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MEDIA GLOBALISATION: Global Media Concepts and Theories incorporating key concepts (from Sessions 3, 4 and 5)


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Title: MEDIA GLOBALISATION: Global Media Concepts and Theories incorporating key concepts (from Sessions 3, 4 and 5)

MEDIA GLOBALISATION Global Media Concepts and
Theoriesincorporating key concepts (from
Sessions 3, 4 and 5)
  • MCC314/MCC614 Global Media Technologies
  • 2nd Semester 2009 - Session 3 Lecture
  • By Associate Professor Terence Lee

REMINDER 1st Sept 2009 (Tuesday)Non-teaching
break Special Lecture
  • Title of Lecture 10 Things about Social Media
  • Lecture on global media and technologies
  • Professor Terry Flew (the author of your
  • Tuesday 1st September 2009 (non-teaching break)
  • 930 am 1100 am
  • Brian Hill Lecture Theatre (EH Level 2)
  • (Note This lecture will replace your regular
    Session 5 lecture on Wednesday, 9 September 2009)

Introduction Definitions
  • From the outset, 3 Qs
  • What is media globalisation?
  • How is media globalisation different from
  • Are they different in the first place?
  • Media globalisation deals with the pivotal role
    that the media play in the more general
    globalisation process (Devereux, 2003 33).
  • The subject of media globalisation is primarily
    concerned with the domination of the global media
    industry by a small number of powerful
    transnational media conglomerates, and the extent
    to which these impact upon the worldviews of
    individuals in different parts of the world.

  • Transnational is preferred to multinational
    when describing global media conglomerates
  • Companies operate as if they are purely
    regional/national/local companies despite being
    part of a global setup
  • i.e. HSBC, Daimler-Chrysler, DHL, UPS etc

Three senses of media (Ref Flew, 2007
Chapter 1)
  • 1) Technological means of communication
  • Media extension of medium
  • plural term
  • transmission model of communication
  • refer to a range of communicative praxis or
    practices, including infrastructure,
    telecommunications, flows, etc.
  • 2) Institutional and organizational forms through
    which media content is produced and distributed.
  • the notion of industries as in global media
    industries as well as the market
  • Flew (p. 3) The term market is used to
    incorporate a variety of forms of transactions
    between agents
  • producers consumers or prod-Users

3 senses
  • 3) Informational and symbolic content that is
    received and consumed by readers, audiences and
  • i.e. the socio-cultural context of reception.
  • Which leaves us to consider
  • Media and power
  • Media markets
  • Media institutions and policy
  • Media and culture
  • New Media Technology

6 distinct features of media globalisation
  • Concentration, Conglomeration (
    Corporatisation) The emergence of and continued
    domination of the global media industry by a
    small number of transnational media conglomerates
    (as mentioned earlier).
  • Technological Change The extent of new
    information and communications technologies use
    by these media conglomerates.
  • Deregulation The increasingly deregulated
    environment in which these media organisations
  • More

6 distinct features of media globalisation
  1. Cultural Imperialism The globalisation of media
    content, leading to greater amount of
    homogenisation and standardisation of media
  2. Asymmetrical Flows The uneven flow and
    distribution of information and communication
    (media) products within the global system and the
    different level of access that global citizens
    have to global networks of communication.
  3. Ideology of Capitalism Media globalisation is
    inextricably linked with the promotion of the
    ideology of consumerism and therefore bound up
    with the capitalist project (cf. Appadurais

  • Corporatization is under global media ownership
    because of globalization of media, rise of media
  • Direct result of corporate mentalities or
    expansion of corporation as legal entity and
    business strategy driving global mass media.
  • The Corporation 2004
  • Chapter 3 of Flew list of media outlets i.e.
    Warner, News Corp, Walt Disney, Vivendi Universal
  • Most of these huge media companies have grown
    through Ms and As

Mergers Acquisitions (MAs), Economic
Integration, Etc.
  • 1990s saw unprecedented wave of mergers and
    pressure to increase
  • Move from manufacturing-dominated economies
    (mining automotive) to information-based
  • Global companies with non-media assets (GE) move
    to media
  • Who controls the media is key to our culture and
    democracy, MediaGuardian identifies the 100
    people that decide what you watch, read, hear,
    download.Those who make up the Media Guardian 100
    are predominantly white, male and middle-aged,
    which is no surprise when you remember the list
    is about power, not equality

Mergers Acquisitions (MAs), Economic
Integration, Etc.
  • More info on the world's biggest 500 companies
    at http//
  • How many of these are media/entertainment
  • Why are these mergers happening?
  • Significant cost savings from the fuller
    utilisation of existing personnel, facilities
    content resources
  • Ability to apply economically-proven strategies
    of integration both horizontal and vertical
  • Utilising economies of scale and scope (greater
    opportunities of cross-promotion, cross-selling
    and privileged access)
  • When Disney produces a film, it can guarantee
    film showings on cable and commercial network
    television, produce soundtracks, spin-off tv
    series, related amusement park rides, CD-roms,
    books, comics and merchandise to be sold (Herman
    McChesney, p.54)

Mergers Acquisitions (MAs), Economic
Integration, Etc.
  • Disney has become involved in building family
    communities ? transferring Disneyland success to
    actual homes and suburbs in Florida!
  • Whilst many mergers are profitable, some can run
    into problems (assets paid too high and market
    changes allow unmanageable debts)
  • Joint-ventures are more flexible, less formal
    structure than buyouts or takeovers
  • Attractive due to reduction of capital and risk
    of participants, allow to permit spread resources
  • Often happen between global media giants and
    second-tier company with national basis i.e.
    News Corp JV with StarTV in 1993

Mergers Acquisitions (MAs), Economic
Integration, Etc.
  • Corporations try to guess most profitable company
    profile (i.e. internet or satellite television)
  • Market forces increased concentration on media
    oligopolistic framework (enemies sometimes work
    on agreements on JVs, projects), causing slim
    possibilities for new companies to actually enter
    the global arena.
  • Biggest media merger Time Warner by AOL, 2000.
    Worth USD 160 billion, overtaking Time Warner
    Brothers merger record at USD 14 billion.
  • Represented old media and new media , with new
    sophisticated internet perceptions.
  • AOL empire Time Warner cable network Time Inc
    130 million subscribers.
  • 800,000 people signed up for Time Inc
    subscriptions through AOL offer

Mergers Acquisitions (MAs), Economic
Integration, Etc.
  • 9/11 caused plunge on companys revenue,
    Securities Commision investigation on accounting
    largest annual loss in US corporate history of
    US100 billion.
  • Ted Turner (CNN) resignation, AOL returns to the
    name Time Warner as America Online is not
    conducive for global media business
  • New media driven by the internet will expunge
    traditional advertising.

Finally Media GlobalisationSome Trends
Issues to consider
  • Political Contexts De-regulation Trends
  • Changes in the profile of the global media
    industry are not just the outcome of purely
    operating market forces
  • The greater play of market forces is the result
    of political actions and decisions
  • Broad definition of political both big P and
    small p
  • Loss of the public (whither public service?)
  • Influence and impact of new media technologies?
  • Uneven/Regional Developments in Global Media
  • The 3 Cs Corporation/Concentration/Conglomeration
  • the new reality/ies of media globalisation?

Thank you! Now, lets get on with the video.