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Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic Drinks


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Title: Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic Drinks

Lesson 9Non-alcoholic Drinks
  • The refreshing, thirst quenching, nutritional
    heart warming beverages enjoyed by people of all
    ages, cultures and class.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
Lesson Overview
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Juices
  • 9.3 Freshly squeezed fruit juices
  • 9.4 Soft drinks and carbonated beverages
  • 9.5 Draught soft drinks systems
  • 9.6 Famous soft drinks
  • 9.7 Waters
  • 9.8 Tea
  • 9.9 Coffee
  • 9.10 Hot chocolate
  • Conclusion / Summary
  • References

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks Aims and
Learning Outcomes of the Lesson
  • On completion of this lesson the learner will be
  • expected to be able to
  • Explain the nutritional benefits of juice and
    vegetable drinks.
  • Identify the background, classification,
    production methods and packaging systems for
    juices, soft drinks and water beverages.
  • Describe the production methods, service methods
    and styles for tea, coffee and hot chocolate

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.1 Introduction
  • Juices, soft drinks and waters because of their
    diversity of flavours are the worlds most
    popular drinks originally consumed as health and
    well being beverages they have crossed over to
    become the number one social beverage globally.
  • These refreshing thirst quenching beverages have
    changed so much in recent years we have witnessed
    the introduction of low calorie soft drinks,
    fruit juice and mineral water mixtures and
    unusual new flavours to meet consumer demands.
  • The worldwide soft drinks market consumes some
    392 billion liters and is growing by 5 per year.
    The United States remains the largest consumer
    with over 23 of sales in volume despite the
    market's maturity, followed by Latin America.
    China is enjoying the most spectacular growth
    with an annual increase of over 15 (Datamonitor,
    Canadean, 2012).
  • The first half of this lesson focuses on the
    origins, historical background, raw materials,
    production, nutritional benefits, varieties,
    packaging, filling and service systems and the
    regulations governing the production of these
    beverages. We will also highlight some product
    awareness and sales opportunities which these
    drinks create for your bar.
  • In the second half of this lesson we focus on hot
    drinks, learning to personalise your fresh tea,
    coffee and hot chocolate offerings can bring new
    customers and increased business.
  • This area of your business is crucial because
    customers are fascinated with these beverages and
    they will always purchase well made, good tasting
    tea, coffee and hot chocolate at any time of the
  • Consider also for one moment how many times have
    you enjoyed a beautiful meal in a restaurant or
    bar which was followed by a poor tasting tea or
    coffee it is so crucial that you deliver high
    quality well prepared tea and coffee.
  • Tea and coffee have very good digestive action,
    they induce an increase in gastric juices,
    favouring digestion.
  • Their caffeine content can also provoke a mild
    state of exhilaration increasing the speed of
    reflexes and powers of concentration.

Lesson 10 Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters
Nutritious juice and vegetable drinks
  • Fruit juices are available in various forms and
    in various qualities. Legislation regarding the
    term fruit juice can vary from country to
  • The consumption of juices carries so many
    nutritional benefits (i.e. 5 portions of fruit
    and vegetable a day helps reduce heart disease)
    Listed below are some of the best ingredients,
    which can be used to create nutritious drinks in
    bars to boost immunity systems and promote good
  • Juices and vegetable drinks Juices, whether
    fruit or vegetable, they offer one of the most
    effective ways of keeping your immune system
    fighting fit all year round. Each juice provides
    a slightly different blend of all those essential
  • Fresh Fruit and Vegetables options
  • Apple 160ml glass, 61 kcal provides fiber that
    helps remove cholesterol they contain the
    antibacterial vitamin C.
  • Beetroot contains vitamin E which helps the
    heart function, promotes healthy blood by
    providing oxygen in the blood they also contain
    artery-protective vitamin E.
  • Blueberries Stops bacteria sticking to the
    urinary tract, preventing cystitis (as do
    cranberries), they contain compounds which
    improve circulation and combat varicose veins, an
    effective traditional remedy for diarrhea.
  • Carrot 160ml kcal contains high levels of
    potassium, significant amounts of magnesium and
    some calcium, which makes it one of the most
    beneficial juices you can drink because, apart
    from iron, these are the three minerals women
    most likely to be deficient in because of poor
    diets. Its an excellent source of beta-carotene
    (essential for healthy skin) and other
    carotenoids that the body turns into vitamin A.
  • Cranberry 160ml glass, 78 kcal, antibacterial
    fruit is high in vitamin C, preventing urinary
    tract infections suffered by more than 60pc of
    women at some point in their lives. It prevents
    the E.coli bacterium, which causes the
    infections, from sticking to the wall of the
    bladder or the urethra.
  • Celery Juice the alkaline content in a vegetable
    such as celery balances the acidity in your
    troubled stomach. Add celery juice to your
    favorite juicy drink. Acts as an excellent gentle
    natural and cleansing diuretic that relieves
    uncomfortable fluid retention.

Lesson 10 Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters
Juices (continued)
Nutritious juice and vegetable drinks
  • Green and sprout vegetables juices, broccoli,
    asparagus and many herbs contain the vitamin B
    complex, which is good for helping to recover.
    Gods gift to hangovers is vitamin B1 (thiamine).
    Broccoli is high in antioxidant vitamins, rich in
    iron, which prevents anemia, and are a good
    source of calcium for protecting against
  • Grapefruit 160ml, 53 kcal provides 120pc of the
    amount of vitamins C that those aged between 19
    and 50 need a day. Also a good source of
    beta-carotene, a powerful antioxidant that, if
    taken in adequate amounts can lower the risk of
    certain cancers.
  • Ginger Ale good for calming an upset stomach,
    contains gingerois, which have stomach-calming
    effects and can quell nausea, also works as a
    natural anti-inflammatory, helps improve
    circulation and helps to speed up the elimination
    of waste products.
  • Mango 160ml, 62kcal another good source of A, C
    and E, which work as a powerful unit to fight
    disease. One small glass also provides one-sixth
    of the daily iron requirements. Mango provides
    beta-carotene for healthy lungs (good for
  • Orange 160ml glass, 75 kcal provides more than
    150pc of the vitamin C, also a good source of
    thiamine (produces energy) and folate (promotes
    healthy blood).
  • Olives or Olive Oil Contains high levels of
    monounsaturated fat, which will improve the ratio
    of good HDL cholesterol, which removes
    cholesterol from the circulation and protects
    against heart disease.
  • Onion protects the heart by reducing blood
    pressure and bad cholesterol, freshly cut onion
    may also help prevent asthma, it also contains
    flavanoids which may protect against cancer.
  • Pineapple 160ml, 66 kcal Pineapple juice is a
    great source of vitamin C, also contains the
    health-enhancing enzyme, bromelain (an enzyme
    that breaks down blood clots). This is thought to
    aid digestion, reduce sinusitis and heal minor
    injuries, particularly sprains, muscle injuries
    and pain.
  • Potatoes Sweet high in vitamin E which boosts
    fertility, very rich in cancer fighting carotenes
    and vitamins C and E, high in iron which helps
    fight off infections.
  • Red, Black Grape 160ml, 74 kcal Contain the
    artery-protective vitamin E and heart protective
    antioxidants, grape juice also contains
    resveratrol, which has been reported to have
    anti-cancer activity in test tube and animal
  • Strawberries Referred to as the Viagra for girls
    because they are rich in zinc, they boost
    testosterone levels.
  • Tomato 160ml glass, 58 kcal good source of
    vitamins A and C, both of which help mop up
    potentially harmful free radicals that can cause
    cancer, heart diseases and even wrinkles. Also a
    great source of lycopene, a skin-friendly
    nutrient. In Europe, researchers have found that
    a high intake of this extremely powerful
    antioxidant can lower the risk of heart disease
    by as much as 48pc.
  • Yoghurt friendly bacteria in live yoghurt
    protect against thrush and gastro-enteritis. Also
    helps to counter the bacteria that cause food
    poisoning infections and ulcers.

Lesson 10 Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters
9.3 Freshly squeezed fruit juices
  • Freshly squeezed fruit juices
  • The range available differs from bar to bar
    depending very often on the availability of the
    appropriate fruit and of the price in each
  • Freshly squeezed juices may be consumed as such
    or they can be incorporated into cocktails for
    example Strawberry Daiquiris, Peach and Mango
    Martinis or Bellinis.
  • The taste of freshly squeezed fruit juices can
    vary depending on the season.
  • The extended juice should be always strained
    through a coarse strainer to exclude pith and
    seeds, but a little fine pulp gives authenticity.
  • Citrus fruit juices
  • The most popular freshly squeezed fruit juices
    for bar use are citrus fruit juices, such as
    lemon, orange, grapefruit and lime.
  • Citrus fruits are usually pressed or squeezed
    either by using a hand juice extractor or an
    electric version, when using either method ensure
    that the fruit has been washed, and that it is
    fresh and sound.
  • You can obtain more juice from citrus fruit that
    is at room temperature or has been slightly
    warmed, than from fruit that has just been
    removed from a refrigerator.
  • Citrus fruit juices (especially lemon juice) have
    the uncanny ability to accentuate the flavours of
    other fruits.
  • Storage and shelf life
  • If the freshly squeezed fruit juices are prepared
    in advance, the juices should be stored under
    refrigeration until required.
  • They are best stored in a glass jug, which is
    lightly covered but not sealed. If they have been
    stored for some time they should be discreetly
    tasted before use.

Lesson 10 Juices, Soft Drinks and Waters
9.3 Freshly squeezed fruit juices
Prepared fruit Juices, Fruit Mixes, Legislation
on Fruit Juices
  • Prepared fruit juices
  • Most citrus juices can be purchased prepared in
    bottles, cans, plastic or waxed cardboard
    containers, with each country having a good range
    of brands available.
  • Non-citrus juices such as pineapple, tomato,
    apple, pear and grape juice are available in this
    style of packaging.
  • These juices are also available are pre-mixed
    blends of fruit juices, often sold as tropical
    blends for example passion fruit, mango and
    pawpaw blended together.
  • Prepared fruit mixes
  • Sweet and sour A sweet-sour mix of fresh lemon
    juice and sugar can be made ahead of service
    time. Sweet-sour mixes can also be bought
    bottled, as frozen concentrate, or in powered
    form. Some have a foaming agent (called frothee)
    that stimulates egg white. Choosing your sweet
    and sour bar mixes involves a little bit of trial
    and error to find the quality that best suits
    your bar.
  • Other mixes, customizing Bloody Mary, Daiquiri,
    Margarita, Mat Tai, Pina Colada mixes, the
    alcohol is just added, the frozen concentrates
    are usually the best. You can also customize
    these mixes by adding your own lemon,
    horseradish, olive juice spicy salsa to the
    Bloody Mary mix.
  • EU definition of the raw materials used in fruit
  • Fruit juices are covered under the European
    Communities (Marketing of Fruit Juices and
    Certain Similar Products) Regulations 2003).
  • Fruit all fruits, for the purposes of this
    Directive, tomatoes are not regarded as fruit.
  • Fruit puree the fermentable but unfermented
    product obtained by sieving the edible part of
    whole or peeled fruit without removing the juice.
  • Concentrated fruit puree the product obtained
    from fruit puree by the physical removal of a
    specific proportion of its water content.
  • Sugars for the production of (a) fruit nectar
    sugars as defined by Council Directive
    2001/111/EC of December 2001 relating to certain
    sugars intended for human consumption (1)
    fructose syrup sugars derived from fruits (b)
    fruit juice from concentrate sugars as defined
    by Directive 2001/111/EC fructose syrup (c)
    Fruit juices the sugars listed in (b) containing
    less than 2 water.
  • Honey the product defined by Council Directive
    2001/110/EC of December 2001 relating to honey
  • Pulp or Cells the products obtained from the
    edible parts of fruit of the same kind without
    removing the juice.
  • USA legislation
  • In the USA fruit juice can only legally be used
    to describe a product which is 100 fruit juice.
  • A blend of fruit juice(s) with other ingredients,
    such as high-fructose corn syrup, is called a
    juice cocktail or juice drink(FDA, 2012).
  • The term "nectar" is generally accepted in the
    U.S. and in international trade for a diluted
    juice to denote a beverage that contains fruit
    juice or puree, water, and which may contain
    artificial sweeteners (FDA, 2012).

Lesson 9 Non-Alcoholic Drinks 9.4 Soft
Drinks and Carbonated Beverages
Historical Background,
Manufacture Process
  • Historical Background of Soft Drinks and
    Carbonated Beverages
  • The first soft-drinks enjoyed centuries ago, were
    simply the effervescent waters from certain
    natural springs.
  • First recorded mention Moguls, at the end of
    the 13th century.
  • Lemon juice and scurvy Lemon juice was
    discovered as a good antidote to scurvy, (this is
    brought on by a lack of vitamin C in the diet).
  • Spread of soft drinks in Europe growing
    availability of sugar from the new plantations in
    the West Indies a fashion arose for lemon juice
    sugared and flavoured with water. 17th century
    French government created the Compagnie de
    Lemonadiers allowing these tradesmen to gain a
    monopoly eventually these tradesmen set up shops
    and were popularly known as Lemonadiers.
  • Carbonation is discovered (1790s) Jacob Schweppe
    and Nicholas Paul developed the manufacture of
    their carbonated waters in London (1799) A.R
    Thwaites and Company of Dublin develop single and
    double strength soda water (1886) in Atlanta,
    Georgia Dr. John Styth Pemberton formulated
    syrup, which went on sale at Jacobs Pharmacy for
    5 cents a glass, originally promoted as an
    Intellectual Beverage and Health Drink known
    today as Coca Cola .
  • Early carbonated beverages were sold in bottles
    sealed with porcelain stoppers which, when pushed
    in, released the carbon dioxide with a loud pop.
    Thus in the 1890s era of gleaming marble soda
    fountains the expression soda pop was born.
  • Soft Drinks Manufacture Process
  • The Raw Materials Fruit juices (processed in
    factories near the harvesting areas and shipped
    to the ordering countries), Flavours
  • (extracted from natural oils and extracts), Sugar
    (refined beet sugar is delivered from sugar
    factories), Water (treated and filtered),
  • Carbon dioxide (delivered in bulk road tankers
    under high pressure), acids, colours and
  • Production Further information (chapter 9 pp.
    268-269, plus figure 9.2 basic diagram of soft
    drinks plant).

Lesson 9 Non-Alcoholic Drinks 9.5 Draught
soft drinks systems
  • These systems are used to dispense draught soft
    drinks. The advantages include no bottles, cases,
    no loading onto shelves, no long back door
    deliveries, no deposits on bottles, no broken
    bottles and better ecology control.
  • 1 typical 18 litre tank is equal to 3,834 fluid
    ounces of finished product, this is equal to 588
    split size bottles, every soft drink is served
    chilled and the service speed at peek times is
  • Post mix dispensing system, Cobra gun Usually
    located at each dispense station of the bar,
    consists of a head with a nozzle,
  • pushbuttons and a flexible metal hose (flexihose)
    that deliver the syrup mixes with carbonated
    water in a 51 ratio, at the touch of the
  • buttons you now have different flavours, soda and
    plain filtered water as you require.
  • Pre-mix System These systems offer the complete
    draught soft drink ready made, the complete
    carbonated beverage is supplied in
  • bulk containers that have already been mixed at
    the manufacturing plant. Premix systems are not
    common now.
  • Electronic Automatic Dispensing Systems These
    systems are not only used for soft drinks they
    also dispense beer, wines, juices,
  • cocktails, and spirits mixed with soft drinks at
    the touch of a bottom, they pour preset amounts
    and count each drink dispensed. Some
  • systems are electronically linked or interfaced
    with a computerized cash registers. Automatic
    liquor dispensing systems or soft drinks
  • systems are expensive and not everybody
    (bartenders, customers) reacts favorably to them,
    customers do not like the spirits are
  • being poured and pre-mixed away from the service
    area, although it must be pointed out that these
    systems do provide excellent
  • financial control for your business.
    Wunderbar (post mix dispensing system) soda

Lesson 9 Non-Alcoholic Drinks
9.6 Famous soft drinks
  • Coca Cola 1886 John Pemberton (pharmacist,
    Atlanta), adopted French doctor, Angelo Mariani
    idea of using coca leaves, started selling
    Pembertons French wine coca in Jacobs pharmacy
    as medical aid. 1888 (Asa G. Candler bought
    company, 4 years later Coca Cola sold in every
    state, memorabilia ideas begin. 1904 (caffeine
    added to replace the cocaine) for safety. 1919 E.
    Woodruff (Atlanta took over. 1930s Coca Cola
    invent modern day Santa Claus (dress code to
    match company colours), 1982 (Coca Cola launch
    Diet Coke 1st brand extension. 2010 Diet Coke
    sold 927 million cases.
  • Pepsi 1989 first made in North Carolina by Caleb
    Bradham (sold it from his drug store called it
    Brads drink), marketed as a disgestive drink
    (contained pectin). 1901 renamed Pepsi Cola.
  • 7-up 1929 originally used as a hangover cure for
    hospital and home use titled Bib label Lithanted
    Lemon Lime Soda. 1930 7-up joined 600 lemon and
    lime drinks in the marketplace. 1986 taken over
    by Pepsi Cola Company.
  • Other international favourites Club Brands.
    National favourites (class discussion).

Lesson 9 Non-Alcoholic Drinks
9.7 Waters
  • Water acts as a transport system and an
    information waterway for nutrients to travel down
    the body, water
  • messages are sent across your body, 60 of your
    body is water and it has a role in almost every
    metabolic process
  • which occurs in your body.
  • Bottled Water
  • Interest in bottled in brand bottled water
    started in the 1970s when the Europeans
    (especially the French and Italians) advertised
    heavily around the world and made it socially
    acceptable to order different types of bottled
    water in restaurants, bars and hotels.
  • The 1980s and 1990s also brought an increase
    interest in health and fitness and the water
    bottle became the necessary accessory.
  • Today, there are many bottled water brands
    available the additional market appeal of purity
    stills appeals to the health concerns of
  • Currently the strongest growth in the water
    market is the convenience or single-serving size
    for fitting in a sports bag, lunchbox or
  • Bottles water is a great profit potential at the
    bar it is seen as a healthy alternative to soft
  • Service of Bottled Water in Bars
  • Most bars serve two kinds of bottled water, still
    and sparkling.
  • You can offer liter-sized bottles for groups or
    serving sized bottles for individuals.
  • They should be kept in the refrigerator and
    served chilled, in the opened bottle with an
    empty glass.
  • A wedge of lime or lemon may be added if the
    customer wishes, but never add ice unless the
    customer requests it.
  • Most customers are annoyed if they purchase an
    expensive glass of mineral water and then have
    diluted with the local tap water of your ice
  • Always use a stemmed glass for bottled water to
    distinguish it.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.7 Waters
(continued) Bottled Water -
Legislation - European Union EU and Food and Drug
Administration FDA)
  • All water supplies that are used for human
    consumption must meet certain standards, which
    have been laid down by the EU or the FDA for
    Europe and the USA, every country will
    traditionally have local laws which also govern
    waters used for consumption. They have to be free
    from microorganisms, parasites and from any
    substances that may be a danger to public health
    if they are found in sufficient numbers or
  • European Union, EU Water Regulations
    Categories of bottled waters are defined in the
    Natural Mineral
  • Water, Spring Water and Bottled Drinking Water
    Regulations 1999. Only products which meet the
  • within these regulations may use one of these
  • bottled water A general description for bottled
    water is a a closed container of any kind in
    which water is sold for human consumption or from
    which water sold for human consumption is
    derived. Specific definitions apply to Natural
    Mineral Water and Spring Water under these
  • mineral water Mineral water is water that
    emerges from under the ground and then flows over
    rocks before it is collected. As a result of
    this, mineral water has a higher content of
    various minerals, which are picked up as it flows
    over rock. Unlike spring water, natural mineral
    water cannot be treated except to remove grit and
    dirt. Different brands of spring and mineral
    waters will contain different amounts of
    minerals, depending on where they have been
  • Food and Drug administration, FDA Water
    Regulations The U.S. Food and Drug
    Administration (FDA)
  • classifies water in the USA it regulates bottled
    water as a food under the FDC Act and is
    responsible for
  • ensuring that bottled water is safe and
    truthfully labeled. Specific FDA regulations for
    water (chapter 9- Table 9.1).

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.7 Waters (continued)
  • Main types of bottled water
  • Natural mineral water (NMW) is a statutory name
    for a specific type of water. A NMW must be
    officially recognized through a local authority
    after a qualifying period of two years, during
    which time it is repeatedly analysed. It must
    also be registered with the Food Standards
    Agency. It must come from a specified ground
    water source, which is protected from all kinds
    of pollution. The water may be treated in any way
    to alter its original chemical and
    microbiological composition. In addition NMWs
    must provide certain information on their labels
    such as the typical mineral analysis.
  • Spring water (SW) is a statutory name for water,
    which comes from a single non-polluted ground
    water source. Unlike NMW there is no formal
    recognition process required although it must
    still be registered with the local authority.
    Many NMWs begin their lives as Spring Waters
    trading as such during the two-year testing
    period. Unlike NMWs, Spring Waters may undergo
    permitted treatments but like NMWs must meet
    microbiological criteria. All Spring Waters must
    comply with the Drinking Water Regulations.
  • Table water (TW) may come from more than one
    source and may include the public water supply.
    Treatment is permitted which results in the water
    achieving the compositional/microbiological
    requirements of the regulations. Some companies
    may also add mineral salts to their waters to
    replace those minerals lost during treatments or
    to enhance those, which already exist.
  • Water with alcohol
  • For centuries water has been actively used as a
    mixer, which has been used to dilute the strength
    of spirits without altering the character of
    their basic flavour.
  • Certain spirits for example whiskey or vodka
    lovers claim that water actually enhances rather
    than mutes the aromatic permutes the aromatic
    personalities of there favored spirit.
  • Water softens the olfactory impact of the alcohol
    while allowing the complexities of grain, rye,
    peat, wheat or wood to announce themselves.
  • Natural Mineral Water (Health SPAS)
  • The terminology connected with Natural Mineral
    waters is complex and varies from country to
    country all we can do is to read the label
  • True mineral water contains many health giving
    properties that are usually removed from the
    domestic water supplies because they make the
    water hard.
  • Health SPA towns or areas are used drinking and
    for bathing. There is good evidence to
    substantiate some of these traditional ideas and
    practices as being healthy. Chapter 9 -
    pp. 276-277 famous natural mineral waters.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9. 7 Waters
The Business Potential and Growth of
Bottled Water Sales
  • Bottled water continues to grow the reasons
    behind the growth in popularity of
  • bottled water can be put down to a number of
  • many people state they prefer the taste
  • many believe that because of environmental
    pollution, bottled water is a safer choice for
    drinking than their own household supply
  • an increasingly health conscious consumer
  • many females concerned with counting calories
    will avoid the sugary soft drinks
  • the continental influence of bottled water
  • the availability of menus with different service
    sizes and types
  • the problem with some businesses is the
    availability, variety and quality of the bottled
    waters, which they offer for sale.
  • Growth potential, a simple exercise to carry out
    in your bar is offered under
  • chapter 9 - Table 9.2 to develop growth.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.8 Tea
  • Chinas discovery discovered 4,000 by accident,
    a pleasant drink was created by infusing the
    leaves of Camellia sinensis, or the Chinese tea
    plant Camellia assamica, in hot water, these
    leaves helped flavour the flat taste of the water
    they boiled to prevent getting sick. It was not
    until the 8th century that outsiders discovered
  • European Influence 17th century, the British
    spread its use by implementing new growing areas
    such as India. In fact, the English so enjoy
    their tea that they developed a meal around it
    called high tea. Tea was originally drunk for
    its medicinal benefits and it was not until the
    sixteenth century that it began to be consumed on
    a more regular basis as a social beverage.
  • The Boston Tea Party and Americas Influence
    Tea' taxation in US led to the Boston Tea Party,
    one of the issues that triggered the War of
    Independence. Americans further influenced tea
    use both by inventing tea bags and by starting
    the practice of drinking iced tea at the St.
    Louis Worlds Fair in 1904.
  • The Modern Tea Market produced now more than 25
    countries, main tea producing countries are
    China, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, India,
    Indonesia and Sri Lanka. The worldwide interest
    in tea in growing, it is regarded as a healthy
    beverage which also aids relaxation and
    stimulates the central nervous system.
    Speciality tea shops are popping up in every city
    and teas now have their own page on the
    after-dinner menus in most restaurants.
  • Tea tree is evergreen yields tea leaves after
    about 3 years of growth. It then may yield for 25
    to 50 years depending on growing conditions. The
    leaves are hand-plucked from new shoots and about
    6000 leaves are needed to make 1lb of
    manufactured tea. Depending on plant cultivar,
    climate, soil, and cultivation practices, there
    are about 1500 slightly different kinds of tea
    leaves, these can be further modified in
    processing and contribute to differences in the
    final brew.
  • Tea Leaves contain three important kinds of
    constituents that affect brew quality, caffeine,
    which tea its stimulating effect, tannins and
    related compounds, which contribute colour and
    strength, often associated with the term of body
    and astringency, and essential oils, which
    provide flavour and aroma.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.8 Tea Types of Tea
Methods of Processing
  • The three major classes of teas, green, black and
    oolong. These three types can be made from the
  • tea leaves, depending on how the leaf is
    processed. The following is a more detailed
    breakdown of the main
  • types of tea and their methods of processing
  • White tea this is the least processed, the best
    white teas come from leaves picked before the
    buds have opened, while they are still covered
    with silky white hairs. White teas are delicate,
    with sweet, gentle, grassy aromas and fruity
  • Green tea slightly more processed than white
    tea, it is dried, or fired, as soon as it is
    picked in order to minimize oxidation (which
    increases caffeine levels), to retain freshness
    and to preserve high levels of polyphenols,
    powerful antioxidants that boost the immune
    system and help to reduce the risk of heart
    disease and certain forms of cancer, as the name
    implies, green teas have a grassy, vegetal
  • Oolong teas the most varied and most
    interesting, after the leaves are picked, they
    are gently rolled so that they slowly oxidize,
    which darkens them and adds layers of complexity,
    Oolongs can range from the lovely aromas of lilac
    and orange blossom and sweet flavours to dark,
    nutty aromas and full flavours.
  • Black tea known as red tea in China, this is the
    most recognizable tea, its colour is a result of
    complete oxidation, which gives it a more robust
    flavour, typically consumed without
  • Darjeeling a black tea from northern India, can
    be quite ordinary or remarkably complex,
    depending on where it is grown and when it is
  • Pu-erh tea comes from the province of Yunnan in
    southern China, the tea is usually inoculated
    with a bacteria and aged, sometimes as long as 50
    years. Can cost upward of 1,000 per pound,
    earthy, slightly smoky, strong and tannic (or
  • Infused teas teas infused with botanicals,
    fruits and other flavours, everything from mango
    and raspberry to Moroccan mint.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.8 Tea
Brewing, Storing and Purchasing
  • Brewing tea
  • This involves getting the amount of tea, the
    water temperature and the steeping time just
  • Light, airy tea such as white tea requires two
    heaping teaspoons for an 8-once cup.
  • Stronger, more densely packed black teas, use a
    level teaspoon.
  • White and many green teas should be brewed well
    below the boiling point, 160 to180 degrees
    Fahrenheit. The stronger and darker the tea, the
    closer to the boiling point the water should be.
  • Lighter teas steep longer (3 to 5 minutes) than
    black teas (2 to 3 minutes). Lighter teas may
    also keep their flavour through multiple
  • Black teas lose their flavour and much of their
    caffeine after one or two steepings, although the
    taste of Pu-erh can last for several servings.
  • Brewing other teas
  • Indian or Ceylon Blend usually made in either
    china or metal teapots. Both are offered with
    milk or sugar.
  • Russian or Lemon tea Made similar to china tea
    served in heat resistant glasses which stand in a
    silver holder, with a slice of lemon.
  • Ices tea made strong, sometimes strained and
    always chilled. Served in a tumbler glass on a
    side plate with a teaspoon and lemon slice.
  • Speciality Teas
  • Assam rich full and malty flavoured tea,
    suitable for breakfast, served with milk.
  • Darjeeling the Champagne of teas, delicate tea
    with a light grape flavour, served in the
    afternoon or evening with lemon or milk.
  • Earl Grey blend of Darjeeling and China tea,
    flavoured with oil of Bergamot. Served with lemon
    or milk.
  • Jasmine green (un-oxidised) tea, which is dried
    with Jasmine Blossom and produces a tea with a
    fragrant and scented flavour.
  • Kenya consistent and refreshing tea, served with
  • Lapsang Souchong a smoky, pungent and perfumed
    tea, delicate to the palate, which may be said to
    be an acquired taste. Served with lemon.
  • Sri Lanka pale golden tea, good flavour. The
    Ceylon blend is still used as a trade name.
    Served with lemon or milk.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.9 Coffee
  • Coffee cultivation began in the area of Caffa in
    Abyssinia around 1000 years ago. From there it
    spread through Arabia, Turkey
  • and other Islamic countries. It was brought into
    Europe by trading companies and a few centuries
    later it was transported across
  • the oceans into the newly discovered world.
  • The Coffee Bean
  • Growing and harvesting The coffee tree is an
    evergreen plant which can grow to a height of 12
    metres in the case of the 'Robust'
  • variety and 5-6 metres in the case of the
    Arabica'variety. However in order to make crops
    easier to harvest it is normal in plantations
  • to restrict the height to 3-5 metres. Coffee
    plants start yielding crops around 3-5 years
    after being planted and can go on giving good
  • beans for around 15 years. Harvesting is carried
    out by means of automatic pickers consisting of
    vibrating rods which detach the
  • beans from the trees as they move along the rows
    of plants.
  • Quality and production Coffee qualities are
    largely dependant on the country of production
    which are many and widespread.
  • Some of the major ones are Brazil, Guatemala,
    Costa Rica, Venezuela, Mexico, Puerto Rico,
    Jamaica, Arabia, Kenya, Tanzania and
  • Abyssinia. Coffee Arabica and Coffee Camephora -
    also known as Robusta.
  • The Arabica bean is generally considered to be
    the best, The less valued seed of the Robust
    variety gives a lighter, thinner drink,
  • which is said to have a rather wooden taste.
  • Processing methods The coffee beans, which are
    gathered whilst still green undergo various
    processes such as (stripping
  • (removing the parchment and pulp from the beans),
    fermentation or maceration (24 to 40 hours),
    washing, maturing (in the sun),

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.9 Coffee (continued)
Roasting Levels of
Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.9 Coffee (continued)
Methods of Preparing Coffee
Further information Chapter 9 pp. 283-287)
  • Filter method Finely ground coffee is placed in
    a filter, usually made of paper, boiling water is
    poured over it passing through the coffee by
    gravity. The grinding grade for this method is
    fine to medium.
  • Percolation method Boiling water, pushed by
    steam percolates continuously through the ground
    coffee which is situated in a metallic filter in
    the upper half of the coffee pot. The grinding
    grade for this method is medium.
  • Moka or Italian method Comprised of three
    pieces, the lower section or boiler, this
    incorporates a safety valve that also serves as a
    water gauge. A funnel shaped filter which
    contains the ground coffee and the upper section
    which contains the prepared beverage. As the
    water heats in the lower section the steam
    produced generates pressure which pushes the
    water upward through the funnel to the coffee and
    extraction takes place under light pressure, the
    resultant beverage carries on up the internal
    tube into the upper chamber. The water is in
    contact with the ground coffee for around 30
    seconds and the extraction is between 20 and
    25. The grinding grade for this method is
  • Cona or vacuum infusion method Similar to the
    percolator method. The Cona can be heated with
    gas, electricity or spirit lamp. The grinding
    grade for this method is medium fine to fine.
  • Cafetiere method A toughened glass container,
    housed in a metal holder with a handle and with a
    metal lid with a plunger fitted through it and
    with a metal filter fitted to the plunger. The
    grinding grade for this method is medium to
    medium fine.
  • Turkish or Greek coffee The water is boiled in
    a tin lined copper pot, the very finely ground
    coffee is poured without interruption to the
    boiling process into the water. Coffee produced
    by this method is very strong and very full
    flavoured. The grinding grade for this method is
  • Neapolitan coffee machine method Consists of
    two parts, the bottom is filled with water,
    coarsely ground coffee is put between two central
    filters and the upper part is screwed down onto
    the lower part. The machine is now placed on the
    heat and when the water starts to boil the
    machine is turned upside down. The water will
    dribble through the ground coffee into what is
    now the lower part, this is fitted with a spout
    inverted when it was the top half. Grinding grade
    for this method is medium to coarse.
  • Espresso coffee machine method extraction
    method which results in a highly concentrated,
    intensely aromatic and flavourful coffee. This
    method requires highly pressurised water at a
    temperature of 90C. - 95C. Contact between the
    water and the coffee varies from between 25 to 35
    seconds. The volume of beverage per cup is around
    20cc to 35cc. This method requires that the
    beverage is prepared (individually) on demand.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
9.9 Coffee
Espresso, Types of Coffee, Coffee Tasting
Selecting House Brands
  • Characteristics of Espresso coffee
  • Body The quality of espresso coffee is due to
    the presence of tiny drops of oil and very fine
    particles of ground coffee which are extracted by
    the water. In addition the extracted substances
    are very much greater than in other methods,
    around 25 compared to 17 for filter coffees.
  • Cream or Foam The 'cream' which floats on the
    top of the espresso coffee is fairly dense and is
    formed by the dispersion of oils contained in the
    beverage together with minute bubbles of air.
  • Aroma The aroma is created by ultra light
    volatile substances which are diffused in the air
    and are detected by the bodies olfactory organs.
    Espresso is a kind of invigorating elixir with
    superb digestive properties, best suited for
    drinking after eating.
  • Types of Coffee
  • Americano (Caffe Americano) sometimes referred
    to as a black coffee (preparation chapter 9
    p. 292).
  • Cappucchino espresso with warm milk
    (preparation chapter 9 p. 292).
  • Latte Coffee white coffee (preparation Chapter
    9 pp. 292-293).
  • CafĂ© Macchiato layered coffee (preparation
    Chapter 9 p. 293).
  • Flavoured Macchiatos Macchiato made with
    flavoured syrup - Hazelnut, caramel, mint,
    chocolate, (preparation chapter 9 pp. 293-294).
  • Coffee tasting sessions, selecting your house
  • Holding tasting sessions before selecting the
    house style.
  • Coffee companies can assist you in this selection
    based on your clientele and market.
  • Coffee culture, coffee appreciation consider
    holding some coffee training sessions for
  • Sparkling water served on the side of coffee,
    when sipped before coffee, water allows the
    palate to cancel out or tone down the gustative
    sensations which may alter or undermine the full
    appreciation of coffees gustative-aromatic

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks 9.10
Hot chocolate
  • Considered a comfort food and consumed in many
    parts of the world.
  • Hot chocolate (also known as hot cocoa) is a
    heated beverage typically consisting of shaved
    chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder,
    heated milk or water and sugar (Grivetti
    Shapiro, 2009).
  • Drinking chocolate simliar to hot chocolate but
    is made from melted chocolate shavings or paste
    rather than a powdered mix that is soluble in
    water, not as sweet as hot chocolate.
  • The major difference Between hot cocoa and hot
    chocolate is the cocoa butter, the absence of
    which makes hot cocoa significantly lower in fat
    than hot chocolate while still preserving all the
    antioxidants found in chocolate (Science News,
  • Hot chocolate preparation and service made with
    dark, semisweet or bittersweet chocolate chopped
    into small pieces stirred into milk with
  • sugar. In USA instant hot cacao powder often
    includes powered milk or other dairy ingredients.
    In UK hot chocolate is a sweet chocolate drink
  • with hot milk or water and chocolate powder.
    Cocoa (drink made with just hot milk and cocoa
    powder, sweetened to taste).
  • Preparing hot chocolate using powder 12oz cup
    add 28 grams of powder chocolate, add 15ml
    boiling water and whisk (or fold) to a smooth
  • paste, exposing the cocoa oils fully (dont be
    aggressive). Add freshly steamed milk at 70c.
    Adapt the flavour and strength (as appropriate)
    but dont
  • skimp on the measures.
  • Characteristics of a good hot chocolate drink
    the colour is dark (chocolate coloured) taste is
    of good strong cocoa product (correct quantity of
  • chocolate was used). The mix is perfect, with no
    residue of solids in suspension, temperature is
    correct, final presentation technique includes a
  • bisquit and maybe some latte art.
  • Belgium warme chocolade or chocolat chaud (you
    receive cup of steamed white milk and a small
    bowl of bittersweet chocolate chips to dissolve
  • the milk. Rich hot chocolate is often served in
    demitasse cups.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
Conclusion / Summary
  • Juices, soft drinks and waters offer us
    refreshment, they quench our thirst, their
    richness of taste and varieties of flavours have
    contributed to the reasons why these beverages
    are universally enjoyed by people of all ages,
    irrespective of age, gender or class.
  • In recent years bars around the world have
    noticed an increasing frequency amongst their
    clientele in opting for beverages other than
    beer, wine and spirits. This change in
    consumption presents a huge opportunity for bars
    to capitalize if they can rigorously overhaul
    their current juice, soft drinks and water
    offerings in relation to their overall business
    and re-position these beverages to their best
    advantage individually, within cocktails or
    throughout the meal experience.
  • It is time to reclaim the some of the business
    lost to locations like juice bars and cafes who
    have been very quick to target these beverages
    with great levels of business success.
  • The major brands will continue to introduce new
    flavours, product extensions and an emphasis on
    healthy and natural origins to maintain their
    market share. The challenge for bars is to work
    closely with these companies in continuing to
    meet our customers changing demands and tastes.
  • The special flavours of Tea, Coffee and Chocolate
    depends primarily on the variety, method, and
    location where the beans or tea were grown, as
    well as how they were harvested, processed.
  • The production of good quality coffee also
    depends on the roasting levels adopted which can
    range from light or pale (ideal for mild beans to
    retain their delicate aroma) to full (creates a
    slightly bitter flavour favoured in Latin
    countries). The methods used to prepare coffee
    will deliver different characteristics depending
    on the following extraction methods (filter,
    percolation, Moka or Italian, Cona or Vacuum
    infusion, cafetiere, Turkish or Greek, Neapolitan
    and Espresso).
  • The three major classes of teas are green, black
    and oolong. These three types can be made from
    the same tea leaves, depending on how the leaf is
  • For the health conscious tea and coffee deliver
    different levels of caffeine, these levels are
    dependent on the method utilised to prepare these
    beverages, so we must be careful of our regular
    intake of these beverages.
  • Teas and Coffees are convivial beverages greatly
    enjoyed in the bar or at the end of a meal in the
    restaurant. Their unique taste is that as a
    beverage is what customers continue to savour
    even after they have left your bar or restaurant.
  • Particular care must be given to the proposal,
    preparation and service of these ancient drinks.

Lesson 9 Non-alcoholic drinks
  • Ashurst, P.R. (1995) Products and Packaging of
    Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages,
    2nd edn, Blackie Academic Professional Pub.
  • Datamonitor, Canadean. (2012) Juices and Soft
    Drink, available http//www.sleever.com/trends/so
    lution/juices-and-soft-drinks accessed
  • Dartmouth Medical school (2012) Why We Dont Need
    to Drink 8 Glasses of Water A Day, available
    accessed 12/4/12.
  • European Communities (2003) Marketing of Fruit
    Juices and Certain Similar Products Regulations
  • FDA - 1 (2012). Regulations of Bottles Waters,
    Available www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Testimony/ucm170
    932.htm accessed 5/5/2012.
  • Kummer, C.(2003) The joy of coffee the
    essential guide to buying, brewing, and enjoying.
    Boston Houghton Mifflin.
  • Moxham, R. (2003) Tea addition exploitation and
    empire, Constable Publishing UK.
  • Mitchell, J. (1990) Formulation and Production of
    Carbonated Soft Drinks, Blackie Pub, Van Nostrand
    Reinhold New York.
  • Murphy, J. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar
    and Beverage Management, Goodfellow Publishing
    Ltd, Oxford England.
  • Pendergrast, M. (2001) Uncommon Grounds The
    History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our
    World, Texere London.
  • Wine Spectator (2005). Coffee and Tea, 30th
    September 2005.
  • Water Codex II (nd) The San Pellegrino and Aqcua
    Panna Water - Codex II, Italy.
  • Web resources
  • www.teatool.co.uk Drip free tea (Dr.
    Martin Almonds tea tool)
  • www.scae.com Specialty coffee
  • www.cardinalequipment.com
    Cardinal Company.
  • http//www.portablebarworld.com/889-PIC.jpg
    Portable Soft drink bars
  • www.ec.europa.eu/food/food/labellingnutrition/wate
    r/mw_eulist_en.pdf Natural Mineral Waters in the
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