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Foundations of Modern Europe

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Title: Foundations of Modern Europe


1
Foundations of Modern Europe
  • The Crusades

2
The Middle ages (500-1460)
  • The Middle Ages spans the end of the Roman Empire
    to the beginning of the Age of Discoveries
  • It is divided into 3 stages from Early, High and
    Late Medieval periods
  • Life in Europe was harsh with periods of
    starvation, barbarian invasions, the Black plague
    and frequent wars
  • Travel was very dangerous during this time
    period, nevertheless, people traveled as far as
    China such as Marco Polos travels
  • Trade was the main reason for this travel,
    especially silk and spices from China that were
    transported through central Asia to the markets
    in the west
  • in Africa, caravans trudged across the Sahara,
    while in the Mediterranean Sea, Venetian ships
    sailed to different trading posts
  • During the High period Charles Martel,
    Charlemagne, attempted to unify Europe with the
    creation of the Holy Roman Empire as a way of
    pacifying warring kings and princes and
    nullifying nationalist tendencies
  • at this time, most of Europe was made up of small
    kingdoms, principalities and city states that
    made alliances with each other and then broke them

3
The Middle ages (500-1460)
  • During this period Christian knights of Europe
    set out on crusades to free the Holy Land from
    infidels as Christians called the Muslims who
    controlled Palestine
  • Europeans were very superstitious and the Church
    was the center of politics, education and society
  • By the Late medieval period much had changed as a
    result of the Crusades and the Renaissance
  • nationalism- pride in ones county or the sense
    of belonging to a particular country was slowly
    growing but loyalty to your King was ordered by
    God
  • many wars were undertaken in the name of religion
    as Christians dealt with Luthers Reformation
  • Many people had become disillusioned with the
    Vaticans corruption they looked to Classical
    thought and a shifted from focusing on God to
    focusing on humankind
  • By far the most important invention of the Middle
    ages came at its close Johannes Gutenberg
    Printing Press -- suddenly learning came within
    the reach of everyone who could read

4
Holy War
  • In the 11th Century World much of the Middle East
    and the spice routes are off limits to
    Christians. Christians are, however, allowed to
    due pilgrimages to Palestine (Jerusalem).
  • Islams spread has for a while been stopped by
    the early 10th Century. A period of in-fighting
    between Muslims or Moors Umayyad Caliphate and
    the Almoravids period begins.
  • The Reconquista on the Iberian Peninsula begins
    in earnest at this time with El-Cid and other
    Spanish and Portuguese kings trying to retake the
    Peninsula. In 1065 the Pope recognizes this as
    the first Holy War or Crusade and gives his
    official blessing for a Holy War.
  • The Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium is now
    under invasion from the Seljuk Turks and suffers
    major defeats. The Byzantium Emperor asks the
    Pope for help. These new Muslim rulers massacre
    Christian pilgrims in Palestine.
  • In 1095, Pope Urban II called on Christian
    leaders to free the Holy Land from the infidels
    in what becomes known as the First Crusade.
  • the First Crusade was a disorganized combination
    of two groups the peoples army led by 2 well
    meaning men named Peter the Hermit and Walter the
    Penniless the other led by rich aristocratic
    knights.

5
Holy War
  • Crusader armies raped, pillaged and plundered
    their way down to Palestine. Even resorting to
    cannibalism (Maarat al-Numan) and the massacre
    of Jerusalem.
  • at first the Seljuk Turks left the kingdom alone,
    but 8 more Crusades followed. The Third Crusade
    is led by Richard the Lion Hearted of England and
    Salah al-Din Yusuf will retake Jerusalem by 1187.
  • By 1295, the Christians had been thrown out of
    all the Middle East.
  • many of the Crusaders were more interested in
    personal gain than religion and they quarreled
    among themselves
  • by the 14th Century, Europe had lost interest in
    the Crusades although there were several more
    attempts to organize Crusades, they all failed

6
Results of the Crusades
  • For a while Europeans get a taste of the good
    life Spices, medicines, knowledge.
  • Two new and powerful military forces appears in
    Europe as the Knights Templar and the Knights
    Hospitaller.
  • The seeds of the European Renaissance are sown as
    Muslim libraries in Iberia are translated and
    lost knowledge is regained.
  • The Muslims see the Crusades as a European
    invasion and have their own Jihad to expel the
    infidels.

7
Results of the Crusades
  • New knowledge and desire for spices lead Portugal
    to begin a new quasi Crusade against the Muslims
    as they set sail for the East and begin the Age
    of Discoveries.
  • Spain, eager to get in on the spice trade,
    contracts Christopher Columbus in 1492 to
    discover a western trade route to India. As a
    result the Americas are discovered.
  • This age of discoveries brings with it the age of
    colonialism which will last until the 1970s.

8
The Renaissance(1350-1550)
  • the French term Renaissance means rebirth and
    it applied to this period because of the
    acquiring of knowledge based on ancient
    Greco-Roman thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle and
    Cicero and a renewed interest in Greco-Roman
    culture
  • this period marks the start of modern history
  • Europeans started to emerge form the narrow
    confines of the Middle Ages to travel beyond
    their own continent Age of Discoveries
  • this time period provided profound changes in
    attitudes and ideas and the resulting artistic
    and intellectual achievements
  • education, art, science and architecture were all
    affected as people began to question what they
    were told

9
The Renaissance(1350-1550)
  • In all areas there began to be a shift from God
    to man and a desire for knowledge known as
    Humanism
  • Architecture was obsessed with symmetry,
    proportion and geometry as well as aesthetics
  • The Printing Press is invented by Johannes
    Guttenberg helping people to get books like never
    before
  • It is during the renaissance that seeds of the
    Scientific Revolution are laid
  • largely unknown to most Europeans at the start of
    this period, other civilizations (Islam, India
    and China) were flourishing

10
Why Italy?
  • Geography and the Church were the two biggest
    reasons for Italy being the center of the
    Renaissance.
  • Situated between western Europe and Byzantium and
    lying along the Mediterranean coasts, it
    established a great trading network.
  • The wealth of these city states allowed for the
    development of a middle class with wealthy
    merchants replacing nobility.
  • Rome and the Papal States were the center of
    learning and life and many of the Muslim texts
    from the Reconquista were translated here in
    monasteries and other church centres.

11
Why Italy?
  • As Byzantium was besieged by the Turks more Greek
    and Byzantium refugees settled in Italy bringing
    knowledge with them as well
  • Merchants had access to this knowledge and began
    to move away from focusing on God to focusing on
    man or Humanism
  • Merchants became the main driving force behind
    the Renaissance as they paid for art and
    architecture in an effort to enjoy life.

12
Renaissance Art
  • Francesco Petrarca (1341) founder of Humanism
    believed that true eloquence and ethical wisdom
    could be found by looking to the ancients like
    Virgil and Cicero
  • Florence and the Medici family symbolize the
    Renaissance Italy (1400)
  • Cosimo Medici made Florence his banking empire
    capital and spent over 600,000 gold florins on
    arts, education and architecture in his lifetime
  • In keeping with Humanism artists portrayed
    subjects in lifelike human form and realistic
    positions. They used different techniques to
    create a 3-D perception.
  • Some of the earliest masters were Brunelleschi
    and Donatello who created the first sculpture of
    David which Michelangelo would later immortalize
    with his own.

13
Renaissance Art
  • The Palazzo de Medici is one of the finest
    architectural pieces of the Renaissance but
    Florence is itself a giant renaissance
    architecture museum.
  • The Renaissance style places emphasis on
    symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity
    of parts as they are demonstrated in the
    architecture of classical antiquity and in
    particular ancient Roman architecture, of which
    many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of
    columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the
    use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes
    and niches replaced the more complex proportional
    systems and irregular profiles of medieval
    buildings.

14
Renaissance
  • REBIRTH
  • Focus is on learning knowledge from the ancients
    as the best source for they had it all figured
    out.
  • This means moving away from the church and the
    bible as the source of all truth.
  • Translations of works from Muslims and old
    archives in the monasteries reveal the ancient
    works and are heavy in demand.
  • HUMANISM
  • A natural transition begins where man becomes the
    center of interest as opposed to being the
    original sin in Gods creation (Adam and Eve).
    This move is justified by the idea from the bible
    that Man is Gods creation and image therefore
    the greatest of all his creations. Therefore, it
    is right to worship man and all his abilities
    Humanism is born.
  •  
  • This fascination with man, nature and the
    ancients will eventually lead to the Scientific
    Revolution and the age of Enlightenment.
  •  

15
Renaissance Philosophy
  • Pillars of the Renaissance
  •  
  • Francesco Petrarca (1304 -1374)
  • Considered the father of the Renaissance and
    founder of Humanism.
  • Writer of poetry and love letters
  • Researches and writes about the ancient
    philosophers like Cicero
  • He joins the Priesthood when his parents die and
    he has no way to make a living.
  • He studies law and later philosophy and the
    ancients.
  • He quits the priesthood when he falls in love
    with a woman called Laura but she is married
    and they cannot be together. Many of his poems
    and letters are about his love for her.
  • Loses most of his family to the plague son,
    grandson, Laura, friends, etc.
  • His writings are read by everyone whos anyone
    and attracts wealthy and aristocratic attention.
  • His writings influence many future writers such
    as Shakespeare.
  • He is also very influential in the development of
    Italian as a national language.
  • He emphasizes that since man is Gods creation
    then anything man can create or think up is great
    too. Man should be studied and celebrated and he
    sees the ancient writers as having already done
    much of this.
  • For the rich men of the time it relieved them
    from a dilemma of enjoying life and acquiring
    wealth since Petrarca pointed out that man should
    try to achieve as much as possible in everything
    as part of his spirituality.

16
Renaissance Art
  • Ciceros Appeal
  • His writings concerned the defense, and if
    possible the improvement, of the Roman Republic.
  • He argued that his contemporary politicians were
    corrupt as opposed to the noble Roman founders .
    This loss of virtue was, he believed, the cause
    of the Republics difficulties.
  • Rome would improve only if the Roman elite chose
    to improve their characters and place commitments
    to individual virtue and social stability ahead
    of their desires for fame, wealth, and power.
  • The elite then would lead by example and force
    the rest of society to do the same.
  • Cicero spent a lot of time trying to convince
    Roman society that philosophy was a worthwhile
    art.
  • Greek philosophy was ahead of all others so
    Cicero translated many Greek works into Latin.
  • Without this we would not have knowledge of many
    of the Greek writings.
  • Inventing Latin words where none seemed suitable
    for Greek concepts (including the Latin words
    which give us the English words morals, property,
    individual, science, image, and appetite).

17
Renaissance Philosophy
  • Cicero and Hummanism
  • Cicero discussed two Greek schools of
    philosophical thought Stoicism and Academy or
    Academic Skeptics
  • Stoicism held that the gods existed and loved
    human beings.
  • Both during and after a persons life, the gods
    rewarded or punished human beings according to
    their conduct in life.
  • The gods had also provided human beings with the
    gift of reason and that the best, most virtuous,
    and most divine life was one lived according to
    reason, not according to the search for pleasure.
  • This did not mean that humans had to shun
    pleasure, only that it must be enjoyed in the
    right way. For example, it was fine to enjoy sex,
    but not with another mans wife. It was fine to
    enjoy wine, but not to the point of shameful
    drunkenness.
  • Finally, the Stoics believed that human beings
    were all meant to follow natural law, which
    arises from reason. The natural law is also the
    source of all properly made human laws and
    communities
  • Humans therefore have an obligation to take part
    in politics (so far as is possible) in order to
    discharge those duties.
  • Cicero always considered himself to be an
    Academic Skeptic
  • a belief that human beings cannot be certain in
    their knowledge about the world so no philosophy
    can be said to be true.
  • One must be able to argue all sides of an
    argument or issue to understand and accept any
    belief.
  • The Academic Skeptics mostly criticized
    everything and did not offer solutions Cicero,
    though, does offer solutions.
  • The idea that one must question everything and
    cannot be sure of anything is a challenge to the
    Churchs hold on society. It contradicts the
    notion of faith which requires no questioning
    just believing.
  •  
  • Ciceros Death
  •  
  • Ciceros life in politics was his ultimate demise
    and he and his family were executed on Marc
    Antonys orders and his head and hands were
    nailed to the Senate doors as a warning to other
    dissenters.
  •  
  •  

18
Renaissance Art
  • Leonardo Da Vinci
  • Da Vinci is the symbol of the Renaissance Man
  • Inventor, painter, sculptor, scientist, writer,
    architect, engineer and more
  • Born in the Renaissance period (1452 1519)
  • Illegitimate son of Piero Da Vinci near Florence
  • Worked most of his life in Italy and some in
    France
  • Mostly in Florence, Milan and Rome
  • Learned under earlier Master Andrea del
    Verrocchio of the Renaissance to become the
    greatest of them all
  • Because he did not learn Latin well he had to
    rely on his senses to develop his ideas
  • Artists relied on the patronage of wealthy
    aristocracy or merchants who paid for their work
  • Notorious for not keeping to his contracts or
    deadlines he often was not liked during his time
  • Da Vinci seemed to play down his painting and
    sculpting when trying to get work often appealing
    to princes and kings to hire him for his
    engineering skills
  • Few hired him for anything but artistry though
    today we recognize his genius for his designs for
    tanks, planes and other machines
  • His famous art work includes the Mona Lisa, the
    Last Supper, the Vitruvius man (man in the
    circle)
  • Depending on the politics he either worked for
    one city state or another
  • His work exemplifies Humanism as it centerpiece
    is man 3D, proportional and glorifying the human
    body
  • His study into anatomy and engineering broke new
    ground in areas that were traditionally left to
    superstition and religion and threatened him with
    heresy
  • Leonardo was reputed to be a vegetarian and
    perhaps even a Jain
  •  

19
Renaissance Art
20
Renaissance Politics
  • Lorenzo de Medici
  • Grandson of Cosimo de Medici, he and his family
    ran a banking business that made them rulers of
    Florence although Florence was technically a
    republic
  • The Medici wealth and banking interests had them
    embroiled in the politics of Italy and much of
    Europe including England and France
  • The Medici family had always invested heavily in
    the arts and knowledge they were enthusiasts of
    the Renaissance and Humanist movements since they
    had wealth and wanted to enjoy it
  • Lorenzo himself was a poet, philosopher and
    founded the worlds first academy of art
  • Lorenzo hired Leonardo and had him in Florence
    for a some time until he became embroiled in the
    Pazzi Conspiracy Lorenzo and his brother were
    assaulted in the historic church the Duomo but
    Lorenzo survived with a neck wound.
  • Retribution was swift and thorough including the
    execution of Archbishop Salviati for his role in
    the conspiracy and the Pazzi family was stripped
    of all possessions and many members executed all
    across Europe
  • Pope Sixtus IV was infuriated although he was
    behind it too. He brought the King of Naples
    into a war with Florence that almost bankrupted
    the Medici. Lorenzo was excommunicated by the
    Pope.
  • Leonardo possibly flees the war or leaves due to
    the hardships going on in Florence and ends up
    working for the Duke of Milan perhaps sent to
    Sforza as a gift
  • Sixtus IV had put a request for all the best
    artists to come to Rome to work on the Chapel and
    other works but Leonardo was not on the list
    perhaps because he was so closely affiliated with
    the Medici even though Lorenzo did not have close
    ties to him

21
The Protestant Reformation
  • By the early 1500s Europe had changed so much
    Charlemagne wouldnt have recognized it
  • Vatican corruption and scandals, the Babylonian
    Captivity (Avignon) and the Great Schism (Urban
    VI the true pope and Clement VII as an anti-Pope)
  • Resentment of churchs wealth, power and control
    over everyday life
  • Challenges to theology from science such as
    Copernicus and Galileo
  • the movement to change the church was called the
    Reformation and led by Martin Luther
  • it led to a split in Christianity between
    Catholics and Protestants that led to religious
    wars
  • King Henry VIII uses Protestantism to create the
    Anglican Church of England and break from the
    Vatican
  • The Church responds to reformation with the
    Inquisition and persecutes heretics
  • Northern Europe becomes largely protestant while
    southern Europe remains Catholic
  • Religion is carried to the new World with more
    zeal by Conquistadores from Portugal and Spain
  • Religious wars take a toll and eventually lead to
    the notion of separation of Church and state

22
  • It began in Germany when a priest called Martin
    Luther (1483-1546) nailed a list of 95 Theses to
    the church door at Wittenberg
  • it gave details of all he thought was wrong with
    the Church
  • most of all, Luther hated the Churchs sale of
    indulgences- these certificates forgave people
    of their sins, and could be bought from the
    church for money
  • Luther also believed that man was saved by faith
    alone and not by good works or by the sale of
    indulgences and that there were only two
    sacraments baptism and the Eucharist
  • he wanted faith to be based on the scriptures in
    the Bible and not on religious ceremonies he
    also believed that Bible readings were important
    and that services should be in the local
    language, NOT in Latin
  • Luther hoped his list would lead to debate in the
    church, but instead he was accused of heresy
    (going against church beliefs)
  • he refused to take back his words and was
    excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1521
  • however, by this time Luther had gained support
    in Northern Germany and Switzerland

23
  • he set up his own church and his followers were
    called Lutherans
  • The Pope, Clement VII, besides excommunication of
    those involved, relied on Charles V of Spain, the
    Holy Roman Emperor and his troops, to actively
    put down the heretics in the German states thus
    driving the German princes away from Rome and
    determined to protect themselves and the
    Lutherans
  • Further problems arose when Clement got involved
    between the Spanish and French courts in their
    battles over some of the Italian states.
  • The Emperor had invested much in Italy and when
    Clement flipped allegiances like the wind he
    ordered his troops to sack Rome (1527) and
    imprison the Pope
  • after 1529, Lutherans were renamed Protestants
    when they protested against attempts to limit
    their teachingsCalvinism and Puritanism
  • a man named Ulrich Zwingli led the Reformation
    in Switzerland which divided the country along
    religious lines
  • his views were more extreme than Luthers and in
    1524 he banned Catholic mass in Zurich
  • This led to a civil war and the Second Battle of
    Kappel in which Zwingli was killed
  • Another man that was very influential in this
    movement was John Calvin (1509-1564) he was born
    in France and studied law and theology before
    becoming involved in the Reformation
  • he believed in predestination (that God had
    already ordained the future) and that only people
    chosen by God, the Elect, would be saved

24
John Calvin
  • Jean Cauvin or John Calvin (1509-1564) studied
    at first to be a priest in the Catholic Church in
    France.
  • Later he turned to being a lawyer and meeting
    many humanist/reformers in his studies.
  • In the 1530s Calvin began writing and preaching
    against the Church and promoting Protestant
    ideals.
  • He eventually had to flee and ended up in
    Switzerland where he took over the Protestant
    sects.
  • He was greatly influenced by Zwinglis work and
    would go even further in his own reforms.
  • He became known as Defender of the Faith after
    he ordered the burning of Michael Servetus as a
    heretic for denying the Holy Trinity.
  • His beliefs will end up being the foundation of
    American society and has left its mark even today
  • Many of the Pilgrims were Calvinists

25
Calvins beliefs
  • he believed in predestination (that God had
    already ordained the future) and that only people
    chosen by God, the Elect, would be saved
  • saints were living, breathing human beings who
    had been elected by god to be saved
  • The Calvinist churches could elect who would be
    members and all those in the church were
    obviously saints who would be saved
  • Calvinist churches were free to search out for
    their members and the members could be part of
    whichever church they wanted
  • Luthers concept of a priesthood of believers
    presented a problem in how to determine leaders
    when everyone is equal
  • Calvins churches solved this by having
    Voluntary Association. People could pick their
    church freely but the church had to agree to
    accept them in
  • This is an early version of what will become
    known as the SOCIAL CONTRACT
  • He believed that the bible had to be taken
    literally and in the Holy Trinity
  • He developed a moral code for all that revolved
    around

26
Results of the Reformation
  • Civil wars and foreign wars break out across
    Europe
  • Persecutions follow whereby Catholics and
    Protestants are forced to convert or die
  • England brutally suppresses Catholicism to
    replace it with Anglicanism
  • The Spanish Netherlands revolts and begins a 40
    year civil war of extreme brutality and ends in
    an independent United Provinces of the
    Netherlands (Holland)
  • The 30 years war begins in the German states an
    extremely brutal war which will involve most of
    Europe
  • The Treaty of Westphalia will result in the
    principle of the separation of Church and State
  • Protestants will split into Anglicans, Lutherans,
    Calvinists and Puritans
  • Religious differences and intolerances will be
    brought to the Americas and be a source of
    conflict

27
Religious Wars
  • French Religious Wars
  • The Protestant Reformation sparked several
    serious wars as both people and political leaders
    either accepted or rejected these ideas
  • "Une foi, un loi, un roi," (one faith, one law,
    one king) was Frances traditional motto. The
    Church preached that Kings ruled by Divine Right
    and the King promised to defend the faith.
  • Spains King was the Holy Roman Emperor and he
    too had a vested interest in keeping the Faith.
  • German and English crowns had their own motives
    for breaking with the Roman faith
  • From the 1530s to 1648 Europe was a blood bath of
    religious wars
  • French Huguenots wars raged from 1562 to 1598
    when Henry IV, a Huguenot, took the throne but
    reconverted to Catholicism
  • There were more than 9 wars in this period where
    French fought French in a bid for the Catholic or
    Calvinist souls
  • The Massacre on St. Bartholomews Eve in Paris
    during the Wedding of Queen Catherine de Medicis
    daughter to Henry the IV
  • It was only with the Edict of Nantes in 1598 that
    France knew peace (Huguenots were restricted to
    200 towns)

28
Religious Wars
  • Spanish Netherlands Wars
  • Phillip II of Spain was by inheritance also the
    King of the Low Countries (Spanish Netherlands)
  • By 1566 though, Calvinists in the Low Countries
    were protesting Catholic rule and especially
    taxes
  • The Emperor sent his nephew, Duke of Parma, to
    govern over them and through a combination of
    carrot and stick he managed to retake at one
    point all the Netherlands
  • Eventually, by the early 1600s it was plain that
    the northern provinces were united and would be
    independent. These became known as Holland today
    and the other provinces would eventually become
    known as Belgium give or take a few provinces.
  • In 1609 a truce was established that would allow
    the northern provinces to worship freely and they
    had gained independence.
  • War broke out again in 1621 and did not end until
    the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648

29
Religious Wars
  • The 30 Years War
  • In 1555, Charles V had signed the Peace of
    Augsburg allowing 255 German states to choose
    their own religion
  • This changed however when Calvinists rose on the
    scene in the German countries they had no say
  • When a Catholic Ferdinand III of Styria(Germany)
    took control of Bohemia a revolt ensued and war
    between Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists broke
    out
  • Eventually, Spain, France, England, Holland,
    Austria and many German principalities joined in
    the fray
  • From 1618 to 1648 war raged across central Europe
    until the Treaty of Westphalia was signed
  • Spain was bankrupt and exhausted and from here on
    would never be the major power of Europe again
  • Treaty of Westphalia
  • Principle of whoever Rules the country determines
    the religion
  • All lands secularized by the Protestants could
    remain
  • All states of the Holy Roman Empire were free and
    independent states
  • Calvinism is accepted as a religion
  • Holland is recognized as an independent country
    from Spain
  • The Counter-Reformation by the Church had
  • Been checked!

30
Scientific Revolution1500s to 1700s
  • This was a revolution of the greatest magnitude
  • It changed how people thought about everything
  • In Medieval times people believed that everything
    was a result of God
  • Ptolemys universe had 5 elements which were Air,
    Water, Fire and Earth, and Aether
  • Aristotles earth was the center of the universe
    and all heavenly bodies revolved around it
  • Nicolas Copernicus blew the lid off of this by
    proving that the universe was heliocentric
  • Isaac Newton, Galileo, Johannes Kepler,
    Descartes, Francis Bacon are just some of the
    greatest thinkers of the time
  • Mathematics and astrology became the
    intellectuals international language and source
    for explaining everything
  • Observation rather than faith became the focus of
    human activity

31
  • Timeline
  • 1543 Andreas Vesalius Publishes On the Fabric of
    the Human Body (Investigates the Human Body)
  • 1543 Nicolas Copernicus Publishes De
    Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the
    Revolutions of Celestial Bodies) Copernicus'
    masterwork he sets out the heliocentric theory.
  • 1584 Giordano Bruno Publishes The Ash-Wednesday
    Supper, On Cause, Principle, and Unity, and On
    the Infinite Universe and Its Worlds The
    universe is infinitely large and that the Earth
    is by no means at the center of it. Bruno is
    burned at the stake as a heretic.
  • 1591 Francois Viete Invents Analytical
    Trigonometry Viete's invention is essential to
    the study of physics and astronomy.
  • 1591 Galileo Galilei Demonstrates the Properties
    of Gravity Galileo demonstrates, from the top of
    the leaning tower of Pisa, that two different
    wieghts fall at the same speed thus destroying
    the Aristotelian system that the rate of fall of
    an object is dependent upon its weight.
  • 1610 Galileo Publishes Messenger of the Heavens
    The Inquisition soon warns Galileo to desist from
    spreading his theories.
  • 1614 John Napier Publishes Description of the
    Marvelous Canon of Logarithms Napier's invention
    and cataloguing of logarithms.
  • 1618 Johannes Kepler Reveals His Third and Final
    Law of Planetary Motion Kepler's laws of
    planetary motion are the final step leading to
    the academic rejection of the Aristotelian
    system.
  • 1620 Francis Bacon Publishes Novum Organum --
    Father of Modern Science
  • Purge your mind of prejudiceswhat Bacon called
    superstition.
  • Collect observations and experiences
    systematically.
  • Stop, survey what you have seen, and draw initial
    conclusions
  • .

32
1630 Galileo Publishes Dialogue on the Two Chief
Systems of the World Galileo's magnum opus uses
the laws of physics to refute the claims that the
laws of terrestrial physics are no different than
the laws of celestial physics. 1633 Galileo is
Forced to Recant his Theories The Inquisition
forces Galileo to sign a recantation and condemns
him to house arrest for the rest of his
life. 1637 Rene Descartes Publishes His
Discourse on Method Descartes' work sets forth
the principles of deductive reasoning as used in
the modern scientific method. 1637 Rene
Descartes Publishes Geometry In this landmark
work, Descartes discusses how motion may be
represented as a curve along a graph, defined by
its relation to planes of reference. 1643
Evangelista Torricelli Invents the Barometer
Torricelli's invention measures air pressure and
proves air has weight that differs depending on
environment. 1656 Otto von Guericke Invents the
Air Pump 1662 The Royal Society of London is
Officially Organized by King Charles II The Royal
Society brings together the greatest minds of the
region in efforts to advance science through
cooperation. 1666 Robert Boyle Publishes Origin
of Form and Qualities Boyle's work, though highly
flawed, sets the stage for the study of matter on
the atomic level. 1680 Giovanni Alfonso Borelli
Publishes On the Motion of Animals Borelli's work
is the greatest early triumph of the application
of mechanical laws to the human organism. 1687
Isaac Newton Publishes Philosophia Naturalis
Principia Mathematica Perhaps the most important
event in the history of science, the Principia
lays out Newton's comprehensive model of the
universe as organized according to the law of
universal gravitation. The Principia represents
the integration of the works of all of the great
astronomers who preceded Newton, and remains the
basis of modern physics and astronomy. 1692 The
Salem Witch Trials Take Place in Massachusetts
Indicative of the maintenance of traditional
superstitions even late in the seventeenth
century, 200 people are tried for witchcraft in
Salem, Massachusetts. Over 7,000 women were
executed for witchcraft in Europe between 1550
and 1700, largely in association with the various
theological battles of the Reformation.
33
Results of the Scientific Revolution
  • The Renaissance had opened the doors to
    scientific inquiry but at the beginning of the
    scientific revolution men still clung to the
    ancient Greek and Roman texts as the foundation
    of truth
  • The Printing Press allowed for an explosion of
    books and different thinkers were exchanging
    ideas with each other
  • Scientists soon found that the ancients didnt
    know everything or were wrong about many things
    so how were people to know the truth if the bible
    nor the ancients had the facts
  • Descartes Discourse on Methods established the
    idea of using deduction and hypothesis to prove
    things the scientific method is born.
  • Descartes moved from science to philosophy and
    looked at the human body and tried to prove that
    the mind and soul existed. Known as Cartesian
    philosophy I reflect, therefore I am!
  • Sir Francis Bacon was instrumental in applying
    ethics and rules for scientific study by
    cautioning against the bias and superstitions
    that in the past, led people to mistakes. He also
    introduces the inductive type of reasoning for
    scientific study.
  • The Scientific Revolution did not immediately
    change the European world it itself had to be
    cautious and profess the study of science as a
    way of admiring Gods creations
  • Most people were poor and illiterate and did not
    change their superstitious ways for generations
    but they would benefit from this revolution in
    economic, political and social ways
  • This revolution led to the age of Enlightenment,
    the Industrial Revolution and Democracy
  • All the while Europe would see a Feudal System
    move to an Absolute Monarchy System to an
    Enlightened Dictator system to a Democratic and
    Republican system.

34
Scientific Revolution
  • Reason is the greatest enemy that faith has. It
    never comes to the aid of spiritual things, but
    struggles against the divine Word, treating with
    contempt all that emanates from God.
    -Martin Luther
  • All nature and natures law lay hid in nightGod
    said let Newton be and all was light. -Alexand
    er Pope
  • The real and legitimate goal of sciences is the
    endowment of human life with new inventions and
    riches. -Francis Bacon
  • Science has done more for the development of
    western civilization in one hundred years that
    Christianity has done in eighteen hundred
    years. -John Burroughs

35
Absolutism vs Constitutional Monarchy(1600-1790)
  • The changes of the Renaissance and Scientific
    Revolution had a deep impact on notions of govt
  • People were becoming more nationalistic and less
    believing in the church and its vision of the
    Holy Roman Empire
  • Leaders in different countries began to nurture
    their own power above that of the Vatican
  • Two totally different systems develop at almost
    the same time the French Absolute Monarchy and
    the English Constitutional Monarchy
  • Both will have repercussions on how Europe will
    develop, economically, politically, socially and
    in the Colonial world
  • Both will play a role in the development of
    democracy as we know it today yet it is France,
    not Britain that will be the first democracy and
    republic in Europe

36
Absolute Monarchy
  • Louis IV is the classic symbol of an Absolute
    Monarch (1638-1715)
  • He believed strongly in the old French motto of
    One faith, one law, one king!
  • He believed also strongly in the Divine Right of
    Kings theory whereby the king was answerable only
    to God
  • His father Louis XIII began the difficult task of
    making France the supreme power of Europe
  • Two things had to be subdued, the Church and the
    Nobility
  • Key to this was the appointment of Cardinal
    Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin as prime ministers
    during Louis XIIIs rule
  • Also important was Louis XIVs appointment of
    Colbert as finance minister
  • Louis XIV was an expert at managing people and
    making sure they did not attain too much power

37
Absolute Monarchy
  • Louis had his previous Finance Minister Fouquet
    charged with embezzlement and declared Colbert,
    lesser nobility, his Comptroller
  • Louis also declared that he would be his own
    Prime Minister
  • Louis XIV referred to himself as the Sun King
    and proclaimed that L'état cest moi! or I am
    the State!
  • He successfully reduced the nobilitys power
    during the Fronde insurrection turning them
    into mere servants of the King
  • He issued the Edict of Nantes (1685) and which
    prohibited Protestantism and destroyed the
    Huguenots in France thus making France of one
    Faith
  • It also resulted in 200,000 fleeing France,
    thousands being executed and imprisoned.
  • He instituted the old policy of Gallicanism and
    issued the Declaration of the Clergy of France.
    In it he refused to pay the Vatican certain tax
    monies and only the King would now appoint
    Cardinals and Bishops. French clergymen could
    not leave France without his permission. In
    effect he made the church subservient to the
    King.
  • Reformed tax and trade practices.
  • Reformed the legal code to what would be the
    foundations of the Napoleonic code.
  • Won several wars and increased the size and power
    of France.
  • Reformed the military creating the first true
    professional army the musketeers. The Secretary
    of War would collect taxes and pay the soldiers
    the intendents.
  • Patron to the arts he showed off his power with
    the building of the Palace of Versailles
  • In many respects Louis saw himself as a
    Benevolent King and proof that absolute monarchy
    was the best system of government.
  • After his death the monarchy quickly declined so
    that his great grandson, Louis XVI would become
    the symbol of everything that was wrong with
    absolutism

38
Versailles
39
The English Experiment
  • Events in England led to a different development
    in the search for a system of Govt
  • There was the tradition and precedent of the
    Magna Carta (1215) which limited the rights of
    Kings and protected the peoples rights
  • King Henry VIII, last king of the Tudors, broke
    from the church when the Pope refused him a
    divorce from his Queen Catherine of Aragon aunt
    to the Emperor Charles V
  • He establishes the Protestant Anglican Church of
    England and effectively breaks from Rome forever
    being excommunicated in 1533
  • Queen Elizabeth I eventually takes over as the
    last of the Tudor dynasty and her reign (1558
    -1603) is seen as a golden age
  • She leaves no heir and so the throne passes to
    her cousins (Mary Queen of Scots) son James I,
    King of Scotland

40
The English Experiment
  • King James I (1603-1625) was born a Catholic but
    raised a protestant after his mother was
    imprisoned
  • His reign is recognized as a continuation of
    Elizabeths golden age but several problems occur
    between him and the nobles of England who do not
    want parliaments power reduced
  • James I is a big believer in witchcraft and
    persecutes Catholics as did Elizabeth however he
    does grant them eventually freedom of worship
    which upsets the English protestant nobles
  • James is also a believer in the Divine Right of
    Kings and tries to get parliament to be obedient
    to him and publishes the King James Bible version
  • James had several problems with parliament but
    chief among them was the contest over raising
    funds for the crown.
  • Parliament often refused the amount of money he
    asked for and he often dissolved parliament. He
    ruled from 1614 to 1621 with Parliament
    dissolved.
  • James took over Ireland and began planting
    Protestants in Ulster, established the first
    colonies in the US and Canada

41
The English Experiment
  • In 1625 Charles I takes over his father and
    begins a long battle with parliament
  • Charles is also a believer in the Divine Right of
    Kings and their is constant trouble with
    Parliament
  • He marries a Catholic princess of France which
    angers the protestants and he tries to curb the
    Calvinists and Puritans who demand reforms
  • Ultimately the English Civil War (1646-1649)
    breaks out and Charles is imprisoned
  • He is executed in 1649 when he refuses to
    abdicate the throne.
  • Oliver Cromwell, a Calvinist Puritan and leader
    of the Parliament forces establishes the Rule of
    Parliament for the good of the people
  • From 1649-1651 Cromwell attacks Ireland and
    Scotland in a bid to rid it of anti-Commonwealth
    forces massacres Catholic Irish and Scots in
    particular
  • In 1653 he denounces the Rump Parliament and
    declares himself Lord Protector (1658)
  • He died in 1658 of malaria and was posthumously
    executed in 1661 on the anniversary of Charles
    execution
  • In 1660 Parliament agreed to reinstate the
    monarchy and Charles II took the throne

42
The English Experiment
  • Charles IIs reign sees him strengthen the
    Anglican Church with the Clarendon Code
    Corporation Act 1661, Act of Uniformity 1662,
    Conventicle Act 1664 and Five Mile Act 1665.
  • Charles II is secretly trying to bring England
    back into the Catholic fold but Parliament
    repeals any attempts to allow freedom of religion
    or tolerance
  • Charles married the Portuguese princess Catherine
    of Braganza, further proof he was pro-Catholic
  • In 1672 he issues the Royal Declaration of
    Indulgences which repeals the Penal Laws against
    Catholics but Parliament forces him to take it
    back
  • In 1683 the Rye House Plot is revealed where
    Protestant ministers were planning to murder
    Charles and his brother James II after it was
    revealed that James was a Catholic
  • He died in 1685 without an heir and converted to
    Catholicism on his deathbed
  • His brother James II took over and ruled but it
    was a tense situation as Parliament had fears
    that the Monarchy would become Catholic again
  • When James produced an heir it was the last straw
    and Parliament deposed James and called on the
    Protestant William of Orange to become king of
    England
  • This was known as the Glorious Revolution (1689)
    since it was a bloodless coup

43
  • Political Repercussions
  • Absolutism will remain a reality of monarchies on
    the European continent while England will become
    a constitutional monarchy
  • The idea that the people could execute a King
    sends shockwaves throughout the royal families of
    Europe and makes them even more wary of
    absolutist
  • Ironically, Crowells attempt to create a
    republic ends in him turning it into a
    dictatorship (he left his son in charge when he
    died)
  • In the colonies, the English experiment with
    republicanism seeds the notion of the rule of
    parliament and all people must be represented in
    parliament before they can be taxed
  • Eventually this leads to the American Revolution
    of 1776 and its eventual independence
  • Frances King Louis XVI willingly helps defeat
    Britain by sending money and troops to help the
    rebels
  • The ideas of the American Revolution will find
    their way back to France and lead to the French
    Revolution
  • Religious tolerance will not be tolerated in
    England or France but the United States does
    institutionalize the notion of freedom of
    religion
  • By the late 1600s, the Roman Catholic Church has
    been sidelined by the combination of Humanism,
    the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution and
    Absolutism
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