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ISPS

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Title: ISPS


1
ISPS
  • 1. Introduction

2
ISPS - Introduction
  1. Purpose and evaluation
  2. Course Overview
  3. Competencies to be achieved
  4. History
  5. Current security threats and patterns
  6. Ship and port operations and conditions

3
I. Introduction Purpose Evaluation
  • International Ship and Port Facility Security
    (ISPS) Code
  • SOLAS (adopted 12/Dec./2002)
  • Part A Part B
  • Purpose of ISPS-Code?

4
I. Introduction Purpose Evaluation
  • Build International Framework (Governments
    Shipping Port Industries)
  • detect security threats
  • preventive measures
  • Security incidents

5
I. Introduction Purpose Evaluation
  • Establish roles responsibilities
  • Governments
  • Ship port Industries
  • National international lvl
  • Ensure maritime security

6
I. Introduction Purpose Evaluation
  • Early efficient
  • Collection
  • Exchange
  • Security related information

7
I. Introduction Purpose Evaluation
  • Provide methodology for security assessments
  • Plans
  • Procedures
  • React to changing security lvls

8
I. Introduction Purpose Evaluation
  • Ensure confidence
  • Adequate
  • Proportionate
  • Security measures in place

9
I. Introduction Purpose Evaluation
  • Training objectives
  • To enable trainees to undertake the role and
    duties of SSO
  • To prepare trainees to understand Security and
    Risk Assessment
  • To prepare trainees to understand the threat to
    the industry

10
I. Introduction Purpose Evaluation
  • Training objectives
  • To prepare trainees to understand the ship
    security plan and conduct a SSA
  • To acquaint trainees with port security measures
  • To outline to trainees relevant legislations

11
ISPS - Introduction
  1. Purpose and evaluation
  2. Course Overview
  3. Competencies to be achieved
  4. History
  5. Current security threats and patterns
  6. Ship and port operations and conditions

12
II. Course Overview
  • Introduction
  • Competencies to be achieved
  • History
  • Current security threads and patterns
  • Ship and port operations and conditions
  • Maritime security policy
  • International conventions, codes and
    recommendations
  • Relevant government legislation and regulations
  • Definitions
  • Legal implications of action or non-action by SSO
  • Handling sensitive security-related information
    and communications

13
II. Course Overview
  • Security Responsibilities
  • Contracting governments
  • Recognised Security Organisations
  • The Company
  • The Ship
  • The port facility
  • SSO
  • CSO
  • PFSO
  • Vessel personnel with specific security duties
  • Facility personnel with specific security duties

14
II. Course Overview
  • Ship Security Assessment
  • Risk assessment methodology
  • Assessment tools
  • On-scene security surveys
  • Security assessment documentation
  • Security Equipment
  • Security equipment and systems
  • Operational limitations of security equipment and
    systems
  • Testing, calibrating and maintenance of security
    equipment and systems

15
II. Course Overview
  • Ship Security Plan
  • Purpose of SSP
  • Contents of SSP
  • Confidentiality issues
  • Implementation of SSP
  • Maintenance and modification of SSP
  • Threat identification, recognition and response
  • Recognition and detection of weapons, dangerous
    substances and devices
  • Methods of physical searches and non-intrusive
    inspections
  • Implementing and coordinating searches
  • Recognition, on a non-discriminatory basis, of
    persons posing potential security risks
  • Techniques used to circumvent security measures
  • Crowd management and control techniques

16
II. Course Overview
  • Ship security actions
  • Actions required by different security levels
  • Maintaining security of ship/port interface
  • Usage of Declaration of Security
  • Implementation of security procedures
  • Emergency preparedness, Drills and exercises
  • Contingency planning
  • Security drills and exercises
  • Assessment of security drills and exercises

17
II. Course Overview
  • Security administration
  • Documentation and records
  • Reporting security breaches
  • Monitoring and control
  • Security audits and inspections
  • Reporting nonconformities
  • Security training
  • Security requirements

18
ISPS - Introduction
  1. Purpose and evaluation
  2. Course Overview
  3. Competencies to be achieved
  4. History
  5. Current security threats and patterns
  6. Ship and port operations and conditions

19
III. Competencies to be achieved
  • No Fighting!
  • Identify
  • Deter
  • Mitigate (verlichten atténuer)
  • Planning
  • Preparation
  • coordination

20
III. Competencies to be achieved
  • security administration
  • relevant international conventions, codes and
    recommendations
  • relevant Government legislation and regulations
  • responsibilities and functions of other security
    organizations
  • methodology of ship security assessment
  • methods of ship security surveys and inspections
  • ship and port operations and conditions
  • ship and port facility security measures
  • emergency preparedness and response and
    contingency planning
  • instruction techniques for security training and
    education, including security measures and
    procedures
  • handling sensitive security related information
    and security related communications
  • knowledge of current security threats and
    patterns

21
III. Competencies to be achieved
  1. recognition and detection of weapons, dangerous
    substances and devices
  2. recognition, on a non discriminatory basis, of
    characteristics and behavioural patterns of
    persons who are likely to threaten security
  3. techniques used to circumvent security measures
  4. security equipment and systems and their
    operational limitations
  5. methods of conducting audits, inspection, control
    and monitoring
  6. methods of physical searches and non-intrusive
    inspections
  7. security drills and exercises, including drills
    and exercises with port facilities and
  8. assessment of security drills and exercises.
  9. the layout of the ship
  10. the ship security plan and related procedures
    (including scenario-based training on how to
    respond)

22
III. Competencies to be achieved
  • crowd management and control techniques
  • operations of security equipment and systems and
  • testing, calibration and whilst at sea
    maintenance of security equipment and systems.

23
ISPS - Introduction
  1. Purpose and evaluation
  2. Course Overview
  3. Competencies to be achieved
  4. History
  5. Current security threats and patterns
  6. Ship and port operations and conditions

24
IV. History
25
IV. History
  • Terrorismdefined here as the systematic use of
    murder, injury, and destruction, or the threat of
    such acts, aimed at achieving political ends is
    not new.

26
IV. History
  • Terrorism is not brutal, unthinking violence
  • Experts agree that there is almost always a
    strategy behind terrorist actions. Whether it
    takes the form of bombings, shootings,
    hijackings, or assassinations, terrorism is
    neither random, spontaneous, nor blind

it is a deliberate use of violence against
civilians for political or religious ends.
27
4 key-elements of terrorism
IV. History
  • It is premeditatedplanned in advance, rather
    than an impulsive act of rage.
  • It is politicalnot criminal, like the violence
    that groups such as the mafia use to get money,
    but designed to change the existing political
    order.
  • It is aimed at civiliansnot at military targets
    or combat-ready troops.
  • It is carried out by subnational groupsnot by
    the army of a country.

28
IV. History
  • 44 BC The murder on Julius Ceasar
  • 1st century AC The  Sicarii  (latin for
    dagger) used violance to oppose the Roman control
    of Judea
  • 11th Century - Afghanistan The Hashashins
    (etymology assassin) Members of an Islamite
    sect (Nizaris) had the duty to kill hostile
    leaders
  • 1773 The Boston tea party. Colonist, dressed as
    Indians, dumped tea in the port of Boston to
    protest against the British tax policy (beginning
    of the fighting between Britain the Colonies)
  • 1881 Tsar Alexander II is killed by the
    Narodnaja Volja (will of the people)

29
IV. History
Leon Czolgosz, anarchist, killed the American
president William McKinley. The year was .
1901
30
IV. History
  • 1914 WWI is triggered by the assassination of
    Franz-Ferdinand, archduke of Austria by a radical
    Serbian Nationalist
  • 1963 Klu-Klux-clan reacts violant to the civil
    right movement in Birmingham (Alabama)
  • 1972 Deadly Olympic games Munich (Members of a
    Palestinian Terrorist organisation kill 2 Israeli
    athletes and take 9 others hostage)

31
IV. History
  • 1983 Suicide attack by the Hezbollah on the
    American embassy in Beirut
  • 1995 Timoty McVeigh blows up the federal
    government building in Oklahoma City with
    ammonium-nitrate (fertiliser)
  • 1995 Apocalypse in the subway of Tokyo. The Aum
    Shinrikyo sect releases Sarin gas in the subway
    killing 12 people and making several thousand
    sick. They believed that the end of the world was
    nearby

32
History Full Of Terror
33
History goes on .
IV. History
34
IV. History
2004
35
IV. History
  • The 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings (also
    known as 11/3, 3/11, M-11 and 11-M) were a series
    of coordinated terrorist bombings against the
    commuter train system of madrid, Spain on the
    morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people
    and wounded 1,460.

36
IV. History
  • 2004 - Iraqi terrorist decapitate the
    South-Korean hostage when his country refuses to
    withdraw her troops from Iraq
  • 16/11/04 Iraqi terrorist murder the British-
    Irish -Iraqi charity worker Margaret Hassan

37
IV. History
2005
38
IV. History
2005
39
History goes on London 21/7/05
IV. History
  • On Thursday 7 July 2005 a series of four bomb
    attacks struck Londons public transport system
    during the morning rush hour. At 850 a.m. three
    bombs exploded within 50 seconds of each other on
    three London underground trains. A fourth bomb
    exploded on a bus at 947 a.m. in Tavistock
    Square. Fifty-six people were killed in the
    attacks, with 700 injured. The incident was the
    deadliest single act of terrorism in the U.K.
    since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103
    (which killed 270), and the deadliest bombing in
    London since the WWII.

40
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41
London 21/07/05
IV. History
42
Where will it stop.. ?
IV. History
  • Next animated film for children promotes suicide
    bombings
  • This film was aired on the Iranian television
    October 28, 2005
  • http//memritv.org/Search.asp?ACTS1
  • http//switch3.castup.net.nyud.net8090/cunet/gm.a
    sp?ClipMediaID87439aknull

43
IV. History
  • Definition Security
  • The quality or state of being secure
  • Being secure Free from fear or distrust
  • Translations
  • Dutch veiligheid(sgevoel)
  • French Sécurité (sentiment de -)

44
IV. History
  • Humans are thick-headed
  • International legislation only changes AFTER
    major catastrophes
  • Examples
  • TITANIC gt SOLAS (1914)
  • SEVERAL ACCIDENTS 76 77 gt MARPOL Protocol 1978
  • TEXACO CARIBBEAN gt TSS systems
  • ESTONIA gt ISM on board of Ro-Ros
  • EXXON VALDEZ gt OPA90 MARPOL 13FG
  • ERIKA gt Accelerated phasing out of single hull
    tankers
  • AND SO ON !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

45
The Achille Laurowas to Security As The
The Titanic was to Safety
IV. History
46
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47
IV. History
  • Security Breached
  • 1985
  • 7th October
  • Time 1330 hours
  • 4 Terrorists from Palestine Liberation Front
    (PLF) hijack the Achille Lauro

Achille Lauro
48
IV. History
  • In 1985, Palestinian militants (PLF) under the
    command of Abbu Abbas hijacked the Italian cruise
    ship Achille Lauro. Before the siege ended, an
    elderly wheelchair-bound American Jew, Leon
    Klinghoffer, had been murdered and dumped into
    the sea.
  • Abbas always claimed it was all a mistake, a
    military mission that went wrong. "There was no
    plan to hijack the ship or hurt the people
    aboard."

49
Victim US citizen Klinghoffer
IV. History
50
Abbas Quote
IV. History
This statement makes a bridge between political
goals violance
51
IV. History
Pre 11 September 2001
Passenger ship, cruise or ferry, seen as target
of attack or hijack Ships were also seen as an
instrument to
  • Ships used to carry equipment or personnel
  • Ship used in trade to help finance terrorist
    activities (piracy)

52
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53
IV. History
Post 11 Septembre 2001
Ship itself seen as possible weapon, or as
possibly arriving in port carrying a weapon of
mass destruction capable of destroying the port
and any adjacent population centre
54
IV. History
  • The new threat
  • The use of an aircraft / ship as a weapon of mass
    destruction.
  • Suicide Attack
  • Use of Chemical, Biological, Dirty Bomb or
    Nuclear weapons
  • Environmental Terrorism
  • Cyber Terror
  • State Sponsored Terrorism

55
IV. History
  • LNG-Terminal Boston
  • Scenario by Mr. Fay, mechanical engineer
  • Loaded 900 ft LNG carrier alongside
  • Terrorist attack by means of a small boat (35ft)
    loaded with 2 tons ammonium-nitrate, exploding
    against the hull (à la Limburg)
  • In contact with the warm water the LNG would
    vaporize gt explosive mixture
  • An explosion would wipe out 9 square mile of the
    city of Boston
  • Scenario is heavily criticised

56
IV. History
1983 Assembly Resolution A.545 (13) Measures to
prevent acts of piracy and armed robbery against
ships
1985 Achille Lauro
1985 2001 Individual Initiatives by USA,
Canada, IMO UK
WTC 11 september 2001
ISPS code and SOLAS Amendments 2002
57
AMENDMENTS TO SOLASChapter V and Chapter
XINow XI-I and XI-2
IV. History
58
ISPS CODE AND SOLAS AMENDMENTS 2002
IV. History
  • CHAPTER V
  • Accelerated implementation of AIS
  • CHAPTER XI - 1
  • Ships Identification Number
  • Continuous Synopsis Record
  • CHAPTER XI - 2
  • International Ship and Port Facility Security
    (ISPS) Code
  • Part A - Mandatory
  • Part B - Recommendatory

59
ISPS - Introduction
  1. Purpose and evaluation
  2. Course Overview
  3. Competencies to be achieved
  4. History
  5. Current security threats and patterns
  6. Ship and port operations and conditions

60
V. Current security threats and patterns
  • 2006 Terrorist attacks
  • 2006 Qassam rockets fired by Hamas into
    Israel, especially the cities of Ashkelon and
    Sderot, injures "many" citizens.
  • Suicide attacks in Iraq in 2006.
  • February 22 Al Askari Mosque bombing ignites
    sectarian strife in Iraq.
  • March 2 Bombing in Karachi, Pakistan kills
    four, including a U.S. diplomat. 35
  • March 3 Mohammed Reza Taheri-azar, an
    Iranian-born graduate of the University of North
    Carolina at Chapel Hill, drives an SUV onto a
    crowded part of campus, injuring nine.
  • March 7 Bombings in the Hindu holy city of
    Varanasi, India kill 28 and injures more than
    100.
  • March 30 Palestinian suicide bomber kills
    himself and four others at Kedumim Junction in
    the West Bank 3637
  • April 11 A suicide bomber explodes himself in
    Karachi, Pakistan, and kills 57 Sunni
    worshippers. 38
  • April 17 Sami Hammad, a Palestinian suicide
    bomber, detonates an explosive device in Tel
    Aviv, Israel, killing eleven people and injuring
    70.
  • April 24 Bombings at three locations in Dahab,
    Egypt kill 20 Egyptians, 3 foreigners, and injure
    62 others.
  • May 11 Six policemen die and 12 are injured
    when five bombs go off in a police academy in
    Quetta, Pakistan 39
  • June 15  The LTTE detonate a claymore mine by
    a bus carrying 140 civilians in Sri Lanka. 68
    civilians, including 10 children and 3 pregnant
    women, are killed. Approximately 60 civilians are
    injured.
  • The 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings
  • June 25 Eliyahu Asheri, an Israeli citizen,
    was kidnapped and murdered by the Palestinian
    terrorist group, the Popular Resistance
    Committees (PRC).
  • July 9 40 Sunni civilians are massacred by
    Shia militants in Baghdad, Iraq.
  • July 11 A series of explosions rock commuter
    trains in Mumbai, India, killing at least 200.
    Approximately 700 civilians are injured.

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorist_attacks
61
V. Current security threats and patterns
  • July 14 Suicide bomber in Karachi, Pakistan
    kills a Shiite Islamic cleric Allama Hasan Turabi
    and his nephew.
  • July 17 Explosions and gunmen kill 48 people
    in a market in Mahmoudiya, Iraq. 40
  • July 18 Car bombing near a Shiite shrine in
    Kufa, Iraq kills 53 and injures 103. 41
  • July 31 Two suitcase bombs are discovered in
    trains near the German towns of Dortmund and
    Koblenz, undetonated due to an assembly error.
    Video footage from Cologne train station, where
    the bombs were put on the trains, led to the
    arrest of two Lebanese students in Germany,
    Youssef al-Hajdib and Jihad Hamad, and
    subsequently of three suspected co-conspirators
    in Lebanon16 . On 1 September 2006, Jörg
    Ziercke, head of the Bundeskriminalamt (Federal
    Police), reports that the suspects saw the
    controversial Muhammad cartoons as an "assault by
    the West on Islam" and the "initial spark" for
    the attack, originally planned to coincide with
    the 2006 Football World Cup in Germany.1718
  • August 4 A suicide car bomber struck a market
    in Kandahar, Afghanistan killing 21 people.
  • August 10 A major anti-terrorist operation
    disrupts an alleged bomb plot targeting multiple
    airplanes bound for the United States flying
    through Heathrow Airport, near London, UK.
  • August 13 Two grenades explode on a trolleybus
    in Tiraspol, Moldova, killing two people and
    injuring ten. 42
  • August 16 A bomb exploded in a Hindu temple
    near Imphal, India, killing three and injuring
    more than 30. 43
  • August 20 Gunmen spray bullets on Shiites in
    Baghdad, killing 20 people and wounding more than
    300. 44
  • September 8 At least 2 bomb blasts target a
    Muslim cemetery in the western town of Malegaon.
    The blasts kill 37 people and leave 125 others
    wounded.
  • September 12 Four attackers armed with
    grenades and machine guns attempt to storm the
    U.S. embassy in Damascus, Syria. Three of the
    gunmen and one Syrian guard are killed during a
    battle between the attackers and Syrian security
    forces. One Syrian employee of the embassy and at
    least 10 bystanders are wounded, among them, 7
    Syrian telephone company workers and a senior
    Chinese diplomat. Police recover a car laden with
    explosives and other IEDs. Syrian Ambassador to
    the United States Imad Moustapha announces that
    his government suspects a group called Jund
    al-Sham is responsible. 19
  • September 15 Four suicide bombers and a
    security guard are killed in early-morning
    attacks on the Safer refinery in Marib and the
    al-Dhabba terminal in Hadramout, Yemen. Although
    no group has claimed responsibility Islamic
    extremists are suspected. See the September 15th
    Yemen attacks page.

62
V. Current security threats and patterns
  • September 16 2006 Hat Yai bombings 4 people
    killed, 82 injured, by six bombs along the main
    commercial street of Hat Yai. The devices were
    placed approximately 500 meters apart, and were
    remotely set off every five minutes.45
  • September 18 11 people, including the presidents
    brother and 6 attackers, are killed in an
    assassination attempt on the Somalian president.
    46 See 2006 Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed assassination
    attempt.
  • September 30 A suicide bomber detonates his
    explosives outside the interior ministry in
    Kabul. The attack kills 12 and wounds over 40.
  • October 16 A truck bomb targets a military bus
    convoy travelling in Northern Sri Lanka. The
    attack leaves 99, mainly sailors, dead and over
    100 wounded. The Tamil Tigers are blamed.48
  • November 1 The Real IRA detonates a series of
    firebombs in a large hardware retailers and a
    sports store in Belfast, both buildings are
    completely destroyed. No fatalities.

63
V. Current security threats and patterns
http//www.icc-ccs.org/
64
V. Current security threats and patterns
http//www.icc-ccs.org/
65
V. Current security threats and patterns
http//www.icc-ccs.org/
66
V. Current security threats and patterns
  • Recently reported incidents
  • 25.10.2006 at 0515 LT at Dar es Salaam anchorage,
    Tanzania. Robbers boarded a chemical tanker via
    anchor chain. They stole ship's stores and
    escaped. Masters attempt to contact port control
    was futile.
  • 18.10.2006 at 1400 LT  off Ticala, San Pablo,
    Samboanga del Sur, southern Mindanoa,
    Philippines. Armed pirates attacked a group of
    fishing vessels engaged in  fishing. Four
    fishermen were killed in the shootout.  
  • 13.10.2006 at 0400 LT in posn 1028.7N -
    06408.5W, Navimca, Cumana, Venezuela. Robbers
    boarded a yacht at anchor and stole two outboard
    engines

http//www.icc-ccs.org/
67
V. Current security threats and patterns
  • http//www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/10/27/oil.thre
    at.ap/index.html
  • http//www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/11/10/terror/m
    ain2170878.shtml

68
ISPS - Introduction
  1. Purpose and evaluation
  2. Course Overview
  3. Competencies to be achieved
  4. History
  5. Current security threats and patterns
  6. Ship and port operations and conditions

69
VI. Ship and port operations and conditions
http//people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3
en/intertranspchain.html
70
VI. Ship and port operations and conditions
http//www.d2d.no/d2d/
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