without attention to a basic
    foundation of English Learner support will fail.

90
  • Roll out initial implementation of CCCSs with
    focus on high leverage areas that overlap between
    ELL research, LTEL research and CCCS mandates
  • Dont forget the ELD standards
  • Continue to build the understanding, skills,
    capacity and foundation for strong ELL programs
  • Professional development for all teachers that
    focus on the intersect!

91
Three imperatives!
Long Term English Learner Research
The Common Core Standards
Realize the Promise Guard against new barriers!
Prevent the harm! End the creation of LTELs
English Learner Research
Enact what we know works!
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