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Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

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Title: Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach


1
Sustaining Biodiversity The Species Approach
  • Chapter 9

2
Core Case Study The Passenger Pigeon Gone
Forever
  • Passenger pigeon hunted to extinction by 1900
  • Commercial hunters used a "stool pigeon
  • Archeological record shows five mass extinctions
  • Human activities hastening more extinctions?

3
Passenger Pigeon
4
9-1 What Role Do Humans Play in the Premature
Extinction of Species?
  • Concept 9-1A We are degrading and destroying
    biodiversity in many parts of the world, and
    these threats are increasing.
  • Concept 9-1B Species are becoming extinct 100 to
    1,000 times faster than they were before modern
    humans arrived on the earth (the background
    rate), and by the end of this century, the
    extinction rate is expected to be 10,000 times
    the background rate.

5
Human Activities Are Destroying and Degrading
Biodiversity
  • Human activity has disturbed at least half of the
    earths land surface
  • Fills in wetlands
  • Converts grasslands and forests to crop fields
    and urban areas
  • Degraded aquatic biodiversity

6
Extinctions Are Natural but Sometimes They
Increase Sharply
  • Background extinction- low level and continuous
  • Extinction rate- () number of species that go
    extinct within a certain time period (year)
  • Mass extinction causes?
  • Levels of species extinction
  • Local extinction- no longer found in one area
  • Ecological extinction- so few members it cant
    play a role
  • Biological extinction- no longer found anywhere
    on earth

7
Some Human Activities Cause Premature
Extinctions the Pace Is Speeding Up (1)
  • Premature extinctions due to
  • Habitat destruction
  • Overhunting

8
Some Human Activities Cause Premature
Extinctions the Pace Is Speeding Up (2)
  • Conservative estimates of extinction 0.01-1.0
    a year
  • Growth of human population will increase this
    loss
  • Rates are higher where there are more endangered
    species
  • Tropical forests and coral reefs, wetlands and
    estuariessites of new speciesbeing destroyed
  • Speciation crisis- all three of the above reasons
    combined

9
Animal Species Prematurely Extinct Due to Human
Activities
10
Effects of a 0.1 Extinction Rate
11
Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological
Smoke Alarms
  • Endangered species- has so few individuals
    Survivors that the species could soon become
    extinct over all or most of its natural range.
  • Threatened species, vulnerable species
  • Still abundant in its natural range but, because
    of declining numbers, is likely to become
    endangered in the near future.

12
Endangered Natural Capital Species Threatened
with Premature Extinction
13
Characteristics of Species That Are Prone to
Ecological and Biological Extinction
14
Stepped Art
Fig. 9-5, p. 188
15
Percentage of Various Species Threatened with
Premature Extinction
16
Science Focus Estimating Extinction Rates Is Not
Easy
  • Three problems
  • Hard to document due to length of time
  • Only 1.8 million species identified
  • Little known about nature and ecological roles of
    species identified
  • Document little changes in DNA
  • Use speciesarea relationship
  • 90 loss of habitat causes 50 of the species in
    the area to become extinct
  • Mathematical models- include factors such as pop.
    size trends, changes in habitat , interactions,
    and genetics.

17
9-2 Why Should We Care about Preventing Premature
Species Extinction?
  • Concept 9-2 We should prevent the premature
    extinction of wild species because of the
    economic and ecological services they provide and
    because they have a right to exist regardless of
    their usefulness to us.

18
Species Are a Vital Part of the Earths Natural
Capital
  • Instrumental value
  • Use value
  • Ecotourism wildlife tourism
  • Genetic information
  • Nonuse value
  • Existence value
  • Aesthetic value
  • Bequest value- people will pay to protect for
    future generations.
  • Ecological value- it is a vital component to a
    system

19
Natural Capital Degradation Endangered
Orangutans in a Tropical Forest
20
Natural Capital Natures Pharmacy
21
Endangered Scarlet Macaw is a Source of Beauty
and Pleasure
22
Science Focus Using DNA to Reduce Illegal
Killing of Elephants for Their Ivory
  • 1989 international treaty against poaching
    elephants
  • Poaching on the rise
  • Track area of poaching through DNA analysis of
    elephants
  • Elephants damaging areas of South Africa Should
    they be culled?

23
Are We Ethically Obligated to Prevent Premature
Extinction?
  • Intrinsic value existence value regardless of
    usefulness
  • Edward O. Wilson biophilia phenomenon (genetic
    kinship with the natural world) Love of Life
  • Biophobia- fearing some species of wildlife.

24
Science Focus Why Should We Care about Bats?
  • Vulnerable to extinction
  • Slow to reproduce
  • Human destruction of habitats
  • Important ecological roles
  • Feed on crop-damaging nocturnal insects
  • Pollen-eaters
  • Fruit-eaters
  • Unwarranted fears of bats

25
9-3 How do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction?
  • Concept 9-3 The greatest threats to any species
    are (in order) loss or degradation of its
    habitat, harmful invasive species, human
    population growth, pollution, climate change, and
    overexploitation.

26
Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to
Species Remember HIPPCO
  • Habitat destruction, degradation, and
    fragmentation
  • Invasive (nonnative) species
  • Population and resource use growth
  • Pollution
  • Climate change
  • Overexploitation

27
Causes of Depletion and Premature Extinction of
World Species
28
Natural Capital Degradation Reduction in the
Ranges of Four Wildlife Species
29
Fig. 9-11a, p. 194
30
Fig. 9-11b, p. 194
31
Fig. 9-11c, p. 194
32
Fig. 9-11d, p. 194
33
Science Focus Studying the Effects of Forest
Fragmentation on Old-Growth Trees
  • Tropical Biologist Bill Laurance, et al.
  • How large must a forest fragment be in order to
    prevent the loss of rare trees?

34
Case Study A Disturbing Message from the Birds
(1)
  • Habitat loss and fragmentation of the birds
    breeding habitats
  • Forests cleared for farms, lumber plantations,
    roads, and development
  • Intentional or accidental introduction of
    nonnative species
  • Eat the birds

35
Case Study A Disturbing Message from the Birds
(2)
  • Seabirds caught and drown in fishing equipment
  • Migrating birds fly into power lines,
    communication towers, and skyscrapers
  • Other threats
  • Oil spills
  • Pesticides
  • Herbicides
  • Ingestion of toxic lead shotgun pellets

36
Case Study A Disturbing Message from the Birds
(3)
  • Greatest new threat Climate change
  • Environmental indicators- because they live in
    every climate and biome, respond quickly to Env.
    Changes in their habitats, and are relatively
    easy to track and count.
  • Economic and ecological services
  • Keep rodents and insect pops. Down
  • Spread plants and removes dead animals

37
Distribution of Bird Species in North America and
Latin America
38
The Ten Most Threatened Song Birds in the United
States
39
Science Focus Vultures, Wild Dogs, and Rabies
Unexpected Scientific Connections
  • Vultures poisoned from diclofenac in cow
    carcasses
  • More wild dogs eating the cow carcasses
  • More rabies spreading to people

40
Some Deliberately Introduced Species Can Disrupt
Ecosystems
  • Most species introductions are beneficial
  • Food
  • Shelter
  • Medicine
  • Aesthetic enjoyment
  • Nonnative species may have no natural
  • Predators
  • Competitors
  • Parasites
  • Pathogens

41
Some Harmful Nonnative Species in the United
States
42
Fig. 9-14a, p. 199
43
Fig. 9-14b, p. 199
44
Case Study The Kudzu Vine
  • Imported from Japan in the 1930s to control soil
    erosion
  • The vine that ate the South
  • Could there be benefits of kudzu?

45
Kudzu Taking Over an Abandoned House in
Mississippi, U.S.
46
Some Accidentally Introduced Species Can Also
Disrupt Ecosystems
  • Argentina fire ant 1930s
  • Pesticide spraying in 1950s and 1960s worsened
    conditions
  • Burmese python

47
(No Transcript)
48
Argentina Fire Ant Accidentally Introduced into
Mobile, Alabama, U.S.
49
Prevention Is the Best Way to Reduce Threats from
Invasive Species
  • Prevent them from becoming established
  • Learn the characteristics of the species
  • Set up research programs
  • Try to find natural ways to control them

50
Characteristics of Invader Species and Ecosystems
Vulnerable to Invading Species
51
What Can You Do? Controlling Invasive Species
52
Other Causes of Species Extinction (1)
  • Population growth
  • Overconsumption
  • Pollution
  • Climate change

53
Other Causes of Species Extinction (2)
  • Pesticides
  • DDT Banned in the U.S. in 1972
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Biomagnification
  • What is the difference?

54
Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification
55
Case Study Where Have All the Honeybees Gone?
  • Honeybees responsible for 80 of
    insect-pollinated plants
  • Dying due to?
  • Pesticides
  • Parasites
  • Bee colony collapse syndrome

56
Case Study Polar Bears and Global Warming
  • Environmental impact on polar bears
  • Less summer sea ice
  • PCBs and DDT
  • 2007 Threatened species list

57
Polar Bear with Seal Prey
58
Illegal Killing, Capturing, and Selling of Wild
Species Threatens Biodiversity
  • Poaching and smuggling of animals and plants
  • Animal parts
  • Pets
  • Plants for landscaping and enjoyment
  • Prevention research and education

59
White Rhinoceros Killed by a Poacher
60
Individuals Matter Jane Goodall
  • Primatologist and anthropologist
  • 45 years understanding and protecting chimpanzees
  • Chimps have tool-making skills

61
Rising Demand for Bush Meat Threatens Some
African Species
  • Indigenous people sustained by bush meat
  • More hunters leading to local extinction of some
    wild animals

62
Bush Meat Lowland Gorilla
63
9-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from
Premature Extinction? (1)
  • Concept 9-4A We can use existing environmental
    laws and treaties and work to enact new laws
    designed to prevent species extinction and
    protect overall biodiversity.
  • Concept 9-4B We can help to prevent species
    extinction by creating and maintaining wildlife
    refuges, gene banks, botanical gardens, zoos, and
    aquariums.

64
9-4 How Can We Protect Wild Species from
Premature Extinction? (2)
  • Concept 9-4C According to the precautionary
    principle, we should take measures to prevent or
    reduce harm to the environment and to human
    health, even if some of the cause-and-effect
    relationships have not been fully established,
    scientifically.

65
International Treaties Help to Protect Species
  • 1975 Convention on International Trade in
    Endangered Species (CITES)
  • Signed by 172 countries
  • Bans hunting, capturing, selling threatened or
    endangered species
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • Focuses on ecosystems
  • Ratified by 190 countries (not the U.S.)

66
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act (1)
  • Endangered Species Act (ESA) 1973 and later
    amended in 1982, 1983, and 1985
  • Identify and protect endangered species in the
    U.S. and abroad
  • Hot Spots
  • Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) colony
  • A landowner, developer, etc is allowed to destroy
    some critical habitat in exchange for taking
    steps to protect members of the species

67
Case Study The U.S. Endangered Species Act (2)
  • Mixed reviews of the ESA
  • Weaken it
  • Repeal it
  • Modify it
  • Strengthen it
  • Simplify it
  • Streamline it

68
Confiscated Products Made from Endangered Species
69
Science Focus Accomplishments of the Endangered
Species Act (1)
  • Species listed only when serious danger of
    extinction
  • Takes decades for most species to become
    endangered or extinct
  • More than half of the species listed are stable
    or improving
  • Budget has been small

70
Science Focus Accomplishments of the Endangered
Species Act (2)
  • Suggested changes to ESA
  • Increase the budget
  • Develop recovery plans more quickly
  • Establish a core of the endangered organisms
    survival habitat

71
We Can Establish Wildlife Refuges and Other
Protected Areas
  • 1903 Theodore Roosevelt
  • Wildlife refuges
  • Most are wetland sanctuaries
  • More needed for endangered plants
  • Could abandoned military lands be used for
    wildlife habitats?

72
Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Wildlife Farms
Can Help Protect Species
  • Gene or seed banks
  • Preserve genetic material of endangered plants
  • Botanical gardens and arboreta
  • Living plants
  • Farms to raise organisms for commercial sale

73
Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species (1)
  • Techniques for preserving endangered terrestrial
    species
  • Egg pulling
  • Captive breeding
  • Artificial insemination
  • Embryo transfer
  • Use of incubators
  • Cross-fostering

74
Zoos and Aquariums Can Protect Some Species (2)
  • Limited space and funds
  • Critics say these facilities are prisons for the
    organisms

75
What Can You Do? Protecting Species
76
Case Study Trying to Save the California Condor
  • Largest North American bird
  • Nearly extinct
  • Birds captured and breed in captivity
  • By 2007, 135 released into the wild
  • Threatened by lead poisoning

77
The Precautionary Principle
  • Species primary components of biodiversity
  • Preservation of species
  • Preservation of ecosystems
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