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Horticulture and Agriculture

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Title: Horticulture and Agriculture Author: elfrid zalamea Last modified by: CEIS Created Date: 10/10/2005 12:58:55 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Horticulture and Agriculture


1
Horticulture and Agriculture
Team MCCJS
  • Chad Bergert
  • Sunny Leon
  • Celia Pinto
  • Juan Rojas
  • Margarita Zalamea

2
HORTICULTURETools and Processes
  • Classically defined as the culture or growing of
    garden plants.
  • Over 10,000 years ago the age of horticulture
    begins which signals the end of the stone age.
  • There are three main inventions that start the
    development of horticulture.
  • The hoe flat stone or metal used to loosen dirt
  • The spade a digging stick becomes a spade
  • The plough add two handles added to a spade
  • Assumed that women invented them because they
    were the primary cultivators.

Chad Bergert
3
The Hoe
  • Used to loosen soil and remove unwanted plants
    and objects during field cultivation.
  • Found in virtually all horticulture societies.
  • Hoes are so widely used by women, assume women
    invented them.
  • In one Neolithic culture, women are buried with
    hoes and men are not.

Chad Bergert
4
The Spade
  • Spade is another tool for cultivation.
  • Women cultivated their garden plots carefully by
    spade, while men cleared new land with fire.
  • Originally made of wood.
  • Incas believed women must do the planting or the
    crops would not grow.

Chad Bergert
5
The Plough
  • The plough is a tool used prepare the soil for
    seeding or planting.
  • By adding a two handles to a spade you get a
    plough.

Chad Bergert
6
The Plough
  • The plough is one of the two marks conventionally
    distinguishing agriculture from horticulture.
  • Women are not credited with the invention of the
    plough because
  • The modern plough is heavy and women have no
    association with them today.
  • The idea was that women would not have been
    strong enough to use them.

Chad Bergert
7
The Plough
  • However, this is likely to be an unfair
    assumption because
  • Early ploughs were much different from today's
    which are drawn by animals.
  • Most likely two women would pull the plough in
    order to cultivate the soil.
  • Women were the primary workers of the population.
    Women inventing a plough seems more likely for
    this reason.

Chad Bergert
8
Supporting Evidence
  • The idea that womens did not invent the hoe,
    spade, and plough would suggest that they were
    not the primary users of the tools.
  • In contrary to todays image of the working
    women. The daily tasks of the horticulture woman
    would include
  • Collecting and hauling firewood.
  • Harvesting and hauling grain
  • Collecting and moving clay for pottery
  • Building houses or shelters
  • Planting and harvesting crops
  • This evidence also supports theories that women
    may have actually been stronger than men.

Chad Bergert
9
Irrigation
  • Definition To supply (dry land) with water by
    means of ditches, pipes, or streams water
    artificially to make land fertile
  • Arose from horticulture
  • Women were most likely the first irrigators
  • 2 types of irrigation
  • Bringing plants to water
  • Bringing water to plants

Margarita Zalamea
10
Harriet W.R. Strong
  • Invented a system of dams and reservoirs for
    water storage and flood control.
  • Introduced winter irrigation at her orchard in
    Southern California.
  • Responsible for the rapid growth of the
    food-producing regions in Southern California.

Margarita Zalamea
11
Fire as a land-clearing tool
  • Used fire to drive game, improve grazing and
    encourage certain plants
  • Both men and women used this technique
  • Otis Mason states that women may have been the
    first to control fire so that it may be used for
    this purpose

Margarita Zalamea
12
Fertilizer
  • In several cultures, women were the first to
    invent fertilizer
  • Observation of affect of feces on plant growth
    during child training and food collection
  • Menstrual blood and herring were used as
    fertilizer

Margarita Zalamea
13
Cultivation
  • Women were most likely the primary cultivators
  • 75 of all human food energy comes from 8
    cerealsall were domesticated in prehistory
  • For bread wheat, women
  • Saved the seeds for planting gradually increasing
    them until they formed the whole seed stock
  • Developed seedling beds

Margarita Zalamea
14
Agriculture
  • As society begins to depend more heavily on
    cultivation and agriculture, women begin to lose
    out as exclusive cultivators.
  • The question is no longer who does the work, but
    who is in chargeand who makes the tools
  • Leading to dramatic shift called the Takeover
    Theory

Margarita Zalamea
15
Takeover Theory
  • Women played an important role in domestication
  • they became the primary care taker for their
    children, leaving little room for their
    agricultural and horticultural interests.

Celia Pinto
16
Developments that Affected the Transition to
Agriculture
  • The Birth Explosion
  • Change from Female-Centered to Male-Centered
    religion
  • The Professionalization of The Cultivative Role

Celia Pinto
17
The Birth Explosion
  • Difficult and Late Periods
  • Late pregnancy
  • Early lactation
  • Increasing Work Load
  • Food providing
  • Processing
  • Child care
  • Stress and Emotional Trauma

Celia Pinto
18
Change From Female-Centered To Male-Centered
Religion
  • Overthrow of Goddess-Worship
  • Negative Effects on Women
  • Opposite Effect on Men

Celia Pinto
19
The Professionalization of the Cultivative Role
  • Heavy workload became crucial
  • Gardens become fields
  • Irrigation became complex
  • Commercialized and professionalized

Celia Pinto
20
Women's role in the 19th 20th Century in
Agriculture
  • Plant Culture/Planting Cultivating
  • Fertilization
  • New foods
  • New plants
  • Plant Diseases

Juan Rojas
21
Plant Culture/ Planting Cultivating
  • Dr. M. Claire Shephard involved in inventing of
    two systemic fungicides. Dimethirimol and
    ethirimol.
  • Seed Treatments. To coat the seeds with
    fertilizer or pesticides rather than the entire
    fields.
  • Miranda Smith lived in New York City and was
    credited for starting Rooftop Gardens Project.
  • New Forms of Cultivating around the world
  • Hsing Yen-tzu method of planting spring wheat
    in frozen grounds.
  • Yetateriana Novgorodova hotbed techniques
    w/bonfires, sprinkling rountines for growing
    vegetables in Siberia.

Juan Rojas
22
Fertilization
  • Elisabeth Bryenton
  • Created mixture that provided plants as much
    nitrogen as needed to grow at a fraction of the
    cost.
  • Juan Rojas

23
New Foods
  • Dr. Catherine H. Bailey
  • Creating new hybrids of peaches, nectarines
    apples and pears.
  • Elizabeth White, daughter of cranberry growers
    discovered ways of growing a new berry,
    Tru-Blu-Berries

Juan Rojas
24
New Plants
  • Female agriculturists are credited for the work
    in developing new and unique flowers. Most of
    these flowers being roses.

Juan Rojas
25
Inventors of New Breeds
  • Esther Johnson, Anna Miller, Elizabeth A. Briggs
    and Marie Schaefer created the walnut tree.

Juan Rojas
26
Plant Diseases
  • Joanna B. Tribble preventing diseases on
    vegetables.
  • Rebecca J. Walker protecting fruit trees from
    curculio.
  • Dr. Margaret C. Shephard covering pesticides
    and agents that regulate plant growth.

Juan Rojas
27
Animal Husbandry
  • The branch of agriculture concerned with the care
    and breeding of domestic animals such as cattle,
    hogs, sheep, and horses.

Sunny Leon
28
The purpose of Animal Husbandry is to breed a
better type of animal.
New Breeds and Varieties
  • Diamond White Tails
  • Santa Gertrudis
  • Red Angus

Sunny Leon
29
Care of LivestockMethods, Apparatus, Research
  • Livestock and cattle cars
  • Livestock feeding troughs
  • Improved sheep shears
  • Handling livestock and fighting against fleas
  • Growth promoters
  • In-vitro fertilization

Sunny Leon
30
Dairy and Poultry Inventions
  • Dairy inventions
  • 20th Century
  • Poultry Inventions

Sunny Leon
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