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Title: Paternalistic Leadership in the Chinese Contexts: A Full-Cycle Indigenous Approach


1
Paternalistic Leadership in the Chinese
ContextsA Full-Cycle Indigenous Approach
  • Bor-Shiuan Cheng Department of Psychology
  • National Taiwan University
  • XXIX International Congress of Psychology
  • July 21st, 2008

2
  • The movie Brokeback Mountain directed by
    Lee, Ang
  • won the Oscar Best Director Award but missed the
    Best Picture.
  • Why?

3
Impacts of Globalization
  • Globalization individuals, products, funds and
    information shift fast across national borders
    with the progress of information technology
  • What is the consequences?
  • Globalization?
  • Glocalization?

4
Impacts of Globalization Multiculturalism
Process of Culture Influences
Kitayama Markus, 1994
5
The movie Brokeback Mountain directed by
Lee, Ang won the Oscar Best Director Award but
missed the Best Picture. Why?
6
Impacts of Globalization Multiculturalism
  • Conflict and Harmony
  • In the Oscar Best Picture nomination
    Crash, conflicts appear every minute. However,
    Brokeback Mountain almost leveled down the
    conflicts to the lowest. Theres always spacious
    sky. Comparing the littleness of human beings by
    revealing the boundless sky and varying clouds,
    Ang Lee illustrated the harmonious relationship
    between human and the nature. The intense,
    internal struggle of the main characters is only
    presented by the image of sheep, perhaps the most
    peaceful animal in the world. This is the
    Aesthetica of the East, the drama of the East.
    Tenderness and softness reveal infinite power.
    (Shin, 2006).

7
Culture and Leadership Tradition of Conflict
Culture

?
8
Culture and Leadership
  • American Way
  • I hope the performance can be better than ever. I
    WANT it.
  • I know you are just like me, who want to be a
    winner. I want to beat others.
  • (Jim McNermey, the CEO of BOEING, 2006)
  • Chinese Way
  • Sales heroes doesnt matter. Help your
    colleagues and be considerate first, and then
    think about tour own sales records.
  • (Wen-Lung Hsu , the founder of CHIMEI,
    1996)

9
Culture and Leadership - LeadershipDevelopment
Under Culture of Conflict
  • Subjects of Research
  • Above 95 of the research-- the North America or
    West Europe (Yukl, 1998)
  • Stogdills handbook of leadership (Bass, 1990)
  • Lacking research of the East
  • Mistaking concepts of Legalism and Confucianism
  • Research Gaps
  • A leadership under culture of harmony

10
Culture and Leadership - The Culture of
HarmonyTwo Organizing Principles
  • Interpersonal Harmony
  • Rule of Zun-Zun (??)
  • Respect the superior
  • The difference of power distance
  • Wu-lun (Five cardinal relationships)
  • Emperor-minister, father-son, husband-wife, older
    brothers-younger brothers, and friends
  • Rule of Qin-Qin(??)
  • Favor the intimate (guanxi)
  • Treat people differently according to different
    guanxi

Rule of Zun-Zun
Rule of Qin-Qin
Individuals among interpersonal relationship
network
11
Culture and Leadership Leadership under the
Culture of HarmonyLeadership Issues
Interpersonal Harmony
Respect to Superior
Favor the Intimate
Tradition of Culture
Parental Authority
Different guanxi
Value of Leadership


Styles of Leadership
Subordinates Responses
Team Effectiveness
(source adapted from Cheng, 1991Cheng Huang,
2000)
12
Culture and Leadership Leadership under the
Culture of HarmonyResearch Approach
12
13
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony -
Paternalistic Leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (1) Concepts Inspiration
  • Phase One Individual experience to inspiration
    of concepts
  • Consulting experience in a shoe factory (Cheng,
    19911992)
  • Develop preliminary concepts
  • Phase Two Field observation to verify
    generalizability
  • Field observation on executives of family
    business (Cheng, 1995a)
  • Multi-cases studies of executives in Taiwanese
    enterprises (Cheng, 1995b)
  • Verify generalizability of phenomenon

14
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony -
Paternalistic Leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (2) Concepts Definition
  • Definition
  • A leadership style prevailing strong discipline
    and authority with fatherly benevolence and moral
    integrity couched in a personalistic atmosphere
  • ABC Triad Leadership
  • Authoritarianism Leadership
  • Leaders assert absolute, unchallengeable
    authority and control over subordinates and
    demand unquestionable obedience from
    subordinates.
  • Benevolence Leadership
  • Leaders demonstrate individualized and holistic
    concerns for subordinates well-beings.
  • Character/ Moral Leadership
  • Leaders present superior personal virtues or
    discipline to earn respect and imitation from
    subordinates unselfishness and modeling are the
    most distinct.

15
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony -
Paternalistic Leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (3) Culture Analysis
  • Phase Three Culture analysis to theory framework
    development
  • Culture Analysis and Literature Review ( Farh
    Cheng, 2000 )
  • Measurement Development (Cheng at al.,2000Jen at
    al., 2003 )
  • Develop operational concepts and initial theory

A
C
B
Paternalistic Leadership
Personalistic Tradition
Norms of reciprocal behaviors and repay
interpersonally
Imperial history of more than three thousand
years
Cultural Origins
Confucianism?Three Bonds ?Norms of
Roles Legalism ?Law and Punishment ?Centralism ?Co
ntrol
Confucianism ?Leading by Morality ?Modeling ?Cerem
ony Ideology of Propriety (Li)
Confucianism ?Fatherly Duty ?Benovelence
Source Farh Cheng (2000)
16
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony -
Paternalistic Leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (3) Research Framework
Cultural Factors
Organizational Factors
17
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony -
Paternalistic Leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (4) Internal Validity
Confirmation
  • Phase Four Scientific examination on the
    observation
  • Comparison with transformational leadership
    (Cheng et al.,2002)
  • Mediating mechanism (Wu et al., 2002)
  • Triad Model verification (Cheng et al.,2004 Niu
    et al., 2006)
  • Moderating factors (Chou et al.,2005)
  • Strengthen validity of theory
  • ( internal validity, boundary conditions,
    causality)

18
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony -
Paternalistic Leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (4) Results of Empirical
Studies
  • Subjects
  • Data more than 10000 and still accumulating
  • Regions including Taiwan, Mainland China,
    Southeast Asia, United States New Zealand
  • Organization Types including enterprise, school,
    military and government
  • Main Effect
  • Authoritarianism leadership
  • Objective performance
  • -Subordinates attitude
  • Benevolence leadership
  • Subordinates attitude
  • Character leadership
  • Subordinates attitude/ performance

19
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony -
Paternalistic Leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (4) Results of Empirical
Studies
  • Interaction Effect
  • Benevolence and authority
  • Benevolence and morality
  • Moderating Effect
  • Subordinates traditionality, subordinates
    dependency, leaders competence, and leaders
    experience positively moderate the relationship
    between authoritarianism leadership and
    subordinates effectiveness.
  • Mediating Effect
  • Important psychological mechanism subordinates
    responses and quality of relationship (leader and
    subordinate).

19
20
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony
paternalistic leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (4) Triad Models Examination
A Leadership
.63
.11
Fear
Compliance
.24
.24
-.18
.57
-.24
B Leadership
.58
Gratitude Repayment
Satisfaction with supervisor
.68
.49
.53
-.11
Organizational Commitment
.70
C Leadership
Identification
.52
Construct Examination (Farh, Cheng, Chou Chu,
2004,N197)
21
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony
paternalistic leadership Full-Cycle Indigenous
Research Approach (4)Present Conclusion
  • Paternalistic leadership (PL) generally exists in
    Chinese organizations
  • Character leadership (C) is crucial and
    benevolence leadership (B) is also critical.
  • Authoritarianism leadership (A) can enhance
    performance situation-constrained or benevolence
    leadership combination required
  • Leaders competency and experience, and
    subordinates traditionality and dependency have
    moderating effects.
  • Subordinate response plays as a important
    mediator of PL and subordinate effectiveness
  • Triad model of PL is supported generally.

22
Leadership under the Culture of Harmony - Scope
of Theory Analogy Full-Cycle Indigenous Research
Approach (5) Generalizability and Application
  • Phase Five Examining the generalizability
  • Generalization to various organizations (Cheng,
    Huang Chou, 2002)
  • Generalization to other regions of Chinese
    culture (Cheng at al., 2003)
  • Generalization to regions of other cultures (Chou
    at al., 2007)
  • Level generalizabilty research
  • Increase the scope of generalizability (external
    validity)
  • Phase Six Applied the models to the field
  • Analysis of leadership types
  • Leadership training
  • Action research
  • Increase robustness of theory

23
Future of Paternalistic Leadership Level of
Analysis
  • Dyad Level of Leadership
  • Based on Chinese cultural traditions of Zun-zun
    Qin-qin
  • Leaders are used to filing subordinates and
    expressing different leadership behaviors (Cheng,
    1995)
  • Group Level of Leadership
  • Average leadership is formed while a leader and
    subordinate have been worked together for a while
    and the leader gradually demonstrates a kind of
    equal behavior toward the whole group.
  • PL, especially Character Leadership, should be
    homogeneous leaders reveal similar behaviors of
    leadership toward different subordinates (Tsui,
    Huang, Chen Farh, 2006)

24
Future of Paternalistic Leadership Level of
Analysis (Cheng at al., 2008)
  • Both group and dyad effects were found
  • Character leadership presented the strongest
    group effect
  • Average leadership had cross-level effect on
    dyadic leadership
  • Suppressor Effect(Fig?)
  • Amplifier Effect(Fig ?)

?
performance
performance
LB (group) HB (group)
LB (group) HB (group)
L
H
L
H
A (individual)
C (individual)
25
Future of Paternalistic Leadership - Construct
Application Configurational Approach Leadership
Types
LeadershipTypes LeadershipTypes Ideal Leaders 1 Ideal Leaders 1 Actual Leaders 2 Actual Leaders 2 Actual Leaders 2 Actual Leaders 2
LeadershipTypes LeadershipTypes Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise School School
LeadershipTypes LeadershipTypes n n n
1 ABC 69 26.0 87 18.0 32 6.4
2 ABc 2 0.8 6 1.2 1 0.2
3 AbC 15 5.7 40 8.3 28 5.6
4 Abc 2 0.8 27 5.6 20 4.0
5 aBC 128 48.3 237 49.1 325 64.9
6 aBc 1 0.4 4 0.8 29 5.8
7 abC 48 18.1 63 13.0 50 10.0
8 abc 0 0.0 19 3.9 16 3.2
Total Total 265 100.0 483 100.0 501 100.0
1Distribution from Niu Cheng, 2006 2Sample
Distribution of Enterprise and School from Cheng,
Chou Farh, 2000
26
Future of Paternalistic Leadership - Construct
Application Configurational Approach
Subordinates Responses
Items PL Types PL Types PL Types PL Types PL Types
Items aBC ABC abC AbC Combined ABc, Abc, aBc, abc
Distribution of Ideal Leaders (N 265) 1 48.3 26.0 18.1 5.7 2.0
Distribution of Actual Leaders (Enterprise N 483) 2 49.1 18.0 13.0 8.3 11.5
Distribution of Actual Leaders (School N 501) 2 64.9 6.4 10.0 6.0 13.2
Average of Subordinates Satisfaction (Enterprise) 3 81.94b 80.18bc 75.11c 63.38a 51.29d
Average of Subordinates Satisfaction (School) 4.92c 4.40a 3.94ad 3.16b 3.85d
1 Distribution from Niu Cheng, 2006 2
Sample Distribution of Enterprise and School from
Cheng, Chou Farh, 2000 3The average numbers
inserted upper note mean significant difference
27
Future of Paternalistic Leadership - Scope of
Generalizability Globalization of PL
  • Classic Leadership Theories
  • Managers should show authority and nurturing
    behaviors to establish work groups with
    productivity and satisfaction (Follett, 1933
    Munsterberg, 1913)
  • Among traditional rational-legal, and
    charismatic, the three pure forms of authority,
    paternalistic belongs to the basic way of
    traditional authority (Weber, 1947)
  • Modern Leadership Theories
  • Researchers consider PL, the traditional
    authority with negative view of points for
    example, autocratic (Northouse, 1997) and
    discrimination (Colella, Gorcia, Reidel Triana,
    2005)
  • Traditional authority is still vital rather than
    weakening common in formal organizations
    (Bradley, 1997 Hamilton, 1990 Pearce, 2005
    Redding, 2003)
  • Many western leadership types fit the description
    of PL, such as leaders in Management by Fire
    (HBR, 2002)

28
Future of Paternalistic Leadership - Scope of
Generalizability Globalization of PL
  • Postmodern Leadership Theories
  • Multi-cultural indigenous leadership theory like
    PL should be paid more attention (Gelfand, Erez
    Aycan, 2007 Tsui, 2008)
  • PL prevails over organizations in regions of
    Middle East, East Asia, South Asia and South
    America and is an efficient way of leadership
    (Pellegrini Scandura, 2006)
  • PL includes two routes of research, two
    dimensional (Aycan, 2006) and three dimensional
    (Cheng, et al., 2000) the two dimensions are
    authoritarianism and benevolence leadership where
    three dimensional ones add moral leadership in.
    The latter one obviously is more complicated and
    interesting. Both routes possess tremendous
    research potential (Pellegrini Scandura, 2008)

29
Future of Paternalistic Leadership - Scope of
Generalizability Globalization of PL
  • Global Research Project of PL
  • Asia Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, Japan, South
    Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and India
  • Europe Belgium, France, Portugal, Italy,
    Hungary, Poland, Russia and Greece
  • America Mexico and US
  • Africa Nigeria and South Africa

29
30
Beyond Paternalistic Leadership
  • The Merck HR in the United States hired
    psychologists, hundreds of HR experts and did a
    terrific job. I was persuaded that the Mercks
    HR system was one of the best in the world.
  • However I totally changed my mind about HR after
    encountering a Chinese company. It maintains no
    HR department. However, its turnover rate is
    nearly zero union issues never happens.
    Moreover, most employees demonstrate citizenship
    behavior. Up to now, I still have no idea why
    this company operated HR like that (Yu, 2004).

31
Beyond Paternalistic Leadership - Transcendence
of PL Character / Moral Leadership
Self-discipline by Dao (Doctrine)
32
Beyond Paternalistic Leadership - Transcendence
of PL Diffused-Goodness to Organization
33
Beyond Paternalistic LeadershipTranscendence of
PL Diffused-Goodness to Society
Investment of the Mass
Society
Community
Shareholder
Diffused-Goodness Leadership
Supplier
Upstream Supplier
End Users
Customers
Employees
Families of Employees
Cheng, 2004
34
Beyond Paternalistic Leadership - Transcendence
of PL Ideal of Diffused-benefit Leadership
  • Golden Rules of Management
  • Empty Leadership
  • Leaders who make right decisions avoid disasters,
    leave no legends.Self-respect is far more
    important than respect from others. (Bennis
    Tichy, 2007)
  • ??,????,??????,????,?????
  • ????,????!
  • ??,????????,?????????(??,???)
  • HR with No HR Department

Answers, not responsibility Less monitor or control Simple strategy
Good nature inspiration Strengthen self-management Develop spirit of simple
35
Beyond Paternalistic Leadership ABCDE Leadership
Empty leadership
Diffused-Goodness leadership
Character leadership
Benevolence leadership
Authoritarianism leadership
36
The Road Less Traveled By and My Travel Mates
  • The Road Not Taken
  • Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,And sorry I
    could not travel bothAnd be one traveler, long I
    stood
  • and II took the one less traveled by,and that
    has made all the difference.
  • (Robert Frost, 1915)

37
Paternalistic Leadership- A New Cross-Cultural
Study
  • 100 Data Sets (Groups) for Each Country
  • 1 Manager
  • 3 Subordinates A, B, C
  • Manager Subordinate A
  • Manager Subordinate B
  • Manager Subordinate C
  • Participants (till now)
  • Belgium
  • China
  • France
  • Greece
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungry
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Mexico
  • Nigeria
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Russia
  • Singapore
  • South Korea
  • South Africa
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand
  • The USA

38
Paternalistic Leadership- A New Cross-Cultural
Study
  • If you would like to join this Cross-Cultural
    Research Team, please contact us at
  • Tom Tang ttang_at_mtsu.edu
  • Min-Ping Huang minping_at_saturn.yzu.edu.tw
  • An-Chih Wang andrew.az_at_gmail.com
  • Li-Fang Chou crhonda_at_seed.net.tw
  • Bor-Shiuan Cheng chengbor_at_ntu.edu.tw
  • Or Give us your Business Card and Contact
    Information

39
Thank you
  • Danke
  • Dankeshen
  • Grazie
  • Merci
  • Muchas Gracias
  • ?????
  • ?? ??????
  • ??
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