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Title: MnSCU and MDE Update MACTA Fall Conference Kavanaughs


1
MnSCU and MDE UpdateMACTA Fall
ConferenceKavanaughs
October 7, 2005
2
Participation Statistics
  • Career Technical Education
  • Learning in the Context
  • of Careers

3
Participation Statistics
Career and Technical Education is a significant
part of Minnesotas educational experience. But
just how significant is it? (FY 2004 data) See
how you do with the following.
4
Participation Statistics
  • Career and Technical Education is a significant
    part of Minnesotas educational experience.
    FY 2004 data suggest
  • students participated in secondary
    CTE courses (unduplicated count)
  • 76.7 of grade 10-12
  • students participated in
    postsecondary Perkins programs in the states
    technical and community colleges

5
Participation Statistics
  • Secondary CTE Participants by gender
  • Female
  • Male

6
Participation Statistics
  • Secondary CTE Participants by gender
  • Female
  • Male
  • Secondary CTE by race
  • American Indian
  • Asian
  • Black
  • Hispanic
  • White

State 10-12
1.8 5.7 7.3 3.1 82.1
1.9 5.2 6.8 3.2 82.9
7
Participation Statistics
  • FY 2004 data suggest
  • students in special populations
    participated in CTE courses
  • of CTE students
  • Federal Perkins Act defines special populations
    as
  • Students with disabilities
  • Students who are economically disadvantaged
  • Students with limited English proficiency
  • Students who are single parents or pregnant
  • Students who are displaced homemakers
  • Students who participate in programs not
    traditional for
  • their gender

8
Participation Statistics
  • Special Populations Served in CTE
  • (duplicated count)
  • Individuals with Disabilities (13.4)
  • Economically Disadvantaged (26.1)
  • Limited English Proficient (5.8)
  • Single Parent (0.4)
  • Nontraditional Enrollee (19.2)

21,473 41,853 9,320 627 30,807
9
  • Licensure Changes

10
Licensure Changes
  • No Child Left Behind
  • Requires states to adopt academic standards
  • Requires teachers of core academic subjects to be
    highly qualified by 2006
  • Exempts vocational teachers from the highly
    qualified requirements, but

11
Licensure Changes
  • All teachers of core academics must meet highly
    qualified teacher standards by the end of the
    2005-06 school year (with a small school
    exemption to 2006-07).

12
Licensure Changes
  • Core Academics (NCLB)
  • English
  • Reading/Language Arts
  • Mathematics
  • Science
  • Foreign Languages
  • Civics Government
  • Economics
  • Arts
  • History
  • Geography

13
Licensure Changes
  • A highly qualified teacher
  • Holds at least a Bachelors degree, and
  • Majored in subject area (or) holds an advanced
    degree in the subject area (or) has coursework
    equivalent to a major in the subject area, and
  • Is fully licensed
  • The 2004 Minnesota Legislature defined a Highly
    Qualified Teacher as one holding a valid license
    to perform the particular service for which the
    teacher is employed in a public school.

14
Licensure Changes
  • A teacher is deemed highly qualified to deliver
    core academic content if her/his license matches
    the assignment. For example
  • Academic Area
  • Economics
  • Licensure
  • Social Studies 5-8, or Social Studies 5-12, or
    Social Studies 7-12, or Social Studies 9-12, or
    Business Education 7-12 or Business Education 5-12

15
Licensure Changes
  • A currently practicing teacher may also
    individually meet the subject-competence
    provisions of the highly qualified standard
    through the HOUSSE process (High Objective
    Uniform State Standard of Evaluation).
  • Under HOUSSE a teacher may demonstrate subject
    competence with a sufficient score against
    designated criteria.

16
Licensure Changes
  • HOUSSE Criteria
  • Student achievement
  • Awards and recognition for leadership and service
    to the field
  • Teaching experience in the content area
  • Praxis II content test
  • Advanced credentials
  • College level course work
  • Professional activities

17
Licensure Changes
New guidance has recently been released
pertaining to Highly Qualified Teachers,
including relationships to teachers of Special
Education and Career Technical Education.
18
Licensure Changes
Special education (including transition-disabled)
teachers must meet Highly Qualified requirements
for each core academic subject taught. In cases
where special education teachers provide only
consultative services to other highly qualified
teachers, they are considered highly qualified
special education teachers if they are fully
licensed in special education and hold a
bachelors degree.
19
Licensure Changes
Career and technical education teachers are not
considered teaching core academics, so are not
obligated meet Highly Qualified requirements.
However, CTE teachers must meet Highly Qualified
requirements for each core academic subject
taught. Minnesota has allowed school districts to
determine where academic standards are delivered,
including through CTE courses, and as long as
those courses are reported as CTE courses no
licensure violation or Highly Qualified issue
occurs.
20
Licensure Changes
New guidance from the US Department of Education,
however, impacts this practice. A-41. Can a
State consider an applied mathematics or science
course that is team taught by a highly qualified
mathematics or science teacher and career and
technical education teacher to be taught by a
highly qualified teacher?
21
Licensure Changes
If the highly qualified teacher of mathematics
and science is collaborating with the career and
technical education teacher in the design of the
lessons, teaching the mathematics or science
concepts and grading the assignments and
assessments, the course can be considered as
taught by a highly qualified teacher. While the
career and technical education teacher may be in
a better position to set the context for the
application of a particular mathematics or
science context, either teacher may introduce the
concept. The concept must, however, be
thoroughly taught by the mathematics or science
teacher.
22
  • Anticipated Changes to Perkins

23
Perkins III Purpose
  • The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully
    the academic, vocational, and technical skills of
    secondary students and postsecondary students who
    elect to enroll in vocational and technical
    education programs, by--
  • (1) building on the efforts of States and
    localities to develop challenging academic
    standards
  • (2) promoting the development of services and
    activities that integrate academic, vocational,
    and technical instruction, and that link
    secondary and postsecondary education for
    participating vocational and technical education
    students
  • (3) increasing State and local flexibility in
    providing services and activities designed to
    develop, implement, and improve vocational and
    technical education, including tech-prep
    education and
  • (4) disseminating national research, and
    providing professional development and technical
    assistance, that will improve vocational and
    technical education programs, services, and
    activities.
  • - Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied
    Technology Education Amendments of 1998

24
Reauthorization/Appropriation
  • Perkins reauthorization efforts were moving well
    in Congress, but have been stalled by the debate
    over the Supreme Court appointments. Both the
    Senate and House passed their own versions of
    Perkins overwhelmingly (99-0, 416-9) with few
    significant differences. Congressional staff have
    met, and still hope that a single meeting this
    Fall will bring agreement to a conference report
    to take to the floors of each chamber.
  • Recent reports from ACTE and NASDCTEc suggest
    that Perkins will not be revisited soon.

25
Reauthorization/Appropriation
  • The administration recommended elimination of
    Perkins funding in its FY06 budget.
  • 6/24/05 the full House approved an
    appropriations bill that funded Perkins at FY05
    levels.
  • 7/14/05 the Senate Appropriations committee
    unanimously passed an FY06 appropriation for
    Perkins at 1.309 billion, slightly below FY05
    levels.
  • Concern is expressed that neither the House nor
    the Senate appropriates funds for Tech Prep
    demonstration grants nor Section 118 (career
    information). A Dear Colleague letter is
    circulating in the Senate, but as of Monday had
    received only 6 signatures.

26
Anticipated Perkins changes
  • State-developed model sequences of courses (or
    career pathways)
  • Locally negotiated levels of performance
  • Tech Prep activities continue, but possibly as
    part of the basic grant program
  • Sustained professional development rather than
    short-term workshops
  • Links to
  • NCLB
  • 4-year from 2-year postsecondary education
  • WorkForce Centers
  • State technical assistance
  • Sanctions

27
  • Perkins State Plan and Listening Sessions

28
Perkins State Plan Planning
  • It is anticipated that a great deal of public
    input will be required when Minnesota develops a
    new State Plan under a reauthorized Perkins Act.
    To begin the process of data collection for use
    in the development of a new State Plan, focus
    groups will be held regionally to gather input
    from key stakeholders prior to initial drafting
    of a State Plan. With this input, it is believed
    that a quality plan will be drafted that will be
    ready for the broader public comment likely to be
    required by the Office of Vocational and Adult
    Education.
  • We believe that the significant public input when
    the last State Plan was developed helped
    Minnesota to be one of only two states to receive
    unconditional approval on the first try.

29
Perkins State Plan Listening Sessions
  • The plan is to hold seven or eight regional focus
    group sessions to gather and organize input from
    individuals who have enough understanding of
    Perkins to be able to influence initial Plan
    development. Sessions will run for 2 to 3 hours
    and will involve an introductory presentation
    regarding anticipated changes in the Perkins Act
    followed by involvement from participants to
    gather input to key questions in critical plan
    areas
  • Accountability
  • Academic and Technical Proficiency
  • High School to College Transition
  • Career Clusters/Career Pathways
  • Characteristics and Attributes of a Statewide
    Structure for Perkins Basic and Tech Prep
  • Characteristics and Attributes of Local Program
    Planning

30
  • WIA Incentive Grants

31
WIA Incentive Grants
  • The US Departments of Education and Labor
    determined that 19 states, including Minnesota,
    qualify to receive Workforce Investment Act
    incentive grants based on their FY 2004
    performance. To qualify, a state exceeded its
    agreed-upon performance levels for WIA Title I,
    the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act
    (AEFLA), and the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and
    Technical Education Act (Perkins III). Minnesota
    will receive 852,449 under this award.

32
WIA Incentive Grants
  • This year Minnesota is focusing the WIA Incentive
    Grant award on a single issue with widespread
    implications strengthening foundational
    mathematics skills in Minnesotas new and
    incumbent workforce through the implementation of
    contextual, demand-driven foundational
    mathematics instruction and teacher training.

33
WIA Incentive Grants
  • Approximately 750,000 of the grant will be
    available for up to three projects to increase
    foundational math skills of individuals who are
    below high school level competency. Local
    Workforce Investment Boards must be the
    applicants for the grants. Each initiative should
    be a regional or inter-regional effort, and must
    include at least one partner from each of the
    following entities public school districts,
    public higher education institutions, employers,
    local Workforce Investment Boards, and Adult
    Basic Education providers. Additional partners
    may include industry associations, non-profits,
    apprenticeship programs, or other partners within
    the region.

34
WIA Incentive Grants
  • Proposals should focus on advancing the
    foundational math skills of individuals through
    contextual learning and use demand-driven
    contextual learning curriculum and/or teacher
    training to advance individuals math skills.
    Funding should be available to begin January 1,
    2006 and extend through June 30, 2007.
  • Planned activities utilizing incentive grant
    funds must be innovative and used only for
    activities that are otherwise authorized under
    the WIA title I, the AEFLA, and/or the Perkins
    Act as amended.

35
WIA Incentive Grants
  • Applicants should
  • submit a workplan with their proposal
  • identify the role of each key partner for the
    project
  • address worker pipeline issues within the local
    area
  • include data to support the proposal
  • use the project as a leveraging point for
    increasing the capacity of related projects
  • submit a budget using the attached budget
    document and a detailed budget narrative
  • include a plan for marketing the initiative to
    respective audiences and for disseminating the
    information as a best practice to other
    stakeholders and
  • be prepared to present findings/results to the
    GWDC.

36
  • National Governors Association Grant

37
NGA Grant
  • Minnesota is one of ten states to have been
    awarded funds under the Honor States Grant
    Program from the National Governors Association,
    with funding provided by the Bill and Melinda
    Gates Foundation.

38
NGA Grant
  • Each state will implement or enhance a K-16 data
    collection system and will align governance to
    improve coordination between K-12 and
    postsecondary education.
  • Each state will also implement a robust
    communications plan to inform the public about
    the need for better high schools.
  • Minnesota will receive 2 million over two years.

39
(No Transcript)
40
NGA Grant
  • There are many opportunities for career and
    technical educators to be involved in the NGA
    initiatives.
  • Collaborate to establish a new statewide
    teacher induction system for math, science,
    and career and technical education teachers.
  • Implement Workforce Development Council
    priorities to strengthen the academic rigor of
    career and technical education in high schools
    and industry certification programs.

41
NGA Grant
  • Increase the number of high schools that
    implement new courses in the STEM disciplines
    (science, technology, engineering, and math) and
    increase the number of students enrolling in and
    completing STEM high school courses and
    postsecondary training or degrees.
  • Increase the number and visibility of career and
    technical pathways leading to industry
    certification.

42
School Reformfrom thePerspectiveof Career
TechnicalEducation
43
School Reform from the Perspective of Career
Technical Education
  • Illinois toughens high school curriculum
  • Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich yesterday signed a
    bill that will require high school students to
    take an extra year each of English, math and
    science, as well as two writing-intensive
    courses. The changes will be phased in over the
    next four years.   Chicago Sun-Times (8/24)

44
School Reform from the Perspective of Career
Technical Education
State increases high school graduation
requirements August 24, 2005 BY JOHN O'CONNOR
ASSOCIATED PRESS SPRINGFIELD--High school
students will have to study more core subjects
under legislation Gov. Rod Blagojevich signed
Wednesday. The high school reform package
requires students to take four years of English
instead of three three years of math instead of
two two years of science instead of one and two
writing-intensive courses. "If you don't take
enough math classes or science classes or writing
intensive classes, you're not going to be
prepared to compete in college or the workplace--
no matter what your diploma says," Blagojevich
said in a prepared statement after signing the
bill at a suburban Chicago high school. Experts
say the changes give Illinois graduation
requirements that are about average compared with
other states, while previously Illinois had some
of the weaker standards in the nation.
45
School Reform from the Perspective of Career
Technical Education
Reaction?
Illinois toughens high school curriculum
The high school reform package requires students
to take four years of English instead of three
three years of math instead of two two years of
science instead of one and two writing-intensive
courses.
46
School Reform from the Perspective of Career
Technical Education
Governors Want To Build Competitive Schools July
16, 2005 ASSOCIATED PRESS DES MOINESVirginia
Governor Mark Warner said a high school diploma
is meaningless in seeking a well-paid job in
todays marketplace. To have students graduate
and not be qualified to go on to college or to
enter the workforce as a country, we are not
going to be able to compete, he said. A
National Governors Association survey of 12,000
American high school students found that fewer
than one in 10 view classes as very hard. More
than a third said high school was easy.
Thirty-two percent said they would work harder
if high school courses were more demanding and
interesting and 71 percent said taking courses
related to the kinds of jobs they were interested
in would make their senior year more meaningful.
Warner has launched a campaign aiming to
redesign the American high school by offering
more rigorous coursework and providing more
college and vocational classes.
47
NAVE
  • Congress mandated an evaluation of the federal
    support for vocational (career technical)
    education. After a lengthy delay, the National
    Assessment of Vocational Education (NAVE) report
    was finally released in June 2004.

http//www.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/sectech/nave/navef
inal.pdf
48
1. How does, or can, vocational education improve
the outcomes of secondary students who choose to
enroll in vocational and technical programs?
  • The short- and medium-term benefits of vocational
    education are most clear when it comes to its
    longstanding measure of success earnings.
  • Students in vocational programs of study have
    significantly increased their academic course
    taking and achievement over the last decade,
    although gaps remain.
  • There is little evidence that vocational courses
    contribute to improving academic outcomes.

49
1. How does, or can, vocational education improve
the outcomes of secondary students who choose to
enroll in vocational and technical programs?
  • Postsecondary transition rates have increased
    vocational courses neither hurt nor help most
    students chances of going on to college but are
    associated with a shift from earning a bachelors
    degree to earning an associates degree or
    certificate.
  • Improving teacher quality will be important if
    vocational education is expected to alter its
    mission.

50
April 26, 1983
A Nation At Risk
  • Our Nation is at risk. Our once unchallenged
    preeminence in commerce, industry, science, and
    technological innovation is being overtaken by
    competitors throughout the world. This report is
    concerned with only one of the many causes and
    dimensions of the problem, but it is the one that
    undergirds American prosperity, security, and
    civility. We report to the American people that
    while we can take justifiable pride in what our
    schools and colleges have historically
    accomplished and contributed to the United States
    and the well-being of its people, the educational
    foundations of our society are presently being
    eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that
    threatens our very future as a Nation and a
    people.

51
April 26, 1983
A Nation At Risk
  • What was unimaginable a generation ago has begun
    to occur--others are matching and surpassing our
    educational attainments. If an unfriendly foreign
    power had attempted to impose on America the
    mediocre educational performance that exists
    today, we might well have viewed it as an act of
    war. As it stands, we have allowed this to happen
    to ourselves. We have even squandered the gains
    in student achievement made in the wake of the
    Sputnik challenge. Moreover, we have dismantled
    essential support systems which helped make those
    gains possible. We have, in effect, been
    committing an act of unthinking, unilateral
    educational disarmament.

52
April 26, 1983
A Nation At Risk
  • And what was the result?
  • An increase in course requirements and a greater
    emphasis on core academics.

53
  • National Research Center on Career Technical
    Education

54
Reading Performance17 year olds
A Nation At Risk
NAEP Scores cited in Stringfield, Castellano,
Stone, 2001
55
Math Performance17 year olds
A Nation At Risk
56
Science Performance17 year olds
A Nation At Risk
57
Education in the 1980s and 1990s
  • There was also a general premise that the
    education system was serving two groups of
    students those who were college-bound and those
    who were work-bound.

58
NationallyWho are the workbound?
  • Of the 100 who enter 9th grade
  • 88 complete HS
  • Up to 95 plan college
  • 60 start college
  • 8 obtain two-year degree
  • 25 of these will complete a 4-year degree
  • The Cohort
  • 12 of Cohort are immediately work bound without
    a HS diploma
  • 35 of Cohort are now work bound with HS
    credential
  • 40 of Cohort are now work bound with some
    college
  • 13 of Cohort are now work bound with a 4-year
    college degree

59
MinnesotaWho are the workbound?
  • Of the 100 who enter 9th grade
  • 84 complete HS1
  • Up to 95 plan college2
  • 64 start college
  • ( 59 of these in 2-year)
  • 58 of these will complete a 2- or 4-year degree
  • The Cohort
  • 16 of Cohort are immediately work bound without
    a HS diploma
  • 46 of Cohort are now work bound with HS
    credential
  • 37 of Cohort are now work bound with a 2-year or
    4-year college degree

Sources Jay Greene and Marcus Winters, Public
High School Graduation and College Readiness
Rates 1991-2002 Committee for Economic
Development, Cracks in the Education Pipeline A
Business Leaders Guide to Higher Education Reform
60
Counseling College for all policy
  • 66 of students encouraged to go to college
  • (57 of those in lower academic half)
  • 31 leave college with NO credits
  • (52 of those in the lower academic half)
  • PS Remediation rates of 46 (4yr) - 64 (2yr)
  • After 10 years, 37 had obtained degree (14 of
    lower academic half)
  • 43 of graduates report underemployment two years
    later

61
Jobs Education The Mismatch
  • Current Population Survey (2000)
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics (2002)

62
Jobs, Education, and Wages
  • Jobs for less educated workers have increased
    faster than the population with those credentials
  • Jobs for more educated workers have increased
    more slowly than the population with those
    credentials
  • This has led to downward occupational mobility,
    e.g., college grads are taking high school jobs.

Pryor Schaffer, 1999
63
The Drive for a Baccalaureate
64
The Drive for a Baccalaureate
Bureau of Labor Statistics website, Aug 2002
65
Education Trends
  • There are now more students with 4-year degrees
    entering 2-year colleges than students with
    2-year degrees entering 4-year colleges.
  • - Willard Daggett

66
CTE and School Engagement
67
Post High School Trajectories CTE Concentrators
Postsecondary Enrollment of CTE Concentrators
56.3
68
Post High School Trajectories Dual
Concentrators
Postsecondary Enrollment of CTE Dual
Concentrators 78.7
69
Investment Inventory
  • In August 2004, the Governors Workforce
    Development Council released its Investment
    Inventory, a set of priorities and
    recommendations for the Governor around
    Employment and Economic Development.

70
Investment Inventory
  • While the Inventory did not make specific budget
    recommendations (leaving that to the Governor and
    his cabinet), it did point to trendlines and gave
    recommendations regarding the importance of
    strong working relationships among education,
    training, and labor force development providers.
  • The focus of the Investment Inventory was on
    Skill Development. For youth (14-21), this
    included basic academic core skills, job specific
    skills, and career exploration and mobility
    skills.
  • See http//www.gwdc.org/pubs/investmentadvisory.
    pdf

71
Governors Workforce Development Council
At-Risk Initiatives
Where and how can we affect public policy to
advance at-risk youth?
72
Governors Workforce Development Council
At-Risk Initiatives
  • The Workforce Investment Act defines At-Risk
    as
  • Between the ages of 14 and 21,
  • Low-income, and
  • Deficient in basic literacy skills
  • A school dropout
  • Homeless, a runaway, or a foster child
  • Pregnant or a parent
  • An offender, or
  • An individual who requires additional assistance
    to complete an educational program or to secure
    and hold employment.

73
Governors Workforce Development Council
At-Risk Initiatives
  • Education defines At-Risk using criteria of the
    Graduation Incentives legislation Under 21 and
  • Performs substantially below performance of
    peers,
  • Is at least one year behind in credits for
    graduation,
  • Is pregnant or a parent,
  • Has been assessed as chemically dependent,
  • Has been excluded or expelled,
  • Has been referred to a contract alternative
    program,
  • Is a victim of physical or sexual abuse,
  • Has experienced mental health problems,
  • Has been homeless within six months,
  • Has limited English fluency, or
  • Has withdrawn from school or is habitually
    truant.

74
Governors Workforce Development Council
At-Risk Initiatives
These factors all seem focused on sorting
individuals to limit expenditures of at-risk
funds. The question is, At-Risk for
What? Recent discussion by the Career
Advancement Committee of the Governors Workforce
Development Council suggests that the future
At-Risk student will include the student with a
high school diploma and no further education or
training.
75
The World Is Flat
In China today, Bill Gates is Britney Spears. In
America today, Britney Spears is Britney Spears
and that is our problem. Thomas Friedman
76
The World Is Flat
New York Times foreign affairs columnist Thomas
L. Friedman recently released his fourth book
destined to become a best-seller. In The World Is
Flat, Friedman notes ten forces that flattened
the world
11/9/89 8/9/95 Work Flow Software
Open-Sourcing Outsourcing
Offshoring Supply-Chaining Insourcing
In-forming The Steroids
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
77
The World Is Flat
11/9/89 The Berlin Wall Comes Down Suddenly all
of Russia and Eastern Europe entered the
competitive, free-market economy, competing for
the resources and jobs of the West.
78
The World Is Flat
8/9/95 Netscape Goes Public Browser technology
now suddenly makes information freely available
to the population. Add to that the election of
Indias first free enterprise government in 1996
and the opening of China at about the same time
and we now have billions of people clamoring to
use this freely-available information.
79
The World Is Flat
Outsourcing Y2K Huge concerns about the
potential collapse of computing systems at the
turn of the new century meant the U.S. needed new
sources of labor to complete the mundane tasks
associated with Y2K. India provided a ready
source of inexpensive, technically-savvy labor,
and was connected by fiber-optics.
80
The World Is Flat
In-forming Google, Yahoo!, MSN Web Search All
the worlds knowledge in every language all the
time, personalized.
81
Business and Workforce Development Leaders Say
We are in a Global War for Talent that schools
need to address in collaboration with
business. Mason Bishop, US Department of
Labor When hiring, we are seeking individuals
who are both world-class and inter-cultural.
Alex Cirillo, Vice President of Community
Affairs, 3M
82
Willard Daggett
International Center for Leadership in Education
  • Equity vs. Excellence
  • Employment Skill Demands
  • Reading in the Content Area
  • Guiding Principles
  • Rigor/Relevance Framework

83
No Child Left BehindSigned by President Bush,
January 8, 2002
84
Daggett
Equity vs. Excellence Educational excellence is a
bi-partisan issue. For many, educational equity
is in direct contrast to educational excellence.
The trick is to achieve excellence while
maintaining access for all learners.
85
Daggett
Employment Skill Demands Schools are not getting
worse the demands of the workplace are
increasing so fast that schools cant keep up.
86
Employment 1970s
  • High Skill
  • Low Skill

87
Employment 1990s
  • High Skill
  • Low Skill

Semi Skill
88
Employment 2010
  • High Skill
  • Low Skill

Semi Skill
89
Daggett
Reading in the Content Area Reading skill demands
have increased for all, especially those for whom
we have traditionally held low reading
expectations. Much more time must be spent at the
secondary level teaching reading in the content
areas.
90
Daggett
As Dr. Daggett would say Is reading
important? YES A little or a lot? A LOT And where
is reading best taught? IN THE CONTENT AREA
91
Lexile Framework
  • Semantic Difficulty
  • Syntactic Complexity

92
Lexile Literature
  • 1500 - On Ancient Medicine
  • 1400 - The Scarlet Letter
  • 1300 - Brown vs. Board of Education
  • 1200 - War and Peace
  • 1100 - Pride and Prejudice
  • 1000 - Black Beauty
  • 900 - Tom Swift in the Land of Wonders
  • 800 - The Adventures of Pinocchio
  • 700 - Bunnicula A Rabbit Tale of Mystery
  • 600 - A Baby Sister for Frances
  • 500 - The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth
  • 400 - Frog and Toad are Friends
  • 300 - Cliffords Manners

93
Lexile Texts
  • 1500 - The Making of Memory From Molecules to
    Mind Doubleday
  • 1400 - Philosophical Essays Hackett Publishing
  • 1300 - Psychology An Introduction Prentice Hall
  • 1200 - Business Prentice Hall
  • 1100 - America Pathways to Present Prentice
    Hall
  • 1000 - Writing and Grammar Gold Level Prentice
    Hall
  • 900 - World Cultures A Global Mosaic Prentice
    Hall
  • 800 - Word 97 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
  • 700 - World Explorer The U.S. Canada
    Prentice Hall
  • 600 - Science (Grade 4) Addison-Wesley
  • 500 - People and Places Silver Burdett Ginn
  • 400 - Imagine That! Scholastic Inc.
  • 300 - My World Harcourt Brace

94
Personal Use
  • Aetna Health Care Discount Form
  • Medical Insurance Benefit Package
  • Application for Student Loan
  • Federal Tax Form W-4
  • Installing Your Child Safety Seat
  • Microsoft Windows User Manual
  • G.M. Protection Plan
  • CD DVD Player Instructions

1360 1280 1270 1260 1170 1150 1150 1080
95
Newspapers
  • Reuters (1440)
  • NY Times (1380)
  • Washington Post (1350)
  • Wall Street Journal (1320)
  • Chicago Tribune (1310)
  • Associated Press (1310)
  • USA Today (1200)

96
16 Career ClustersDepartment of Education
97
Human Services
 
98
Reading Requirements Findings
  • Entry-level
  • Highest in 6/16
  • Second Highest in 7/16
  • Consistent Across Country

MANUALS
99
Construction
 
100
Manufacturing
 
101
Daggett
Guiding Principles It is not enough to teach the
content, we must also teach the use of the
content.
102
Guiding Principles
  • Responsibility
  • Contemplation
  • Initiative
  • Perseverance
  • Optimism
  • Courage
  • Respect
  • Compassion
  • Adaptability
  • Honesty
  • Trustworthiness
  • Loyalty

103
Daggett
Rigor/Relevance Framework The relationship
between Knowledge and Application.
104
Taxonomy
Knowledge
  • 1. Awareness
  • 2. Comprehension
  • 3. Application
  • 4. Analysis
  • 5. Synthesis
  • 6. Evaluation

105
Application Model
  • 1. Knowledge in one discipline
  • 2. Application within discipline
  • 3. Application across disciplines
  • 4. Application to real-world predictable
    situations
  • 5. Application to real-world unpredictable
    situations

106
Rigor/Relevance Framework
Knowledge
Application
1
2
3
4
5
107
Rigor/Relevance Framework
KNOWLEDGE
D
C
B
A
A P P L I C A T I O N
108
Rigor/Relevance Framework
6
  • Obtain historical data about local weather to
    predict the chance of snow, rain, or sun during
    year.
  • Test consumer products and illustrate the data
    graphically.
  • Plan a large school event and calculate resources
    (food, decorations, etc.) you need to organize
    and hold this event.
  • Make a scale drawing of the classroom on grid
    paper, each group using a different scale.
  • Analyze the graphs of the perimeters and areas of
    squares having different-length sides.
  • Determine the largest rectangular area for a
    fixed perimeter.
  • Identify coordinates for ordered pairs that
    satisfy an algebraic relation or function.
  • Determine and justify the similarity or
    congruence for two geometric shapes.

D
C
5
4
3
  • Calculate percentages of advertising in a
    newspaper.
  • Tour the school building and identify examples of
    parallel and perpendicular lines, planes, and
    angles.
  • Determine the median and mode of real data
    displayed in a histogram
  • Organize and display collected data, using
    appropriate tables, charts, or graphs.
  • Express probabilities as fractions, percents, or
    decimals.
  • Classify triangles according to angle size and/or
    length of sides.
  • Calculate volume of simple three- dimensional
    shapes.
  • Given the coordinates of a quadrilateral, plot
    the quadrilateral on a grid.

2
B
A
1
1
2
3
4
5
109
Rigor/Relevance Framework
6
  • Obtain historical data about local weather to
    predict the chance of snow, rain, or sun during
    year.
  • Test consumer products and illustrate the data
    graphically.
  • Plan a large school event and calculate resources
    (food, decorations, etc.) you need to organize
    and hold this event.
  • Make a scale drawing of the classroom on grid
    paper, each group using a different scale.
  • Analyze the graphs of the perimeters and areas of
    squares having different-length sides.
  • Determine the largest rectangular area for a
    fixed perimeter.
  • Identify coordinates for ordered pairs that
    satisfy an algebraic relation or function.
  • Determine and justify the similarity or
    congruence for two geometric shapes.

D
C
5
4
3
  • Calculate percentages of advertising in a
    newspaper.
  • Tour the school building and identify examples of
    parallel and perpendicular lines, planes, and
    angles.
  • Determine the median and mode of real data
    displayed in a histogram
  • Organize and display collected data, using
    appropriate tables, charts, or graphs.
  • Express probabilities as fractions, percents, or
    decimals.
  • Classify triangles according to angle size and/or
    length of sides.
  • Calculate volume of simple three- dimensional
    shapes.
  • Given the coordinates of a quadrilateral, plot
    the quadrilateral on a grid.

2
B
A
1
1
2
3
4
5
110
Tapping Americas Potential Warning Signs
Foreign competition China not only graduates
four times as many engineers as the United
States, but it also offers lucrative tax breaks
to attract companies to conduct research and
development (RD) in the country.
111
Tapping Americas Potential Warning Signs
Interest in engineering Out of the 1.1 million
high school seniors in the United States who took
a college entrance exam in 2002, just under 6
percent indicated plans to pursue a degree in
engineering nearly a 33 percent decrease in
interest from the previous decade.
112
Tapping Americas Potential Warning Signs
Student achievement On a recent international
assessment of 15-year-olds math problem-solving
skills, the United States had the smallest
percentage of top performers and the largest
percentage of low performers compared to the
other participating developed countries. This is
not surprising when nearly 70 percent of middle
school students are assigned to teachers who have
neither a major nor certification in mathematics.
113
Tapping Americas Potential Warning Signs
Investment in basic research In the United
States, since 1970, funding for basic research in
the physical sciences has declined by half (from
0.093 percent to 0.046 percent) as a percentage
of the gross domestic product (GDP).
114
Tapping Americas Potential Goal
Our goal is to double the number of science,
technology, engineering and mathematics graduates
with bachelors degrees by 2015.
115
Tapping Americas Potential
Recommendations Build public support for making
science, technology, engineering and math
improvement a national priority.
116
Tapping Americas Potential
Recommendations Motivate U.S. students and
adults to study and enter science, technology,
engineering and mathematics careers, with a
special effort geared to those in currently
underrepresented groups.
117
Tapping Americas Potential
Recommendations Upgrade K12 math and science
teaching to foster higher student achievement.
118
Tapping Americas Potential
Recommendations Reform visa and immigration
policies to enable the United States to attract
and retain the best and brightest science,
technology, math and engineering students from
around the world to study for advanced degrees
and stay to work in the United States.
119
Tapping Americas Potential
Recommendations Boost and sustain funding for
basic research, especially in the physical
sciences and engineering.
120
Willard Daggett
International Center for Leadership in Education
9 Characteristics of Effective Schools
121
Daggett 9 Characteristics of Effective Schools
  • Small Learning Communities
  • High Expectations
  • 9th Grade
  • 12th Grade
  • Data
  • Curriculum
  • Relationships/Reflective Thought
  • Professional Development
  • Leadership

122
Implications
  • So what does all this tell us?

123
Implications
  • The National Research Center on Career and
    Technical Education data show that expanding
    academic coursework has not had a significant
    impact on academic learning, and that
    participation in career technical education
    does not prevent students from pursuing higher
    education. In fact, for many students, CTE keeps
    kids engaged in learning.

124
Implications
  • Career Technical Education and similar
    contextual learning strategies have the
    potential to impact the learning of a large
    segment of our population more than ¾ of our
    high school students participate.

125
Implications
  • The Governors Workforce Development Council sees
    a need for a renewed emphasis on skill
    development, including academic skills, job
    specific skills, career exploration skills, and
    mobility skills.
  • This need was reflected in the Governors
    biennial budget request.

126
Implications
  • There is a need for all teachers to focus on
    academic skills that will have long-term impact
    on education and career success, but in a way
    that interests and motivates learners.
  • College is not the end, it is a means to an end.

127
Implications
  • An effective education program should integrate
    academic instruction with technical skill
    development, but instructors need to take time to
    help students understand both the academic
    concepts and the applications that are being used.

128
Implications
  • An effective career technical education program
    helps learners understand processes of work, but
    addresses those processes as a means to broad
    concept understanding and transferability of
    skills, not just simple procedures.

129
Implications
  • An effective career technical education program
    recognizes the value of learning in the community
    and uses community-based settings to expand
    learning beyond the walls of the school.

130
Implications
  • An effective career technical education program
    is responsive to the needs of the community while
    recognizing that students need to be prepared to
    succeed both at home and throughout the nation or
    world.

131
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