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Contemporary Europe

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Chapter 30 Contemporary Europe End of Dictatorship in Greece Army officers overthrow parliamentary system and the monarchy in 1967 Democracy restored in 1973 Became ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Contemporary Europe


1
Chapter 30
  • Contemporary Europe

2
End of Dictatorship in Greece
  • Army officers overthrow parliamentary system and
    the monarchy in 1967
  • Democracy restored in 1973
  • Became member of European Community in 1981

3
End of Dictatorship in Portugal
  • Salazar regime
  • Opposition grew in colonies Guinea, Angola and
    Mozambique
  • Portugal used violent force to maintain its
    empire
  • Condemned by UN, African nations and European
    nations
  • Army seized power in 1974
  • Promised civil rights for Portugal, self
    determination for colonies
  • Portugal joined European Community in 1986

4
End of Dictatorship in Spain
  • Franco called Juan Carlos, grandson of Spains
    last King, to take empty throne 1969
  • Franco retired in 1973
  • Juan Carlos increased freedom of speech,
    encouraged democracy
  • New Constitution in 1978
  • Attempted military coup failed
  • Became member of European Community in 1986

5
Western Europe
  • Energy Crises
  • Oil producing (OPEC) nations banded together to
    raise oil prices in 1973
  • Europe relied on imported oil from Middle East
  • Western Nations began to look for domestic
    sources of energy
  • Oil discoveries in North Sea mad Norway self
    sufficient, and Britain nearly so
  • Nuclear Power plants sprang up all over Europe,
    especially France
  • Greens protested Nuclear power, especially after
    Chernobyl

6
Western Europe
  • Stagflation
  • High cost of energy increased inflationary
    pressure
  • Inflation rates of 20-30 in Britain, Italy and
    Portugal in 1975-76
  • Undermined planning, savings and trade
  • Stagflation-high inflation and stagnant economies
  • Increased unemployment
  • Competition from Japan
  • Expensive social programs and little support for
    higher taxes left governments little room to
    maneuver

7
Great Britain
  • Post WWII
  • Labour Party
  • Cradle to grave social welfare programs
  • - Benefits for sick, unemployed, retired
  • - National Health Service (NHS)
  • Nationalized Bank of England, the railroads,
    electric, iron and steel industries
  • - Many of these industries were under govt
    control during war

8
Great Britain
  • Post WWII
  • Debt to U.S.
  • Gold and currency reserves depleted fighting the
    war
  • Large military spending due to Cold War, overseas
    commitments
  • Age of Austerity
  • Wartime rationing of butter and sugar lasted
    until 1954

9
Great Britain
  • Exhausted by slow pace of change
  • Conservative won elections in 1951
  • Continued nationalization, social programs of
    Labour Party
  • Politics of Consensus

10
Great Britain
  • Economic Decline
  • Great Britain did not achieve the economic
    miracle of postwar Germany and Italy
  • Reliance on older factories
  • Lack of central economic planning
  • Aggressive unions fought for higher wages without
    increasing production

11
Great Britain
  • Margaret Thatcher (Conservative) became first
    female Prime Minster in 1979
  • Break with failed policies of the past
  • Thatcherism
  • tight control of the money supply to reduce
    inflation
  • Sharp cuts in public spending
  • Cut in taxes
  • Reduce power of trade unions
  • Selling off of many nationalized industries

12
Great Britain
  • Falkland War 1982
  • War with Argentina over Falkland Islands
  • Revived Thatcher's popularity
  • Retired in 1990

13
Great Britain
  • Labour Party returned to power in 1994
  • Tony Blair elected
  • New Labour
  • Moved party away from its socialist roots
  • Did not renationalize economy
  • Focused on improved Social Services, reforming
    the House of Lords
  • Regional power to Wales and Scotland
  • resigned in 2007 after his support was reduced
    over backing the U.S. in the Iraq War

14
France
  • Charles De Gaulle dominated life in postwar
    France
  • Fourth Republic
  • Granted right to vote to women
  • Series of colonial wars in Indochina and Algeria

15
France
  • Conflict in Algeria led to fear of a military
    coup
  • Plebiscite held for new Constitution in 1958
  • Fifth Republic
  • More powerful presidency, held by De Gualle
  • Wanted to restore Frances presences on the world
    stage
  • - Vetoed Britain's entry into Common Market in
    1962
  • - Withdrew from NATO in 1966
  • - Refused to sign Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
  • - Developed hydrogen bomb in 1968

16
France
  • Economic Struggles
  • 1945- 5 million men returned home from Germany
    that needed jobs
  • Transportation system in shambles
  • Limited supplies of coal and food

17
France
  • Monnet Plan 1947
  • CGP established, nonpolitical technocrats to run
    economy
  • Increased foreign investment and central planning
    helped French economy grow rapidly

18
France
  • As France became more prosperous, there was a
    sense they were losing their unique way of life
  • Resistance to Americanization
  • - Coca Cola banned in 1950

19
France
  • 1968 Revolutions
  • Students united with workers
  • Demanded education reforms and wage increases
  • De Gaulle survived crises, resigned in 1969

20
France
  • Members of De Gaulles party held power until
    1981
  • Socialist Francois Mitterrand elected
  • Social reforms and reducing unemployment
  • Did not radically socialize France
  • Retired in 1995

21
France
  • Replaced by Gaullist Jacques Chirac
  • Platform of healing social ills (racism and labor
    strikes), tax cuts and job programs
  • Social unrest and corruption
  • Racial rioting
  • Conservative Nicolas Sarkozy elected in 2007
  • Plan to control immigration and modernize economy

22
Italy
  • Postwar
  • Italian monarchy was associated with the fascist
  • In 1946 a republic was established
  • Economic Miracle
  • Role of the state
  • Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI)
    created under Mussolini
  • Controlled shipbuilding, airlines, metallurgy and
    chemical industry

23
Italy
  • Benefited from membership in common market
  • Cheap labor from Southern Italy
  • Southern Question
  • Reduce economic gap between north and south
  • Land reform
  • Investment, five year plans
  • Significant economic gap remains

24
Italy
  • Problems
  • Political terrorism
  • - red brigade
  • Organized Crime
  • - Mafia
  • Corruption

25
Germany
  • Divided postwar
  • Berlin Airlift 1949
  • West Germany became a democracy, East Germany
    ruled by Communist dictatorship 1949
  • West Germany joined NATO, East Germany the Warsaw
    Pact
  • Berlin Wall built in1961

26
West Germany
  • Politics
  • Christian Democratic Union (CDU)
  • Led by Chancellor Konrad Adenuer 1949-1963
  • Gerhard Ritter, Minister of Economics, became
    Chancellor after Adenuers retirement

27
West Germany
  • Economic Miracle
  • Influx of millions of Germans who had fled from
    Poland Czechoslovakia and East Germany
  • Marshall Plan investment
  • GNP grew from 23 billion in 1950 to 103 billion
    in 1964
  • Increased wages and higher productivity for
    workers

28
West Germany
  • Willy Brandt charismatic leader of the Social
    Democrats, became Chancellor in 1969
  • First socialist leader since 1930
  • Ostpolitik
  • Signed treaties with USSR, Poland and
    Czechoslovakia
  • Visited Poland, monument to those who died at
    Warsaw Ghetto
  • Recognized East Germany
  • Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1972
  • Resigned after a one of his aides was found to be
    an East German spy

29
Germany
  • Helmut Kohl (CDU) became prime minister in 1982
  • Reunification
  • Germany reunited in 1990 after fall of Berlin
    wall
  • West Germany unprepared
  • Economic strains integrating East Germany into
    market economy
  • Weak east German currency exchanged one to one
    basis with strong currency of West Germany
  • West Germany invested heavily to modernize the
    economy and infrastructure of East Germany
  • After reunification, Germany faced high
    unemployment

30
Germany
  • 1998, Social Democrat Gerhard Schroder elected
    Prime Minister
  • Faced high unemployment
  • Dismantled many social programs
  • Gained popularity for opposing U.S. war in Iraq

31
Germany
  • In 2005, conservative Angela Merkel (CDU) became
    first female chancellor of Germany
  • Germany economy grew rapidly
  • High approval ratings
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