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BTEC National Diploma in Sport

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BTEC National Diploma in Sport Unit 11 - Sport and Society Learning Intentions By the end of the lesson students will have; Been introduced to the Sport & Society unit. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BTEC National Diploma in Sport


1
BTEC National Diploma in Sport
  • Unit 11 - Sport and Society

2
Learning Intentions
  • By the end of the lesson students will have
  • Been introduced to the Sport Society unit.
  • An understanding of the requirements for
    successful completion of the unit.
  • Some knowledge of the development of sport
    through certain historical periods.
  • Been introduced to the key organisations within
    sport in the UK

3
  • Introduction
  • This unit will investigate how society can affect
    sports and how society can be influenced by
    sport. Sports are more than just games or
    activities won or lost and an opportunity to meet
    new friends they are also a social phenomena
    that have meanings that go far beyond scores,
    results or statistics. Sport forms a major part
    of peoples lives.
  • Sport signifies a great deal about ourselves and
    about different ways of living and in so doing
    contributes to the ongoing production of social
    life itself.
  • (Richard Gruneau, Social Scientist, University of
    British Columbia, 1988)

4
Unit Requirements
  • 3 Assignments
  • Assignment 1 will assess the following grading
    criteria P1, P2 M1
  • Assignment 2 will assess the following grading
    criteria P3,M2 D1
  • Assignment 3 will assess the following grading
    criteria P4, P5, P6 , M3, M4, M5, D2 D3

5
  • How the Development of Sport has Influenced How
    it is Organised
  • Sport is now a multinational business and
    operates as such.
  • There are a wide range of activities available
    now, but to understand how sport operates today
    we must also understand its historical origins
    the following slides will briefly outline how
    sport has developed through different historical
    periods.

6
Historical Period Characteristics
Medieval period 1200 - 1485 People had little time or energy for recreational activities Leisure time activities were originally confined to feast days Games were local in nature, each village having its own particular activities for feast days From time to time the government banned traditional activities in favour of archery training
Tudor and Stuart period 1485 - 1714 Traditional folk games and activities flourished in Tudor times Puritanism greatly reduced the opportunities to play and types of activity allowed After the restoration in 1660, traditional activities were revived Sport moved away from its former links with merrymaking and lawlessness
Hanoverian period 1714 - 1790 Play and sport were largely ignored by the government People of all classes enjoyed their leisure to the full Increasing industrialisation demanded regular working patterns There was some pressure for Sunday to be a day of rest Large gatherings for sport often meant social disorder Regular, organised, rule-governed sport on a national scale emerged
7
Changing times 1790 -1830 Traditional sport was under attack from all sides Factory owners wanted a regular working week Property owners feared the damage caused by large crowds Churches criticised idleness, drunkenness and slack morality Commercialisation of sport developed, especially in horse racing, cricket and prize fighting
Victorian sport 1830 - 1901 Sport developed in the context of industrial capitalism and class inequality Sport became linked to a moral code defined by the middle classes It was accepted that sport developed character and morality competition had to be fair and rule-governed with similar conditions for all players Sport was to be played, not for reward, but for its own sake Nationwide sport developed through the influence of technology, the public schools and the national governing bodies For the masses, Saturday afternoon free from work was the turning point, enabling them to play and spectate Amateur and professional sport became increasingly separated Working class sport in school was limited largely to drill and therapeutic gymnastics
8
Edwardian Sport 1901 - 1918 Organised sporting involvement expanded rapidly across all classes Increasingly, the different classes played their sport separately Public school athleticism still dominated sport Male working class influence increased, notably in football in England and rugby in Wales. However, working class women were largely excluded from sporting involvement Commercialisation of sport continued with large numbers of spectators and increased numbers of professionals in major sports Sport was increasingly a matter of national concern
Between the World Wars 1918 - 1940 Steady growth in sports participation continued for all classes of society, although working class were least involved Most sports were still class orientated Football (in all its versions) continued to increase in popularity and by the 1930s, was the most popular sporting activity Lack of facilities became an issue, particularly when national teams failed There was little government involvement in sport, apart from physical education in schools School physical education moved from therapeutic exercises to creative physical training Commercialisation of sport expanded rapidly, especially the provision for spectator sport Sport, as a part of a national culture, now extended to the majority of the population
9
Football in the 1930s
10
British sport 1940 - today An improved standard of living has enabled greater participation in sport for most social groups Amateur administrators only reluctantly allowed commercial forces to enter the world of sport Professional sportspeople had a long battle to be given fair rewards Television coverage increased in importance for sport and the sponsors The definition of amateurism for competition was replaced by the concept of eligibility Central government involvement in sport has always been fragmentary There has been a long standing under funding of sport by central government An advisory Sports Council was established in 1965 and the independent executive Sports Council in 1972 Physical education was established in the 1944 Act for its educational value The movement approach conflicted with traditional games teaching Physical education moved away from educational values towards physical recreation and more recently towards health-related fitness Various academic qualifications in physical education stimulated scrutiny of the subject (for example, BEd, CSE, GCSE, A-Level) Physical education is now established in the national curriculum as a foundation subject There has been an increasing influence of market forces on schools, physical education, sports facilities and sport
11
Organisation of sport
  • The role of government
  • As early as 1541 when legislation dictated that
    all men under the age of 60 practise archery in
    their spare time in order to defend the country
    the government has been involved in the
    organisation of sport.
  • As in 1541 the majority of government involvement
    in sport has been reactionary. For example the
    introduction of physical activity in elementary
    schools in the early 1900s was in reaction to
    the poor performance of the British army in the
    Boer War in South Africa, which was attributed to
    the poor physical state of the troops.

12
  • More recently the Taylor Report (1990) into the
    Hillsborough disaster where 96 football fans died
    prompted government legislation concerning the
    safety of football stadiums to help battle the
    issue of football hooliganism.
  • In 1960 following the Wolfenden Committee report
    on the state of sport and physical recreation
    both the government and the opposition rejected
    the idea of forming a Ministry for Sport.
  • Instead of initiating a Ministry for Sport the
    government opted for the idea of a Sports
    Council, which would be headed by a Minister for
    Sport. This movement away from political control
    was highlighted in 1972 when the Sports Council
    received the Royal Charter, which makes the
    Sports Council autonomous and free from political
    control.

13
  • The Department of Culture, Media and Sport
  • In the 1960s after its inception the Sports
    Council campaigned for a Department for Sport and
    Tourism to be set up. The government rejected
    these calls and sport was placed under the
    jurisdiction of the existing Office of Arts and
    Libraries.
  • In 1992 The Department of Heritage was set up who
    had overall responsibility for sport and
    recreation. The Department of Heritage had a
    diverse responsibility, which included the arts,
    media, and heritage with a sub-division for sport
    the Sport and Recreation Division.
  • In 1997 the department was renamed the Department
    of Culture, Media and Sport. The DCMS was
    instrumental in the development of the National
    Lottery. The Lottery was set up in 1993 with the
    first draw in November 1994. The Lottery helps
    raise funds for 5 areas of good causes, which
    include sport.

14
  • Local authority provision
  • Local authorities are the largest providers of
    sports facilities in the UK. City, borough and
    district councils provide a large range of sports
    facilities including sports centres, municipal
    golf courses, swimming pools etc. Facilities
    provide sporting and recreational opportunities
    for the local community. There are approximately
    1500 swimming pools and 2000 local leisure
    centres in the UK which according Sport England
    leaves the country under resourced in local
    sports provision.
  • Traditionally the funding for local sports
    provision comes directly from central government
    through grants and local taxes such as the
    council tax. The initial aim of this provision
    was to offer affordable, subsidised facilities
    for all the local communities to utilise.
    However, the tightening of local authority
    budgets coupled with changing government
    priorities has led to local authority provision
    becoming inferior to private sector provision and
    less affordable.

15
International Olympic Committee
International Sports Federation
Department of Culture, Media and Sport
Governing Bodies
British Olympic Association
UK Sports Council/Sport England
Central Council of Physical Recreation
Four Sports Councils
SportsAid
The structure of sport in the UK
Former National Coaching Foundation now SCUK
Regional Sports Councils
Regional Associations
Local Sports Councils
Sports Clubs
16
  • Key Organisations in the structure of British
    sport
  • The English Sports Council/Sport England
  • The English Sports Council (ESC) was set up in
    1997. It was charged by the Royal Charter to take
    the lead in all aspects of sport and physical
    recreation, which require administration,
    co-ordination and representation in England.
    According to the charter the councils main
    objective is the development of sport and
    physical recreation and the achievement of
    excellence therein among the public at large in
    England and the provision of facilities therefore

17
  • The council consists of 14 members who are
    selected by the Secretary of State for Culture,
    Media and Sport.
  • The ESC publication England the Sporting Nation
    identified the following the objectives of sport
    in England
  • For everyone to develop the skills and competence
    to enable sport to be enjoyed
  • For all to follow a lifestyle which includes
    active participation in sport and recreation
  • For people to achieve their personal goals at
    whatever their chosen level of involvement in
    sport
  • For developing excellence and for achieving
    success in sport at the highest level
  • In 1999 The English Sports Council was
    re-marketed and is now known as Sport England.

18
  • The Central Council of Physical Recreation (CCPR)
  • The CCPR was set up in 1935 with two main
    objectives
  • To encourage as many people as possible to
    participate in sport and physical recreation
    (both male and female)
  • To provide the separate governing bodies of
    sports with a central organisation which would
    both represent and promote their individual and
    collective interests
  • The CCPR is an autonomous voluntary organisation.
    The Sports Council has close links with the CCPR
    as an advisory body.

19
  • Sports Coach UK (SCUK) (Formerly National
    Coaching Foundation)
  • The NCF was originally set up in 1983 by the
    Sports Council with the intention of organising
    coaching in all different sports. Sports Coach
    UK is a totally independent, self funded body
    with members from other organisations such as the
    Sports Council, CCPR and The BOA (British Olympic
    Association). Sports Coach UKs activities
    include
  • Administering coaching qualifications
  • Providing coaching resources
  • Assist governing bodies in increasing the quality
    of their coaching awards
  • Assist in the publication of a national register
    of coaches in order to meet child protection
    needs

20
  • Governing Bodies
  • The majority of popular sports played today were
    developed and organised in the late 1800s. This
    development required members of committees to
    agree sets of rules and regulations, which would
    govern the particular sport.
  • These committees became known as governing bodies
    of which there are currently over 265 in the UK.
    Examples of these governing bodies in the UK
    include the FA (Football Association), RFU (Rugby
    Football Union), ABA (Amateur Boxing Association)
    and the LTA (Lawn Tennis Association).
  • These governing bodies administer their
    particular sport and also organise competitions
    and the national team.
  • National governing bodies are also members of
    International governing bodies such as UEFA, FIFA
    and the IRB (International Rugby Board). These
    international governing bodies organise the sport
    at international level and are responsible for
    multi national events such as the Champions
    League, the World Cup and the Rugby World Cup.

21
  • International Governing Bodies (FIFA, IRB)
  • National Governing Bodies (IFA,IRFU)
  • Regional Member Associations (County Football
    Associations)
  • Local Sports Clubs

22
  • International Olympic Committee (IOC)
  • The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic
    movement and was created by the Paris Congress in
    1894 by Pierre De Coubertin.
  • The IOC owns the rights to the Olympic symbol and
    also the games.
  • The IOC is responsible for selecting the cities
    which host both the summer and winter Olympic
    Games.
  • The headquarters for the IOC are in Lausanne,
    Switzerland.

23
  • British Olympic Association (BOA)
  • The BOA was formed in 1905 and is the governing
    body of the Olympic movement in the UK.
  • The BOA is responsible for the arrangements for
    British athletes competing in both the summer and
    winter games.
  • The UK is currently one of only five nations to
    send representation to every modern Olympic Games
    since its inception in 1896.
  • The BOA receives no funding from central
    government to pay for the costs involved in
    sending well-prepared teams to the Olympic Games
    unlike other nations such as the USA who receive
    direct government funding.
  • The BOA therefore undertakes a great deal of
    fundraising predominantly through commercial
    sponsorship and donations.

24
  • Sports Aid (Formerly Sports Aid Foundation)
  • Dennis Howell, then Minister for Sport formed the
    Sports Aid Foundation in 1976.
  • SportsAid is a fund-raising organisation led by a
    board of trustees who raise and distribute funds
    to talented predominantly young sports
    performers. The funding aims to assist athletes
    to pay for essentials such as travel and kit.
  • The aim of SportsAid is to allow athletes to
    train as full time professionals without the
    burden of money worries.
  • The SportsAid slogan of Giving Britons a Better
    Sporting Chance reinforces their aims.
  • The funding is generated through donations,
    fundraising activities, commercial sponsorship
    and the National Lottery.

25
  • Youth Sports Trust (YST)
  • The Youth Sports Trust is a sports agency founded
    in 1994 which aims to develop sport for young
    people through a series of schemes called the TOP
    programmes. These programmes intend to encourage
    children of all ages to pursue a healthy
    lifestyle.

26
  • The Sports Industry in the UK Today
  • Scale
  • Sport now has a massive role to play within
    society and has a significant economic impact
    the amount of people that participate in sport
    has direct relation to the amount of revenue
    created.
  • Many sporting organisations do not reveal the
    specific details of the revenue they create and
    as you can imagine it can vary dramatically
    depending upon factors such as the popularity of
    the sport and the equipment needed.
  • Participation rates are a good indicator of the
    popularity of the activity or sport and surveys
    such as the census and general household surveys
    can often give important information regarding
    the amount of people who are active in sport an
    example of such data can be found below

27
Participation in Sports, Games Physical
Activities
  • In 2002 three quarters of adults (75) had taken
    part in some sport, game or physical activity
    during the twelve months before interview.
  • Fifty-nine per cent of adults had done so in the
    four weeks before interview.
  • Excluding people whose only activity was walking,
    the corresponding overall participation rates
    were 66 of adults in the last twelve months and
    43 of adults in the last four weeks.
  • In terms of participation in the last twelve
    months the five most popular sports, games or
    physical activities among adults were
  • Walking (46), Swimming (35), Keep fit/yoga
    including aerobics and dance exercise (22),
    Cycling (19), Cue sports - billiards, snooker
    and pool (17)

28
  • As in previous years men were more likely than
    women to participate in sports activities (either
    including or excluding walking) in the four weeks
    before being interviewed.
  • In 1996, 54 of men and 38 of women had
    participated in at least one activity, excluding
    walking, in the four weeks before interview. By
    2002 participation had fallen to just over half
    (51) of men compared with 36 of women.
  • In general participation rates decreased with
    age. In 2002, 72 of young adults (aged 16 to 19)
    compared with 54 of adults aged 30 to 44 and 14
    of adults aged 70 and over had participated in at
    least one activity (excluding walking) in the
    last four weeks before interview.

29
  • Adults living in Scotland were more likely than
    those living in England or Wales to have
    participated in at least one activity in the four
    weeks before interview (62 compared with 58 in
    England and 57 in Wales). The higher
    participation rate in Scotland was mainly due to
    the higher proportions who had been walking in
    the previous four weeks (43 compared with 34 in
    England and 35 in Wales).
  • The Government also indirectly fund sport through
    many of the agencies discussed in part 1 below
    are some further examples of the economic
    importance of sport,

30
  • - The Government will be investing 62 million
    in the development of grass roots football, and
    the sport's community and education initiatives,
    over the four years to 2004 through the Football
    Foundation.- World Class Programme
    Funding. - Overall approximately 60 million per
    annum is awarded under the World Class
    Programme. - UK Sport awards approximately 25
    million per annum for the World Class Performance
    and Events Programme.- Sport England awards
    approximately 35 million per annum for the World
    Class Performance, Potential, Start and Events
    Programme.
  • - Up to 31 March 2001 awards of 181.9 million
    had been made under the World Class Performance
    Programme (WCPP) administered by UK Sport and
    Sport England and over 35 sports had benefited.
     - Up to 31 March 2001 awards of over 55
    million had been made under the Potential and
    Start Programme administered by Sport England.
  • As you can see
    the amounts of money invested in sport are
    massive and this triggers
    employment as all schemes and initiatives
    require organisation and delivery. This could
    range from the coaches who have direct contact
    with the athletes to the staff behind the
    scenes who may organise and administer it.

31
  • The retail industry and consumer spending
  • With the increases in participation and changes
    to sports there has been a growing need for the
    manufacture of sporting goods and equipment this
    has led to retailers becoming very successful and
    making vast profits.
  • Organisations such as Nike, Addidas, Reebok,
    Spalding, Speedo and Topflight have cornered the
    market in their chosen sports becoming a
    household name in many cases.
  • Furthermore recently sports clothing and certain
    types of equipment have become fashionable and
    people who may have never participated in sport
    will be wearing sports brands this has also had
    significant impacts upon the profit made.

32
  • Arguably Nike is one of the most successful
    sports retailers and their example can be seen
    below.
  • A lot has happened at Nike in the 33 years since
    it entered the industry, most of it good, some of
    it downright embarrassing.
  • What started with a handshake between two running
    geeks in sleepy Eugene, Oregon, is now the
    world's most competitive sports and fitness
    company.
  • The world headquarters is in Beaverton, Oregon.
    The Pacific Northwest is Nike's hometown, but
    like so many ambitious souls, they have expanded
    their horizons to every corner of the world.
  • Nike employs approximately 24,300 people, and
    every one of them is significant to their mission
    of bringing inspiration and innovation to every
    athlete in the world.

33
  • Founders
  • There are two Bill Bowerman, the legendary
    University of Oregon track field coach, and
    Phil Knight, a University of Oregon business
    student and middle-distance runner under
    Bowerman.
  • The long-lived business partnership began in
    January 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS).
    First-year sales totalled 8,000. In 1972, BRS
    introduced a new brand of athletic footwear
    called Nike, named from the Greek winged goddess
    of victory.
  • Employees
  • Nike employs approximately 24,300 people
    worldwide. In addition, approximately 650,000
    workers are employed in Nike contracted factories
    around the globe.

34
  • Revenue FY'05 Nike reported net revenues of
    13.7 billion, a 12 percent increase from FY04.
  • Stock Symbol NKE. Went public in December 1980
    and is traded on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • Facilities Nike owns facilities in Oregon,
    Tennessee, North Carolina and The Netherlands,
    and operates leased facilities for 14 Niketowns,
    over 200 Nike Factory Stores, a dozen NikeWomen
    stores and over 100 sales and administrative
    offices.
  • Nike are just one example of the scale of the
    retail industry and gives a significant example
    as to the scale of the retail industry and
    consumer spending.

35
  • Structure of the sports industry
  • There is a wide variety of facilities available
    for the public to use to occupy their sport and
    leisure time and these can generally be divided
    into three main areas, the public, private and
    voluntary sectors.
  • The table below outlines what each of the
    different sectors can offer to the public and the
    way that they are organised.

36
Sector Details
Public sector This sector includes local authority run facilities, such as local leisure centres. It aims to provide a wide range of provision from swimming pools to exercise classes. It caters for the needs of the community running sessions for specialist groups such as the over 50s or mums and toddlers. Schemes to enable the under-privileged, unwell or unemployed are often run in these centres These centres are subsidised by the local authority and do not operate at a profit. This sector has paid employees.
37
Private sector This sector includes private health clubs such as Fitness First or David Lloyd. They provide specialist provision in the health and fitness industry to a narrower range of clients. Only those who can afford to pay can use these centres. This sectors main focus is the creation of profit for its owners. This sector has paid employees.
Voluntary sector This sector includes any voluntary sports clubs, for example community run sports teams such as a youth soccer team or an after school club. These are non profit making clubs and teams any money charged is only to cover the costs of equipment or facilities. There are no paid employees in this sector. The sectors main focus is to give opportunities for participation.
38
  • ProvisionIt must be understood that sport has
    not only competitive elements but many people
    take part just for fun or health benefits in
    fact the majority of people that take part in
    sport do not compete.

39
  • Foundation
  • The largest stage, many people learn how to play
    a sport but then may never take part or compete.
    For example most people learn how to swim
    however it is only something they do for survival
    or for fun on holiday.
  • Participation
  • Many people may decide to take part in a sport
    for fun or health benefits and have no intention
    of competing or achieving excellence.
  • Performance
  • Some people may train to compete or train to win
    therefore they would be in the performance stage.
    They could also be striving for excellence in
    this stage but never achieve it.

40
  • Excellence
  • Very few people achieve this but many strive
    towards it it also may be the case that an
    athlete may only be in this stage for a short
    period of their career moving back into the
    performance stage and perhaps into participation
    if they decide to retire.
  • Strategies and funding are put in place to
    support each of the stages. Many link to health
    initiatives but the majority aim to promote
    excellence.

41
  • Strategies to Promote Excellence
  • With the drive to promote elite sport in the UK
    for success at the 2012 Olympics a number of
    funding initiatives have been put in place to
    encourage young athletes to stay within sport and
    become successful athletes. The main programme to
    drive this success is the world class pathway
    system which is managed by UK sport.

42
  • World Class Podium
  • This programme will support sports with realistic
    medal capabilities at the next Olympic/Paralympic
    Games (i.e. a maximum of four years away from the
    podium).
  • At this level, an assessment of realistic medal
    projections determines the required investment
    per sport using the models introduced post-Athens
    for Olympic and Paralympic sports.
  • Athlete places will be distributed to a sport
    based on a combination of the sport's results at
    the last Games, competitive track record
    projected medal capability in the future and
    demonstrated ability to constantly produce
    athletes through the pathway.
  • Support is provided through a performance
    programme with the governing body and an athlete
    personal award.

43
  • World Class Development
  • This programme is designed to support the stage
    of the pathway immediately beneath the Podium.
  • It will comprise of sports that have demonstrated
    that they have realistic medal winning
    capabilities for 2012. For sports already funded
    by the Podium Programme their continued success
    will only be possible if there is investment in
    the next wave of talented athletes coming through
    the system.
  • Olympic athletes at this level are typically six
    years away from the podium, whereas this
    timeframe may be considerably shortened for
    Paralympic athletes.

44
  • Other sports not yet funded at Podium Programme
    level but where there is performance evidence
    that they have the potential to medal in the next
    Olympic/Paralympic cycle are eligible for
    consideration for funding at World Class
    Development level.
  • In the period to the home Games in 2012,
    additionally and exceptionally, World Class
    Development will also embrace those sports with
    realistic capabilities to be competitive in 2012
    but where medal achievement is unlikely.

45
  • World Class Talent
  • This programme is designed to support the
    identification and confirmation of athletes who
    have the potential to progress through the World
    Class pathway with the help of targeted
    investment.
  • Funding provided through the programme will allow
    sports to identify the athletes with all the
    right attributes to ensure they can go on to
    compete effectively on the world stage.
  • In addition, this programme will look to raise
    the level of sophistication by which sports
    approach the identification of new athletes and
    examine ways in which talent, where appropriate,
    can be transferred across sports.
  • Olympic athletes will be a maximum of 8 years
    away from the podium, but again could be much
    less for Paralympic athletes.

46
BTEC National Diploma in Sport
  • Unit 11 - Sport and Society
  • PowerPoint 2

47
  • How Contemporary Issues Affect Sport
  • The media
  • Issues of media coverage have always been at the
    centre of elite sport. The information below
    will aid understanding of media issues affecting
    sport and leisure activities.
  • Types of media coverage There are many different
    types of media coverage. They can include
    television, radio, internet, newspapers,
    magazines, mobile phone. Each of these has its
    own strengths and weaknesses.

48
Type of coverage Strengths Weaknesses
Television Can see the activity Visual stimulation Exciting Instant Easily missed Expensive
Newspapers Recorded for all time Can read at own leisure Sometimes boring Misreporting Opinion based Out of date by time released
Radio Easy to focus upon the event Easily missed Technology needed
Internet Instant feedback Constant updates Can be seen and heard Bulky technology needed
Magazines Glossy, easy to read Interesting Out of date by time released
Mobile phone Instant results Screen size Technology needed Constantly updating
49
  • Media coverage of women in sport
  • Over the past 30 years media coverage of womens
    participation in sport has been instrumental in
    increasing popularity and participation rates.
    Despite this female sport is hugely
    under-represented by the media you can be 90
    certain that media coverage of sports is based on
    or around male performance or male accounts of
    the events (Hargreaves, 1997).
  • Coverage of mens sport covers a wider range of
    sports at a multitude of levels compared to the
    elite coverage of womens sport in a limited
    number of events.

50
  • Media coverage of womens sport has tended to
    focus on female athletes non-playing attributes
    such as their femininity and sexuality rather
    than their on field performances.
  • An example of this would be Anna Kournikova who
    in 2002 was the highest paid female tennis player
    in the world and darling of the media due to her
    perceived attractiveness and femininity rather
    than her tennis ability. Anna Kournikova has
    never won a major singles title. However, could
    the same be said of David Beckhams earning power?

51
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52
  • One of the most notable examples of media
    focussing on female achievement was the Sydney
    2000 Olympic Games. Some of the major media
    friendly moments of the games involved female
    achievement in sport. For example
  • Cathy Freeman winning the 400m in front of an
    ecstatic home crowd
  • Marion Jones quest to win an unprecedented 5
    Olympic gold medals
  • Naoko Takahashi winning the marathon with an 84
    share of the TV audience in Japan
  • Denise Lewis winning the gold medal in the
    heptathlon
  • The Williams sisters winning gold in the tennis
    doubles in only 49 minutes.

53
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54
  • Aside from the media portrayal of female
    performances in the Games some of the main human
    interest stories surrounding the Games involved
    women
  • Reigning Olympic 400m champion Marie-Jose Perec
    leaving Sydney without explanation prior to
    competing
  • Mrs. Marion Jones being excluded from the Games
    for failing a drugs test
  • Nigerian Glory Alozie just losing out for the
    gold medal days after her husband was run over
    and killed in a Sydney street.
  • Cathy Freeman lighting the Olympic flame

55
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56
  • Despite the performances of female athletes in
    the Games of 2000 it was still felt that female
    popularity in the media was due to their
    femininity and attractiveness to the male
    audience.
  • This was highlighted by Jill Greer, former runner
    and head of communications for the US track and
    field team
  • .womens sport is a glamour thing. Youre out
    there wearing your underwear, basically, in front
    of 100,000 people, and youre putting on your
    make-up and doing your hair.

57
  • Cheating and drug use in sport
  • In order to examine the effects of drugs in sport
    it is important to understand the different terms
    associated with the subject.
  • Performance enhancing drugs Performance
    enhancing drugs are those banned substances which
    are taken to specifically enhance sporting
    performance.
  • Steroids These are artificial male hormones
    that allow the performer to train harder and
    longer.

58
  • Blood doping Removing blood after training at
    high altitude. The blood is stored and then
    reinfused shortly before competition in order to
    improve the aerobic capacity by increasing the
    number of erythrocytes. Blood doping is very
    difficult to detect.
  • Recreational drugs These are illegal substances
    that are banned but are not beneficial in
    improving sports performance.
  • As the rewards for excellence in sport increase
    more risks are taken by athletes to acquire the
    edge to become the very best.

59
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60
  • The following slides will examine the areas
    detailed below
  • Brief history of drugs in sport
  • Why people take drugs
  • Banned performance enhancers and their effects

61
  • Brief history of drugs in sport
  • 400BC Greeks known to eat extract of certain
    plants and mushrooms in order to improve
    performance
  • Roman Period Gladiators were drugged in order
    for them to fight more effectively
  • 1886 Pro cyclist Linton died from a reported
    overdose of strychnine amphetamine
  • 1904 - Olympic marathon runner Thomas Hicks
    almost dies from strychnine
  • 1930s Amphetamines were first produced
  • 1950s Soviet Union athletes used male hormones
    to improve strength and power
  • 1952 Speed skaters taken ill at the Winter
    Olympics due to amphetamine usage
  • 1960 Danish cyclist Kurt Jensen collapsed and
    died from an amphetamine overdose
  • 1967 Tommy Simpson died during Tour De France
    again due to amphetamine usage
  • 1968 I.O.C. produce the first list of banned
    substances

62
  • 1976 First steroid tests introduced at the
    Olympic Games
  • 1983 Sports Council call for the expansion of
    random drug testing in the UK
  • 1984 Olympic 1000m champion Finn Vaataninen was
    proved to have used blood doping
  • 1988 Ben Johnson was tested positive and
    stripped of his 100m gold medal and world record
    after testing positive for anabolic steroids
  • 1996 Olympic Gold medallist Michelle Smith (De
    Bruin) tested positive for anabolic steroids
  • 1999/2000 A number of athletes particularly
    British test positive for the banned substance
    nandrolone
  • 2003 British sprinter Dwain Chambers banned
    from athletics for being found guilty of using
    nandrolone.
  • 2004 Greek sprinters Kostas Kenteris and
    Katerina Thanou pulled out of the 2004 Athens
    Olympics after missing a drugs test and then
    being involved in a bike crash.

63
  • Why people take drugs in sport
  • One of the major reasons for athletes to use
    drugs is dissatisfaction with their progress and
    performance
  • Belief that other athletes are taking them thus
    creating an uneven playing field
  • The financial reward for improved performance in
    the form of appearance fees, sponsorship, wages
    etc
  • Pressure from coaches, family, friends and media
    to succeed
  • Lack of knowledge of the side effects that are
    associated with taking performance enhancing
    drugs
  • Values some people think that the use of
    performance enhancing drugs is acceptable
    including notable sport sociologists

64
  • Examples of banned performance enhancers and
    their effects
  • Performance enhancing substances and their use in
    sport in governed by WADA (world anti doping
    agency). For the most up to date lists of the
    banned substances and their affects refer to
    their website.

65
  • Changes to the rules of games
  • There have also been modifications made by
    individual sports to increase interest, the
    number of spectators and funding gained. The
    table below gives some examples of modifications
    that have been made to different sports.

66
Sport Changes made
Soccer Changes to kick off times
Soccer Penalty shootouts instead of replays
Soccer Changes to the league systems
Cricket New leagues created
Cricket Introduction of floodlit night games
Cricket Changes to the number of games played
Rugby league Changed from a winter to a summer sport
Beach volleyball Restrictions upon the amount of material to be worn
Boxing Introduction of points system
Boxing More weight divisions made
Motor sports Changes to the courses
Motor sports Changes to the length of events
Motor sports Restrictions on cars
67
  • Sponsorship in sport
  • Sponsorship is a major contributor to the funding
    of the sports industry, The Nationwide Building
    Society make a significant contribution to sport
    outlined below is an example of the division or
    allocation of funding.

68
  • Sponsorship A Sponsors Perspective by
    Nationwide
  • The role of sponsorship
  • Potential sponsors are looking to dominate the
    collective interest of groups in a manner which
    is capable of moving consumer attitudes in a
    positive direction. They want the kind of
    regular media exposure that delivers a continuous
    communications platform. They also want a cost
    effective way to reach targeted customers (either
    niche or mass interest) in numbers sufficient to
    allow them to achieve their communications
    objectives.

69
  • Different types of commercial objectives
  • Depending on their objectives organisations will
    require differing commercial returns. The type
    of sponsorship organisations are seeking can be
    generally categorised under the following
    headings
  • Brand
  • Increased sales
  • Revenue generation
  • Corporate hospitality

70
  • The evaluation process
  • When considering a sponsorship proposal potential
    sponsors will usually evaluate the following
  • The audience
  • Brand relevance/profile
  • Exposure
  • Impact
  • Image rights
  • Cost, term
  • Exclusivity

71
  • Nationwide Building Societys sponsorship history
  • 1996 - 2004 Title sponsor of The
    Nationwide Football League
  • 1999 - ongoing Title sponsor of The Nationwide
    Conference
  • (from
    2004 inc north and south feeder leagues)
  • Wales
    team sponsor

  • Associate sponsor of The Scotland team
  • 1999 2002 England team sponsor
  • 1999 2002 Title sponsor of The
    Irish Gold Cup
  • 2003 - ongoing The FA Partnership in association
    with The England team, .
    FA Cup and womens football

72
  • Globalisation in sport
  • Globalisation as the very word suggests means the
    spread of all things that once had local origins
    or roots to the rest of the world.
  • Globalisation does not just simply refer to
    sport but works in all contexts. For example
    someone in Italy many years ago invented ice
    cream now it is widely available all over the
    world.
  • This is also very similar for sports as we all
    shold know from our previous research the game of
    Rugby was invented by William Webb Ellis picking
    up a football and deciding to run with it.
  • However Rugby has now grown and developed into an
    international sport played very successfully as
    far as you can possibly get from Rugby school in
    South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

73
  • What are the possible reasons for globalisation
    and what are the factors that have made sports
    more accessible?
  • Increased movement of people across countries and
    continents
  • Increased global communication and travel.
  • Increased finance and disposable income
  • Increased leisure time
  • Increased global sponsorship and advertising
  • The importance of globalisation is profound and
    many would say has increased the competitiveness
    within sport, none better an example than with
    soccer where many of the most successful national
    teams come from South America far from where it
    was invented in Western Europe.

74
  • Child protection issues in sport
  • The issue of protecting children and vulnerable
    adults within sport is now of national
    significance. In 2004 government figures
    indicated that over 32,000 children in the UK
    were officially registered as being in need of
    protection from abuse however it is felt that
    there are thousands more unregistered. People who
    work with children on a regular basis may be able
    to provide an important link identifying a child
    who is at risk or is being harmed.

75
  • With this in mind there are certain government
    legislations to govern this
  • For child welfare and protection - Children Act
    1989 and 2004
  • For criminal offences against children - Sexual
    Offences Act 2003
  • In recruitment and selection of staff and
    volunteers - Protection of Children Act 1999 -
    The Police Act 1997 - Criminal Justice and Court
    Services Act 2000
  • All of these are underpinned by the Human Rights
    Act and the UN Convention on the Rights of the
    Child.

76
  • Generally it is mostly teachers, parents and in
    the sports context coaches who will have the
    opportunity to work with children and be in a
    position of trust. With this in mind Sports
    Coach UK (ScUk) provide guidance for coaches to
    identify the issues regarding child protection.
    They identify key principles that coaches must
    adhere to
  • Rights coaches must respect and champion the
    rights of every individual to participate in
    sport
  • Relationships coaches must develop a
    relationship with athletes (and others) that is
    based on openness, honesty, mutual trust and
    respect
  • Responsibilities personal standards coaches
    must demonstrate proper personal behaviour and
    conduct at all times

77
  • Responsibilities professional standards to
    maximise benefits and minimise the risks to
    athletes, coaches must attain a high level of
    competence through qualifications, and a
    commitment to ongoing training, that ensures safe
    and correct practice.

78
  • They also identify five types of abuse that can
    occur
  • Emotional abuse the ill treatment of a child
    that results in severe and persistent adverse
    effects upon their emotional development
  • Physical abuse when someone causes physical
    harm or injury to a child
  • Sexual abuse when adults or other young people
    use children to meet their own sexual needs
  • Neglect when an adult fails to meet a childs
    basic physical or psychological needs
  • Bullying and harassment deliberately hurtful
    behaviour, usually over a period of time

79
BTEC National Diploma in Sport
  • Unit 11 - Sport and Society
  • PowerPoint 3

80
  • Understand Cultural Influences and Barriers
    That Affect Participation
  • A. Ethnicity in sport
  • Popular beliefs about race and ethnicity have a
    major impact on what happens in sport. Sport has
    the ability to either reinforce popular beliefs
    about race or to challenge and change major
    beliefs. According to Coakley (1999) race and
    ethnicity can be defined as
  • .race refers to a category of people regarded
    as socially distinct because they share
    genetically transmitted traits believed to be
    important in a group or a society
  • Ethnicity refers to the cultural heritage of a
    particular group. Ethnicity is NOT based on
    genetically determined physical traits instead,
    it is based on characteristics related to culture
    and cultural background


  • (Coakley, 1999)

81
  • The racial categories used to divide human beings
    in society are based on popular beliefs developed
    by society rather than tangible biological
    differences. Scientists have been attempting to
    racially categorise human beings for the past 300
    years. However, these attempts to categorise
    humans on the basis of genetics have proved
    futile as highlighted by Boyd (1996)
  • Race has no basic biological reality. The human
    species simply doesnt come packaged that way
  • The characteristics we see with the naked eye
    that help us distinguish individuals from
    different continents are, in reality, skin deep.
    Whenever, we look under the veneer, we find that
    the differences that seem so conspicuous to us
    are really trivial Coakley (1999).

82
  • Despite the lack of a comprehensive racial
    classification system sociologists have debated
    why athletes from certain races are more
    successful in certain sports than others. The
    debate can be loosely split into two areas
  • The physiological approach Argument focuses on
    success purely from a physiological perspective
    suggesting success in sport depends on genetics.
  • The sociological approach Argument suggests
    success is not due to biology but a series of
    sociological factors in which we find ourselves.

83
  • The physiological approach
  • In athletics the rise of black athletes has been
    phenomenal.
  • Black athletes hold every track world record from
    the 100m sprint through to the marathon.
  • Of the 32 finalists in the 2000 Olympics in
    Sydney not a single competitor was not of West
    African decent.
  • More than 50 of the fastest times in middle and
    long distance running have been recorded by
    athletes from East African decent (Kenya and
    Ethiopia predominantly).
  • Similarly in the US 80 of NBA basketball players
    are black despite making up only 13 of the
    population.

84
  • In Britain the figures are also extraordinary.
    The black population in Britain was 4 in 2002
    but
  • Over 50 of the UK athletics team was black
  • Over 50 of British boxing champions were black
  • 40 of premiership footballers were black
  • Despite this huge success black athletes are
    still under-represented in other sports, for
    example
  • Only one black swimmer has ever won an Olympic
    medal
  • There is a lack of black participants in cycling,
    golf and tennis

85
  • There has been some controversial research
    undertaken to establish if black athletes held a
    biological advantage in certain events over their
    white counterparts. Whilst the studies proved
    inconclusive some tentative conclusions were
    made
  • Black middle distance runners have different
    composition of muscle fibres compared to white
    athletes.
  • Noakes (1990) found that black runners were able
    to run at a higher percentage of their VO? max
    for longer periods than white athletes.
  • Black athletes have longer limbs, less fat, more
    skeletal muscle and have leaner bodies

86
  • Sociological approach
  • It is important for people who study sports to
    know about the biological meaningless of race
    (Hallinan, 1994). As previously mentioned there
    has been no biological evidence linking race to
    excellence in certain sports.
  • Coakley (1999) notes that the Swiss are never
    accredited as having an in built skiing gene to
    explain their huge success in major skiing
    championships
  • Sociologists believe that the following factors
    are instrumental in the emergence of black
    athletes in certain sports

87
  • Role models
  • Young peoples participation in sport can depend
    greatly on the availability of role models with
    whom they can associate.
  • The emergence of successful black role models
    such as Muhammad Ali, Karem Abdul-Jabbar, Michael
    Jordan, Carl Lewis, Jesse Owens, John Barnes,
    Linford Christie and Lennox Lewis may inspire
    other black performers to participate in those
    sports in which their role models have excelled.

88
  • Access
  • Peoples access to sports has a huge bearing on
    the success of athletes at the elite level. For
    instance, the Winter Olympics is dominated by
    athletes from countries such as Switzerland and
    Austria who have access to mountains in the
    appropriate climate.
  • Access for performers in sports such as golf
    have not been fair and have in some cases
    deliberately excluded black performers. When
    Tiger Woods burst into the golfing world in the
    1990s he was barred from playing at a number of
    courses in the US due to the colour of his skin.

89
  • Socio-economic factors
  • Although sport is not the sole privilege of the
    upper classes participation in sport is not equal
    among social classes. This has led to some
    ethnic minority groups being under-represented in
    certain sports and over represented in others.
  • Socio-economic factors have led football becoming
    a truly world sport due to the fact it can be
    played with little equipment and resources. This
    may also be a reason why long distance running
    has become the national sport in poverty stricken
    countries such as Ethiopia.
  • In 1998 about 36.5 million Americans (14 of the
    population) were living below the poverty line.
    This segment of the population contained a
    disproportionate number of ethnic minority groups
    who lacked resources, equipment and facilities to
    participate in organised sport.

90
  • Youths from inner cities whether they be in the
    US or the UK gravitate towards sports such as
    basketball and football which are inexpensive and
    are also seen as a vehicle through which to gain
    great wealth and popularity.

91
  • The concept that black people have differing
    natural athletic abilities from their white
    counterparts is not a recent development in the
    sociological study of sport.
  • For centuries scientists have attempted to
    develop a race logic to explain the physical
    differences between races. This race logic
    suggested that black athletes have great physical
    capabilities such as speed and power and lower
    levels of intelligence and decision making
    capabilities
  • .the magnificent animal He eats. He sleeps.
    He fights Is he all instinct, all animal? Or
    have a hundred million years left a fold upon his
    brain? I see in this coloured man something so
    cold, so hard so cruel that I wonder as to his
    bravery. Courage in the animal is desperation.
    Courage in the human is something incalculable
    and divine (New York Times)

92
  • The previous quote was taken from the New York
    Times after Joe Louis easily beat Primo Carnera
    who was a white heavyweight champion of the
    world.
  • Louis was portrayed in the press as being animal
    like and brutal but in reality he has been
    remembered as an ambassador of goodwill and of
    boxing skill and judgement.
  • This race logic has led sociologists to believe
    that it is sociological reasons and not
    biological ones that have led to the
    over-representation of black athletes in certain
    sports. In British football the emergence of
    black footballers has been dramatic.

93
  • Gender issues
  • We feel that the Olympic Games must be reserved
    for the solemn and periodic exaltation of male
    athleticism, with internationalism as a base,
    loyalty as a means, arts for its setting and
    female applause as reward.
  • (Pierre De Coubertin, founder of the modern
    Olympics) (circa 1896)
  • The role of women in sport has come a long way
    since the comments of Pierre De Coubertin but the
    issue of equality in sport has been the focus of
    sports sociologists the world over.
  • This is highlighted by Coakley (1999) possibly
    the most significant and most prolific change
    that has occurred throughout the sporting world
    over the past 30 years has been the increase in
    the levels of participation of women in sport.

94
  • Participation patterns among women
  • Increased opportunities - There are a number of
    reasons for the increase in participation rates
    among women. The primary reason for the increase
    in participation is the fact that women have more
    opportunities to participate than ever before.
  • Girls and women have become increasingly included
    in various coaching programmes and initiatives,
    which sparked interest previously absent. This
    has led to womens football becoming the fastest
    growing participation sport in the UK (Sprito).

95
  • The feminist movement In the late 19th Century
    there were campaigns for the rights of women in
    the UK. These campaigns were focussed on
    improving females social/political/economic
    status within the UK.
  • The feminist movement gained more strength during
    the 2nd World War when women were required to
    take on more traditionally male roles in society
    whilst the males were away fighting.
  • This development led society to perceive women as
    being more capable of undertaking tasks, which
    previously they were considered unable to do.
    This then had a knock on effect with womens
    participation in sport.

96
  • The health and fitness movement - The health and
    fitness movement developed in the 70s was
    instrumental in improving womens participation
    rates. The awareness of the benefits of health
    and fitness encouraged women to participate in
    health related exercise.
  • The main focus of the movement towards physical
    activity was through activities such as aerobics
    and jogging as opposed to the more traditional
    sports activities.
  • Much of the emphasis of participation by women
    was still based on the traditional views of
    femininity and sexual attractiveness.

97
  • Factors why men achieve more in sport than women
  • Sports traditional status as a male preserve
    The vast majority of sports were invented by men
    for the sole enjoyment of men. Throughout
    history sport has been utilised for male purposes
    and has been shaped to fit their abilities
    (Houlihan, 2000).
  • By the outbreak of the First World War there were
    very few sports which women had not tried.
    Despite this participation opposition to female
    participation came from both within and outside
    sport.
  • Throughout history through to contemporary
    society the administration of sports both in
    governing bodies and clubs has been dominated by
    men and in some cases the sole preserve of men.
    An example of which would be the exclusion of
    women in some areas of the MCC (Marylebone
    Cricket Club) at Lords.

98
  • Role models One of the main contributors to
    participation in sport is the presence of role
    models to encourage and inspire young performers.
    Due to the historical lack of female
    participation in sport there is also a lack of
    role models for young females to aspire to. This
    is predominantly still the case within team
    sports such as football and cricket in the UK.
    Individual sports have however produced some
    powerful role models.

99
  • C. Barriers
  • Participation in sport and leisure more recently
    has been in decline, with rising levels of
    sedentary lifestyle related illnesses. We need to
    identify the possible reasons for this decline
    and assess how we get people more involved in
    sports and leisure activities.
  • The following information will provide guidance
    on the possible reasons why there is a current
    decline in sports and leisure activities.

100
  • Time This is often cited as a reason for
    non-participation in sport. With demanding jobs
    and family issues people often find it difficult
    to find the time to exercise.
  • Provision It may be the case that there are no
    facilities or the facilities are not of the
    appropriate standard for the activity the
    consumer would like to take part in, e.g. it is
    difficult to train for skiing in the UK as there
    is very little snow.
  • Transport or location In many sports and leisure
    activities the nearest club or facility is not
    always local leading to issues regarding access
    and transport.
  • Cost Consumers who are on a low income or are
    unemployed may not have the finances available to
    enable them to take part in the sport or leisure
    activity of their choice. Furthermore some sports
    require large sums of money in order to
    participate, e.g. polo or horse or motor racing.

101
  • Religion This can be a barrier as the clothing
    required for certain religions can be restrictive
    to sport and leisure activities. Furthermore some
    religions do not allow their followers to compete
    or train at certain times as they have duties to
    undertake.
  • Disability This can be restrictive as in certain
    cases there is not integration
  • between able bodied and disabled people and some
    sports or activities require certain
    modifications or different equipment to enable
    disabled people to take part.
  • Sega culture The computer games console
    revolution has led to a decline in participation
    among teenagers as many of them would rather play
    computer games rather than take part in sport and
    leisure activities.
  • Age As people age their participation in sport
    and leisure activities declines.

102
  • Strategies to encourage participation in sport
  • As previously discussed participation in sport
    and leisure more recently has been in decline.
    However there have been many strategies put in
    place to prevent this gradual decline. We need
    to identify some of those strategies and comment
    on any other ways the barriers to participation
    can be broken down.
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