Support for Students with Disabilities in Professional Practice: Perspectives of Stakeholders. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

Support for Students with Disabilities in Professional Practice: Perspectives of Stakeholders.


Title: IES Conference DR Author: Declan Reilly Last modified by: Andrew Costello Created Date: 6/21/2007 8:40:27 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:303
Avg rating:3.0/5.0


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Support for Students with Disabilities in Professional Practice: Perspectives of Stakeholders.

  • Support for Students with Disabilities in
    Professional Practice Perspectives of
  • Dr. Clodagh Nolan, Ph.D., M.Sc., M.A., Dip. COT.,
    PG.Dip, Stats.
  • Director of the Unilink Service Lecturer
    Discipline of Occupational Therapy, TCD
  • Declan Treanor, M.Sc., M.A., B.Sc., PG Dip Ed,
  • Director of the Disability Service, TCD

Presentation Aims
  • Background Need for research
  • Results Findings from research
  • Recommendations for the future

(No Transcript)
Student Journey from pre-entry to employment or
further education
  • 1. An evidence-based research strand to determine
    what are the main issues, concerns all have in
    the placement process for students with
  • 2. Development of placement planning procedures
    and supports for students on professional courses
    (guide for students)
  • 3. Present findings at this symposium
  • http//

Student Cohort
Course breakdown
Need for the Research
  • Results and Findings

Need for the Research
  • Over the last decade the number of student with
    disabilities have risen from 450 in 2000, to over
    7,947 in 2012 representing 4 (6.4 TCD) of
    student population (AHEAD 2012)
  • In Trinity the numbers on professional courses
    has increased from 67 in 2006 to 245 in 2012-13
  • Twenty three per cent are studying in
    professional courses.

Background Literature
  • Increase in the numbers accessing professional
    courses with a disability in line with the
    widening participation agenda (Ryan, 2011
    Rankin, Nayda, Cocks Smith, 2010 Griffiths,
    Worth, Scullard Gilbert, 2010 Cailbourne
    Cornforth, Gibson Smith, 2011 Wood Marshall,
    2010 Stevenson, Clegg, Lefever, 2010)
  • Students often acquire a disability when they are
    in college - in particular mental health
    difficulties (Dooley Fitzgerald, 2012 Nolan,
  • Students can manage the academic environment of
    university because supports are readily available
    however it is during the professional placement
    that issues with their disability emerge- as they
    are performance based (Tee, et al, 2010)

  • Reasonable accommodations, are widely understood
    within the academic environment but are less
    defined in professional practice (Morris
    Turnbull, 2007 Murphy, 2008, 2011 Tee, et al,
  • Perception that the quality of the educational
    programme is lacking due to the students
    disability which results in staff resentment
    and difficult working relationships between the
    university and the placements (Andre Manson,

Literature Contd.
  • No legal obligation for a person to disclose a
    disability (Murphy, 2008 Morris Turnbull,
    2007 Storr, Wray Draper, 2011)
  • Disclosure for students is a on-going process-
    burden on the student (Griffiths, Worth, Scullard
    Gilbert, 2010 Stanley, Ridley, Harris
    Manthorpe, 2011)
  • The student should have the choice require time
    control over when to disclose in a supportive
    environment (Cailbourne Cornforth, Gibson
    Smith, 2011)
  • Failure to disclose or delayed disclosure is a
    potential barrier to learning (Storr, Wray
    Draper, 2011)

Literature Contd.
  • Failure to disclose can often result in
    disadvantaging the student and result in unsafe
    and risky behaviours (Andre Manson, 2004 Tee,
    et al, 2010)
  • Universities may not always be aware of a
    students disability and even if they are, they
    may have no permission to disseminate personal
    information (Hirneth MacKenzie, 2004 Morris
    Turnbull, 2007)
  • Responsibility to act if a student discloses to a
    practice educator or any member of the University
    Staff (Disability Act, 2005)
  • There is a need to have clear policies in
    monitoring, evaluating an communicating
    reasonable accommodations in practice (Ashcroft
    Lutfiyya, 2013)

  • Enabler to disclosure is the length of time in
    placements the longer the better for disclosure
    (Tee, et al, 2010)
  • More likely to disclose if the environment is
    positive and receptive to disclosure with
    collaborative relationships and the risk of hurt
    is minimized (Andre Manson, 2004 Morris
    Turnbull, 2007)
  • Framework for honest feedback and discussion of
    issues enables and empowers students to disclose
    (Tee et al. 2010)
  • Having Positive Role Models who have good
    experiences encourages disclosure and confidence
    to disclose (Griffiths et al, 2010)
  • Change focus from disability to the impact of the
    disability and learning requirements (Ashcroft
    Lutfiyya, 2013)

Literature Contd.
  • The balance between personal benefit and
    emotional cost or risk to patient safety provides
    a rationale for disclosure and non-disclosure
    (Morris Turnbull, 2007)
  • Being trailblazers for disabled people in their
    profession (Stanley, Ridley, Harris Manthorpe,
  • Disclosure contributes to a better self image and
    self-confidence (Stanley, Ridley, Harris
    Manthorpe, 2011)
  • Provides flexibility in the workplace, such as
    option to work at a particular time of day,
    reduced hours, accessibility location of office
    (Stanley, Ridley, Harris Manthorpe, 2011)

Literature Contd.
  • It is essential to make reasonable adjustments in
    supporting students with disabilities (Storr,
    Wray, Draper, 2011)
  • All of the studies identified more time as the
    overriding reasonable accommodation that students
    with disabilities required while on placement (to
    allow them to practice skills and work tasks
    (Murphy, 2011 Storr, Wray Draper, 2011 Tee,
    et al, 2010)
  • Learning contracts and more frequent support was
    also cited as being particularly important (Tee,
    et al, 2010)
  • Suggested accommodations should always be
    tailored to each individual student and their
    practice context (Tee, et al, 2010)

Literature Contd.
  • Other reasonable accommodations can include
    counselling, health service and Unilink support
    (Storr, Wray Draper, 2011) and that these
    supports need to be accommodated within the
    placement hours
  • Practitioners on the ground moving towards a
    therapist role from an educators role and needing
    support to accommodate the students needs- input
    reasonable accommodations (Hirneth MacKenzie,

Questions we need to ask-Issues in the Literature
  • Do professional competencies need to be
    interpreted for students with disabilities and do
    we need to foster positive change in attitudes to
    students with disabilities?
  • Do all competencies need to be demonstrated in
    every area of practice and is there flexibility?
  • Do we need to get the right balance between
    accommodating the students needs and providing a
    fair assessment?
  • How do we (Staff/ Students) negotiate appropriate
    accommodations to support students as learners?
  • How do we allow extra time for students to reach
    competencies given that they are developing
    coping strategies as learners, given that in time
    they will become proficient? (Murphy, 2011)
  • Who has responsibility for training both practice
    educators and students in disability matters?

Questions we need to ask-Issues in the Literature
  • How do we encourage disclosure in order to
    receive reasonable accommodation and how do we
    balance this with the fear of disclosure and its
    perceived reprisal.
  • How do we support educators to be educators as
    opposed to utilizing their therapist skills when
    challenges arise (Hirneth MacKenzie, 2004)

  • Exploratory descriptive study to
  • 1) Elicit information and staff perspectives on
    supporting students with disabilities on
    professional placements
  • 2) Gain information on how students with
    disabilities perceive their difficulties
    concerns while on professional placements, and in
    addition to explore ways that they would like to
    be supported.

  • Survey Monkey hosted the 3 surveys
  • Pilot Each survey was developed by experts
    involved supporting students with disabilities
    and they were piloted with individuals from the
    target groups
  • Target group-all departments within TCD that have
    a professional practice component registered
    students with a disability
  • Ethics approved by the Faculty of Health Sciences
    Ethics Committee

Courses with Professional Practice
Business Studies a language
Clinical speech and language studies
Deaf Studies
Education (B.Ed, (B.Mus.Ed)
Social Work (B.Sc, M.Sc)
School of Dentistry (Dental Hygien (Dip), Dental Science, Dental Nursing, Dental Technologist, Pg Dip Clinical Dental Technology)
Human nutrition and dietetics
Nursing (Midwifery, Childrens, General, Psychiatric)
Occupational Therapy
Radiation Therapy
  • Section One Results from Staff

Staff Respondents
  • Practice Education Coordinator (n 8) 72.3
  • Head of Department (n3) 27.27
  • Practice Education Coordinators (n68)

Demographics Heads of Dept/Practice Education Co-ordinators (N11)
Category of role applies to you? (n11) Practice Education Coordinator (n 8) 72.3 Head of Department (n3) 27.27
Approx. years working as a practice education coordinator? Less than 2 years n0 2-5 years n4 33.33 6-10 years n3 25 11-15 years n1 8.33 16-20 years n1 8.33
Approx. how many students with disabilities are you aware of having placed or supported? 1-3 students n1 12.5 4-10 students n2 25 11-15 students n2 25 16-20 students n1 12.5 20-30 students n0 30-40 students n0 40-50 students n0 More than 50 students n2 25
Demographics Practice Education Coordinators (n68)
Category of role applies to you? (n61) Practice Educator/Preceptor n 18 32.73 Practice Tutor n20 36.36 Regional Placement Facilitator n5 9.09 Student Supervisor n18 32.73
Approx years working as a practice educator/student supervisor? (n67) Less than 2 years n9 13.43 2-5 years n21 31.34 6-10 years n28 41.79 11-15 years n6 8.96 16-20 years n3 4.48
Approx. how many students with disabilities are you aware of having supervised or supported through practice education? (n66) No students n20 30.30 1 student n10 15.15 2 students n8 12.12 3 students n12 18.18 5-10 students n13 19.70 11-15 students n2 3.03 16-20 students n1 1.52
Were you aware of the nature of the disabilities of the students you supervised in the workplace? (n40) Aspergers Syndrome n3 Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder n4 Blind/Visually Impaired n8 Deaf/Hard of Hearing n13 Dyspraxia n3 Mental Health Difficulties n25 Neurological Condition n7 Speech and Language Disability n2 Physical Disability n7 Significant On-going Illness n17 Specific Learning Difficulty n23 Other n4 (Narcolepsy, Musculoskeletal conditions)
Training received by PECs and PEs in supporting
students and staff with disabilities.
(No Transcript)
Theme 1
Reach the standard sub themes
  • 1. Ability to carry out day-to-day duties
  • They wont meet the standards required from
  • 2. Duty of care
  • The safety of the patient/client, e.g. when a
    student has dyslexia, hand writing can be
    difficult to read for the oncoming nurse and
    other healthcare professional colleagues.
  • 3. Time and level of input required
  • If a student requires more than the usual level
    of support on clinical, they may be unwilling to
    take (as many) students the following year.
  • I often have concerns about the impact on the
    placement providers service provision to
    clients if a student requires more support than
    is reasonable to expect them to provide.. This
    can have a negative impact on the placement
    providers willingness to take students on
    placement in the future)

Reach the standard sub themes
  • 4. Future as a professional
  • At the end of the day we need to meet the needs
    of the patients and if the disability prevents
    you from meeting the standard of care required by
    patients I don't think you should be in this job.
    This applies to people with serious mental health
    issues. the system needs to capture those who
    are not capable of delivering safe effective
    care, regardless of disability status.
  • 5. Fairness and assessment
  • In my area of work competency to a specific
    procedure is required therefore it is difficult
    to change the goal posts for safety reasons.
  • 6. Student awareness and well-being
  • I think the students insight into their own
    needs ability to address these is a significant
    issue for achieving competence. For some students
    this was not an issue, for others it was.

Appropriate level of support
Emergence of a health issue
  • Where things really begin to break down is
    usually when the disability is not disclosed and
    is then disclosed mid-placement. This usually
    means the student is struggling, there is no
    official information on disability and there is
    no information on reasonable accommodations.
  • When I am aware informally of condition but
    student is not comfortable disclosing to me.
  • The dyslexic students are is the ones
    with undeclared mental health issues where there
    is no LENS report that are very difficult.
  • There were some occasions when I would have
    suspected that a student I or another colleague
    supervised had a disability e.g. mental health
    condition, but as we cannot ask and college
    cannot inform us and the student was not obliged
    to tell us, we had to proceed with a difficult
    placement without any supports.
  • Unsure about to what extent I can talk to them
    about low mood etc. in my role as supervisor.

  • Section Two Results from Students

of student responses Numbers of students (n)
Year of Students (n60) Junior Freshman (1st Year) Senior Freshman (2nd Year) Junior Sophister (3rd Year) Senior Sophister (4th Year) Postgraduate 25.0 21.7 25.0 23.3 5 15 13 15 14 3
Professional Course Category (n61) Business/Education/Social Studies/SLT/Deaf Human Nutrition/Dentistry/Medicine Nursing and OT/PT/RT 29.5 24.6 45.9 18 15 28
Choice of placement setting (n50) Yes, choice No, no choice 28 72 14 36
of student responses Numbers of students (n)
Number of weeks of professional placement completed by students (n54) No placements completed to date 2-4 weeks 6-10 weeks More than 10 weeks More than 20 weeks More than 30 weeks 16.7 9.3 11.1 14.8 11.1 37.0 9 5 6 8 6 20
Number of professional placements completed by student participants (n41) One placement Two placements Three placements Four placements Five placements Six placements Seven placements Eight placements 26.8 2.4 19.5 17.1 2.4 4.9 0.0 26.8 11 1 8 7 1 2 0 11
Breakdown of disability type of student
respondents (n61)
(No Transcript)
Why I disclosed? The Benefits?
Benefits of Disclosure
  • Helps get appropriate support
  • Everything makes more sense to your supervisor
    if they know whats going on. They can't read
  • My practice educator took an interest into my
    disability and tried to develop my learning
    styles .... This was the first time I got to know
    my disability really.
  • Encourages awareness and understanding
  • The staff are more understanding to why I may
    appear very tired in the evenings on my long
  • My supervisor was aware of my needs and though I
    did not have to take any time off or adjust my
    caseload, knowing that the support was there for
    me took a lot of stress out of the placement.

Benefits of Disclosure
  • If something happens
  • Because if something happens they know how to
    deal with it
  • It is always important to let someone know if
    you have a disability for health reasons
  • It's a safe decision, if anything was to happen
    the tutor is aware of all medical conditions

Why I did not disclose?
Fear Judgement
  • Being judged
  • I didn't want to be judged on anything other
    than my ability to do the work.
  • I felt that I would be judged for it/ that it
    would be held against me when it came to
  • Singled out
  • It makes you singled out for extra attention for
    CPC and removes you from clinic setting.
  •  It would change the way tutors or other
    professionals interacted/taught me.
  • Mental Health difficulties
  • I would be afraid that they would use my mental
    health against me or down the future.
  • As it was a mental health setting I felt
    slightly awkward if I were to say I have one as

Negative Attitudes
  • Stigma
  • I would not recommend students with mental
    health difficulties disclose because of comments
    made by practice educators on my placement with
    regards to people with mental health problems
    (not about me personally).
  • One of my disabilities is mental health in
    nature which led to a shift in the behaviour of
    my supervisor which I felt very conscious of and
    uncomfortable with.

Negative Attitudes
  • Changing expectations
  • People undermined my ability and gave me a
    lighter caseload then what might otherwise have
    been given.
  • Making a bigger deal
  • I personally felt people were making a bigger
    deal out of my concerns then what they were which
    was a bit unsettling.
  • Powerlessness
  • Occasionally I didn't feel I had the power
    to.... or was brave enough to confront the
    problem..... most of the time my problem was
    ignored and was hard to explain, especially when
    words wouldn't be a strength of mine..... Most of
    the time I felt isolated while on placement as no
    one knew my disability and sometimes I felt I
    didn't know it....

  • Legal and Policy background

What does the law say what is our duty?
  • Equal Status Acts 2000-2011, the Employment
    Equality Acts 1998-2011 and the Disability Act
  • The Employment Acts is most relevant to those on
    professional courses and gives added protection
    to disabled students. Significant legislative
    provisions promoting equality prohibiting

  • Section 16(3) (a) for the purposes of the
    Employment Equality Acts, a person who has a
    disability is fully competent to undertake and
    fully capable of undertaking any duties if the
    person would be so fully competent and capable on
    reasonable accommodation being provided by the
    persons employer.

  • Section 16(3) (b) the employer shall take
    appropriate measures, where needed in a
    particular case, to enable a person who has a
  • (i) to have access to employment
  • (ii) to participate or advance in employment
  • (iii) to undergo training.
  • Unless the measures would impose a
    disproportionate burden on the employer

What does the law say what is our duty?
  • Reasonable Accommodation Provision needs include
  • Practical Measures
  • Constructive Dialogue individual must be party
    to the accommodation. Employers enquiry can only
    be adequate if employee can fully participate.

Reasonable Accommodation
  • The challenge over time in Colleges is to develop
    professionally defined workable reasonable
    accommodation that are appropriate for the
    workplace and easily managed by the disabled
    student on placements so that these can be taken
    in to the world of work by graduates.

Fitness to Practice
  • Fitness to practice has been defined as an
    individuals ability to practice their profession
    in a way which meets appropriate standards,
    meaning that a person has the skills, knowledge,
    attitudes, character and health to perform
    necessary functions safely and effectively
    (adapted from HPC, 2005).

Fitness to Practice
  • The College Fitness to Practise policy states
    that if a student has a disability, and there
    are concerns over fitness to practise, section 4
    of Schedule 1 shall apply, and the guidelines
    outlined therein should be followed prior to any
    fitness to practise hearing.

  • Section 4 of the College Policy refers to the
    need to provide reasonable accommodation to
    students with disabilities.

  • Recommendations and next steps

As a Result of these findings
  • Encourage Practice Educations Coordinators,
    Practice Educators to be more pro-active in
    supporting and planning for the needs of students
    with disabilities
  • To extend the needs assessment process to the
    workplace setting which will allow for the
    development of clearly defined and individually
    tailored practice place reasonable
  • Trialling of these practice place reasonable
    accommodations will require constructive
    dialogue and piloting for the development of
    online resources.

  • Promote the benefits of a supportive and
    inclusive environment that will encourage
    students to seek support (and disclose their
    disability) and plan for their needs in placement
    with both the coordinators and practice
  • Competencies, proficiencies and learning outcomes
    need to be clearly defined and ensure that they
    are accessible to students with disabilities.

  • Strategies need to be developed around disclosure
    and non-disclosure at any point during the
    placement. Perceived disability also requires
    attention and practice educators need to become
    confident in discussing issues with students.
  • Establish training resources (including
    programmes) on understanding reasonable
    accommodations, confidentiality, awareness of and
    sensitivity to disability issues such as
    disclosure and managing disability

  • Practice Educators to provide a job description
    for students to enable them to plan ahead of time
    for their needs.
  • The research findings and the literature suggest
    that students where possible should visit the
    placement setting ahead of the placement to learn
    about the placement and identify any potential
    concerns or issues.
  • Establish role models (i.e. professionals with
    disabilities) within the professional groups who
    could act as mentors for students.

  • Any Questions?
  • Thank you for listening!

  • Anderson, A. Wylie, N. (2011). Beyond the ADA
    How Clinics can assist law students to bridge the
    accommodation gap between the classroom and
    practice. Clinical Law Review, 15(1), 1-53.
  • Andre, K., Manson, S. (2004). Students with
    Disabilities Undertaking Clinical Education
  • Experience. Collegian, 11(4) 26-30.
  • Ashcroft, T.J., Lutfiyya, Z.M. (2013). Nursing
    Educators Perspectives of students with
  • disabilities A grounded theory study. Nurse
    Education Today.
  • http//
  • Association of Higher Education, Access, and
    Disability (2012). Survey on the Participation
    Rates of Students with Disabilities in Higher
    Education for the Academic Year 2011/2012.
  • Retrieved from http//
  • Barnes, C. (2007) Disability, Higher Education
    and Inclusive Society. British Journal of
  • Sociology and Education, 28, No.1 135-145.
  • Carpenter, C., Suto, M. (2008). Qualitative
    research for occupational and physical
    therapists A practical guide. Oxford Blackwell

  • Conway, Ann (2009). Widening participation in
    higher education and the resultant diversity of
    learners A review of government policies, the
    academy and market demands that may influence
    this trajectory. Paper submitted for term review
    as part of the EDD at the University of
    Sheffield. http//
  • CORU (2013). Framework for a Code of Professional
    Conduct and Ethics. Health and Social Care
    Professions Council.
  • Claiborne, L.B., Cornforth, S. Gibson, A.
    Smyth, A. (2011). Supporting Students with
    Impairments in Higher Education Social Inclusion
    or Cold Comfort? International Journal of
    Inclusive Education, 15(5), 513-527.
  • Cooley, B. and Salvaggio, R. (2002). Ditching the
    dis in Disability Supervising students who
    have a disability. Australia Social Work. Vol.
    55, No. 1
  • Disability Rights Commission. (2007). Evaluating
    the impact of the Disability Rights
  • Commission. September 2007. Report for the
    Disability Rights Commission.
  • Disability Service Trinity College Dublin
    Research Protocol.http//

  • Dooley, B., Fitzgerald, A. (2012). My World
    Survey. National Study of Youth Mental Health in
    Ireland. Headstrong University College Dublin.
  • Fitness to Practice in the Medical Profession
    A Report to Universities UK and the Council of
    Heads of Medical Schools by Eversheds Solicitors
    (July 2001)
  • Griffiths, L., Worth, P., Scullard, Z., Gilbert,
    D. (2010). Supporting Disabled Students in
  • Practice A Tripartite Approach. Nurse Education
    in Practice. 10, 132-137.
  • Health Professions Council (2005) A disabled
    persons guide to becoming a health professional.
    Consultation document London The Health
    Professions Council.
  • Hirneth, M., MacKenzie, L. (2004). The Practice
    Education of Occupational Therapy
  • Students with Disabilities Practice Educators
    Perspectives. British Journal of Occupational
    Therapy, 67 (9), 396-403.
  • Kielhofner, G., Fossey, E. (2006). The range of
    research. In G. Kielhofner (Ed). Research in
    occupational therapy Methods of inquiry for
    enhancing practice (pp. 20-35). Philadelphia
    F.A. Davis Company.

  • Morris, D.K., Turnbull, P.A. (2007). The
    Disclosure of Dyslexia in Clinical Practice
    Experiences of Student Nurses in the United
    Kingdom. Nurse Education Today. 27, 35-42.
  • Murphy, F. (2008). The Clinical Experiences of
    Dyslexic Health Care Students. Radiography. 15,
  • Murphy, F. (2011). On being Dyslexic Student
    Radiographers Perspectives. Radiography. 17,
  • Neergaard, M.A., Olesen, F., Andersen, R.S.
    Sondergaard, J. (2009) Qualitative description
    the poor cousin of Health research? BMC Medical
    Research Methodology, 952 doi10.1186147-2288-9-5
  • Nolan, C. (2011). The Development and Piloting
    of the Trinity Student Profile. A Self Report
    Measure for Students experiencing mental health
    problems. PhD Thesis. University of Dublin,
    Trinity College.
  • Rankin, E.R., Nayda, R., Cocks, S., Smith, M.
    (2010). Students with disabilities and Clinical
    placement Understanding the perspective of
    healthcare organisations. International Journal
    of Inclusive Education. 14(5), August, 533-542.

  • Saladana, J. (2011). The coding manual for
    qualitative researchers. London SAGE
  • Publications Ltd.
  • Stanley, N., Ridley, J., Harris, J. Manthorpe,
    J. (2011). Disclosing disability in the context
    of professional regulation A qualitative UK
    study. Disability and Society. 26(1), 19-32.
  • Stein, K.F. (2013). DSS and Accommodations in
    Higher Education Perceptions of Students
  • with Psychological Disabilities. Journal of
    Postsecondary Education and Disability, 26(2),
  • Stevenson, J., Clegg, S. and Lefever, R. (2010),
    The discourse of widening participation and its
    critics an institutional case study, London
    Review of Education, 8(2), p.105 115
  • Storr, H., Wray, J., Draper, P., (2011)
    Supporting disabled student nurses from
    registration to qualification A review of the
    United Kingdom literature. Nurse Education Today.
    31, e29 e33.

  • Tee, S. R., Owens, K., Plowright, S., Ramnath,
    P., Rourke, S., James, C. Bayliss, J. (2010).
    Being Reasonable Supporting disabled nursing
    students in practice. Nurse Education in
    Practice, 10, 216-221.
  • Tee, S.R., Cowen, M. (2012). Supporting
    students with disabilities Promoting
  • understanding amongst mentors in practice. Nurse
    Education In Practice, 12, 6-10.
  • Trinity College Dublin Fitness to Practice Policy
    (2009-11) http//

Useful Resources
  • Useful Resources
  • Association of Higher Education, Access, and
    Disability (2012). National Guidelines for
    Working with Nursing and Midwifery Students with
    a Disability or Specific Learning Difficulty in
    Clinical Practice.
  • Disability Service Trinity College Dublin (2013).
    Supporting Trinity College students with
    Disabilities into Employment.
  • Doyle, A. (2010). Clinical Placement Handbook for
    Students with Dyslexia. Trinity College Dublin.
  • Howlin, F. Halligan, P. (2011) Supporting
    Nursing and Midwifery Students in Clinical
  • Practice A Resource Guide for Clinical and
    Academic Staff. University College Dublin
  • Guide to Disclosure, AHEAD Press, 2011
  • Demystifying Disability in the Workplace, AHEAD
    Press 2009
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)