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Horticulture and Agriculture


Title: Horticulture and Agriculture Author: elfrid zalamea Last modified by: CEIS Created Date: 10/10/2005 12:58:55 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Horticulture and Agriculture

Horticulture and Agriculture
  • Chad Bergert
  • Sunny Leon
  • Celia Pinto
  • Juan Rojas
  • Margarita Zalamea

HORTICULTURETools and Processes
  • Classically defined as the culture or growing of
    garden plants.
  • Over 10,000 years ago the age of horticulture
    begins which signals the end of the stone age.
  • There are three main inventions that start the
    development of horticulture.
  • The hoe flat stone or metal used to loosen dirt
  • The spade a digging stick becomes a spade
  • The plough add two handles added to a spade
  • Assumed that women invented them because they
    were the primary cultivators.

Chad Bergert
The Hoe
  • Used to loosen soil and remove unwanted plants
    and objects during field cultivation.
  • Found in virtually all horticulture societies.
  • Hoes are so widely used by women, assume women
    invented them.
  • In one Neolithic culture, women are buried with
    hoes and men are not.

Chad Bergert
The Spade
  • Spade is another tool for cultivation.
  • Women cultivated their garden plots carefully by
    spade, while men cleared new land with fire.
  • Originally made of wood.
  • Incas believed women must do the planting or the
    crops would not grow.

Chad Bergert
The Plough
  • The plough is a tool used prepare the soil for
    seeding or planting.
  • By adding a two handles to a spade you get a

Chad Bergert
The Plough
  • The plough is one of the two marks conventionally
    distinguishing agriculture from horticulture.
  • Women are not credited with the invention of the
    plough because
  • The modern plough is heavy and women have no
    association with them today.
  • The idea was that women would not have been
    strong enough to use them.

Chad Bergert
The Plough
  • However, this is likely to be an unfair
    assumption because
  • Early ploughs were much different from today's
    which are drawn by animals.
  • Most likely two women would pull the plough in
    order to cultivate the soil.
  • Women were the primary workers of the population.
    Women inventing a plough seems more likely for
    this reason.

Chad Bergert
Supporting Evidence
  • The idea that womens did not invent the hoe,
    spade, and plough would suggest that they were
    not the primary users of the tools.
  • In contrary to todays image of the working
    women. The daily tasks of the horticulture woman
    would include
  • Collecting and hauling firewood.
  • Harvesting and hauling grain
  • Collecting and moving clay for pottery
  • Building houses or shelters
  • Planting and harvesting crops
  • This evidence also supports theories that women
    may have actually been stronger than men.

Chad Bergert
  • Definition To supply (dry land) with water by
    means of ditches, pipes, or streams water
    artificially to make land fertile
  • Arose from horticulture
  • Women were most likely the first irrigators
  • 2 types of irrigation
  • Bringing plants to water
  • Bringing water to plants

Margarita Zalamea
Harriet W.R. Strong
  • Invented a system of dams and reservoirs for
    water storage and flood control.
  • Introduced winter irrigation at her orchard in
    Southern California.
  • Responsible for the rapid growth of the
    food-producing regions in Southern California.

Margarita Zalamea
Fire as a land-clearing tool
  • Used fire to drive game, improve grazing and
    encourage certain plants
  • Both men and women used this technique
  • Otis Mason states that women may have been the
    first to control fire so that it may be used for
    this purpose

Margarita Zalamea
  • In several cultures, women were the first to
    invent fertilizer
  • Observation of affect of feces on plant growth
    during child training and food collection
  • Menstrual blood and herring were used as

Margarita Zalamea
  • Women were most likely the primary cultivators
  • 75 of all human food energy comes from 8
    cerealsall were domesticated in prehistory
  • For bread wheat, women
  • Saved the seeds for planting gradually increasing
    them until they formed the whole seed stock
  • Developed seedling beds

Margarita Zalamea
  • As society begins to depend more heavily on
    cultivation and agriculture, women begin to lose
    out as exclusive cultivators.
  • The question is no longer who does the work, but
    who is in chargeand who makes the tools
  • Leading to dramatic shift called the Takeover

Margarita Zalamea
Takeover Theory
  • Women played an important role in domestication
  • they became the primary care taker for their
    children, leaving little room for their
    agricultural and horticultural interests.

Celia Pinto
Developments that Affected the Transition to
  • The Birth Explosion
  • Change from Female-Centered to Male-Centered
  • The Professionalization of The Cultivative Role

Celia Pinto
The Birth Explosion
  • Difficult and Late Periods
  • Late pregnancy
  • Early lactation
  • Increasing Work Load
  • Food providing
  • Processing
  • Child care
  • Stress and Emotional Trauma

Celia Pinto
Change From Female-Centered To Male-Centered
  • Overthrow of Goddess-Worship
  • Negative Effects on Women
  • Opposite Effect on Men

Celia Pinto
The Professionalization of the Cultivative Role
  • Heavy workload became crucial
  • Gardens become fields
  • Irrigation became complex
  • Commercialized and professionalized

Celia Pinto
Women's role in the 19th 20th Century in
  • Plant Culture/Planting Cultivating
  • Fertilization
  • New foods
  • New plants
  • Plant Diseases

Juan Rojas
Plant Culture/ Planting Cultivating
  • Dr. M. Claire Shephard involved in inventing of
    two systemic fungicides. Dimethirimol and
  • Seed Treatments. To coat the seeds with
    fertilizer or pesticides rather than the entire
  • Miranda Smith lived in New York City and was
    credited for starting Rooftop Gardens Project.
  • New Forms of Cultivating around the world
  • Hsing Yen-tzu method of planting spring wheat
    in frozen grounds.
  • Yetateriana Novgorodova hotbed techniques
    w/bonfires, sprinkling rountines for growing
    vegetables in Siberia.

Juan Rojas
  • Elisabeth Bryenton
  • Created mixture that provided plants as much
    nitrogen as needed to grow at a fraction of the
  • Juan Rojas

New Foods
  • Dr. Catherine H. Bailey
  • Creating new hybrids of peaches, nectarines
    apples and pears.
  • Elizabeth White, daughter of cranberry growers
    discovered ways of growing a new berry,

Juan Rojas
New Plants
  • Female agriculturists are credited for the work
    in developing new and unique flowers. Most of
    these flowers being roses.

Juan Rojas
Inventors of New Breeds
  • Esther Johnson, Anna Miller, Elizabeth A. Briggs
    and Marie Schaefer created the walnut tree.

Juan Rojas
Plant Diseases
  • Joanna B. Tribble preventing diseases on
  • Rebecca J. Walker protecting fruit trees from
  • Dr. Margaret C. Shephard covering pesticides
    and agents that regulate plant growth.

Juan Rojas
Animal Husbandry
  • The branch of agriculture concerned with the care
    and breeding of domestic animals such as cattle,
    hogs, sheep, and horses.

Sunny Leon
The purpose of Animal Husbandry is to breed a
better type of animal.
New Breeds and Varieties
  • Diamond White Tails
  • Santa Gertrudis
  • Red Angus

Sunny Leon
Care of LivestockMethods, Apparatus, Research
  • Livestock and cattle cars
  • Livestock feeding troughs
  • Improved sheep shears
  • Handling livestock and fighting against fleas
  • Growth promoters
  • In-vitro fertilization

Sunny Leon
Dairy and Poultry Inventions
  • Dairy inventions
  • 20th Century
  • Poultry Inventions

Sunny Leon
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