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Working with English Language

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Working with English Language Learners in Illinois: Science Instruction By Carl J. Wenning Based in part on a presentation by John F. Hilliard The Illinois Resource ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Working with English Language


1
  • Working with English Language
  • Learners in Illinois
  • Science Instruction

By Carl J. Wenning Based in part on a
presentation by John F. Hilliard The Illinois
Resource Center
2
In Illinois, its the law to
  • promote equitable access to language support
    services for students from culturally and
    linguistically diverse backgrounds who have been
    identified as English Language Learners.
  • assist English Language Learners to become
    lifelong learners, able to contribute to and
    function in a multicultural and globally
    competitive world.

3
There are five levels of English language
proficiency according to ISBE
5
Level 5 Students are able to work independently
in content area using English language.
BRIDGING
4
EXPANDING
3
DEVELOPING
2
BEGINNING
1
All Illinois teachers are responsible for moving
kids to level 4.5 min. teachers MUST make
lessons comprehensible for English language
learners.
ENTERING
A human screener tentatively determines these
levels the ISBE ACCESS test sets the level more
precisely.
4
Illinois English Language Proficiency Standards
Standard 1 English language learners communicate
in English for social and instructional purposes
within the school setting. Standard 2
.LANGUAGE ARTS Standard 3 .MATHEMATICS Standa
rd 4 English language learners communicate
information, ideas, and concepts necessary for
academic success in the content area of
SCIENCE Standard 5 .SOCIAL STUDIES
5
Proficiency Indicators
  • Exemplars of what English language learners can
    do
  • Sample behaviors representative of the five
    English language proficiency levels
  • Developmental and additive that is, they
    scaffold from lower to higher levels of language
    proficiency

6
The Cummins Model of ELL
  • BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
    (the tip of the iceberg grammar, pronunciation,
    vocabulary)
  • CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
    (submerged part of iceberg semantic meaning)
  • The distinction between BICS and CALP has exerted
    a significant impact on a variety of educational
    policies and practices in the USA in recent years.

7
6 months to 2 years
5 to 7 years
8
Cristina
Cristina
L1
CALP
ELL with formal academic education in L1
(literacy) and no social language in L2
9
Maria
Maria
L1
ELL with no formal academic education in L1
(literacy) and no social language in L2
10
Pablo
L2
L1
ELL with inconsistent academic education in
either L1 or L2 (stunted literacy)
11
Maria Elena
L2
L1
ELL with stunted development in social language
in both L1 and L2 and little to no CALP
development
12
Academic Language Proficiency is
  • associated with language acquisition that, in
    large part, is tied to formal schooling
  • representative of social and academic contexts
  • driven by the language of content-based
    curriculum and instruction
  • grounded in a blending of language proficiency
    and academic content standards

13
Language Proficiency is Related to but Distinct
from Academic Achievement
Language proficiency revolves around the language
within the context of the core curriculum areas.
Academic achievement reflects the knowledge and
skills associated with the content of the core
curriculum areas.
14
Academic Language Proficiency is required for
Academic Achievement
Social Language Proficiency

Academic Achievement
Academic Language Proficiency
15
Working with ELL Students
  • Language domains
  • Language patterns
  • Multiple meanings
  • Teaching strategies
  • Lesson cycles
  • Cooperative learning

16
There are four language domains
Listening- process, understand, interpret, and
evaluate spoken language in a variety of
situations (receptive) Speaking- engage in oral
communication in a variety of situations for a
variety of purposes and audiences
(productive) Reading- process, interpret, and
evaluate written language, symbols, and text with
understanding and fluency (receptive) Writing-
engage in written communication in a variety of
forms for a variety of purposes and audiences
(productive)
17
Imagine you are a first grader. What are some
language patterns you need to use or recognize in
order to solve this problem?
Language Patterns


For example a teacher might say, Count the
boxes.
18
Did you think of any other math sentences?
  • How many altogether?
  • How many in all?
  • How much is 3 and 2?
  • What is the sum of.?
  • What is 2 plus 3?
  • Add the two numbers.
  • Three squares and two more are.
  • Three plus two equals.

Which of these are BICS which of these are CALP?
19
Multiple Meanings in English
  • Think about the word table how might one use
    this word in the context of
  • English language arts?
  • Mathematics?
  • Science?
  • Social Studies?
  • Think about the word cell how might one use
    this world in the context of
  • English language arts?
  • Mathematics?
  • Science?
  • Social Studies?

20
Range of Contextual Support and Degree of
Cognitive Involvement in Communicative Activities
Cognitively undemanding
Total physical response Demonstrations,
illustrations Following directions Art, music,
physical education Face-to-face
conversation Simple games
Telephone conversation Note on a
refrigerator Written directions (without diagrams
or examples)
Context embedded
Context reduced
A
C
(less language dependent)
(more language dependent)
D
B
Subject content explanation (Without diagrams or
examples) Mathematics word problems. (Without
illustrations) Explanations of new abstract
concepts
Mathematics computations Science experiments,
social studies projects (map activities, etc.)
Cognitively demanding
Adapted from J. Cummins, The Role of Primary
Language Development in Promoting Educational
Success for Language Minority Students.
Schooling and Language Minority Students A
Theoretical Framework. Los Angeles California
State University.
21
Lesson Cycle
22
Cooperative Learning
  • Mix ELL students with native speakers of English
  • Pair bilingual students with monolingual
    students, but require primarily English language
    usage
  • Be certain cooperative efforts are concrete at
    the start so that language, experiences, and
    concepts can be linked
  • Ensure full engagement of ELL students

23
Other Suggestions
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • Reciprocal teaching
  • Engaged Learning
  • Graphic organizers - semantic maps - using one of
    the following Inspiration/Kidspiration/CMapTools

24
CLOSED WORD SORTS
  • Directions
  • 1. Choose 10-12 important words from the
    selection.
  • 2. Have the students work in pairs or small
    groups.
  • 3. List the categories for the students.
  • 4. Have the students discuss the words and place
    them under the categories. (The words and
    categories could be written on slips of paper
    so that they could be moved around.)
  • 5. Be sure that the students discuss their
    reasons for the categorizing with each other and
    with another group.
  • 6. Have the entire class discuss the categories.
  • 7. Have the students read the selection.
  • 8. Have the students revise their categories and
    express their learning through a graphic
    organizer, a story retelling, or role playing.
  • Directions for the students
  • Below is a list of words from the unit that we
    have been studying. Place each word under the
    proper category and be ready to justify your
    choices.
  • Average Velocity Instantaneous velocity
  • Distance Speed
  • Displacement Position
  • Acceleration Time

25
OPEN WORD SORTS(a.ka. concept or semantic maps)
  • Directions
  • 1. Choose 10-12 important words from the
    selection, say Energy.
  • 2. Have the students work in pairs or small
    groups.
  • 3. Have the students discuss the words and then
    categorize them.
  • (The students will develop their own
    categories.)
  • 4. Be sure that the students discuss their
    reasons for the categorizing with each other and
    with another group.
  • 5. Have the entire class discuss the categories.
  • 6. Have the students read the selection.
  • 7. Have the students revise their categories and
    express their learning through a graphic
    organizer, a story retelling, or role playing.
  • Words
  • mass spring
  • velocity equilibrium position
  • PE height
  • KE conservation
  • g gravity
  • distance acceleration

26
In the End
  • Just like working with students with
    disabilities, working with English Language
    Learners constitutes nothing more than best
    practice.
  • All students benefit from ELL accommodations.
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