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The Muslim Empires

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Title: The Muslim Empires


1
The Muslim Empires
2
Timeline
570 -Muhammad born 632 -Death of
Muhammad 632-634 -Ridda Wars under Abu
Bakr Sunnis (backed Umayyad) vs. Shia (backed
Ali) 661-750 -Umayyad caliphate (Sunnis) (711
Sind Kingdom of India taken-Muhammad ibn
Qasim) 732 -Battle of Tours -Muslims defeated by
Charles Martel (France) 744-750 -(3rd civil war)
(anger at Umayyad luxurious living). Abbasid-
traced heritage from Muhammads uncle, al-Abbas
(Sunnis who used Shia supporters) 750 Abbasid
caliphate begins (victory at the Battle of the
River Zab). Abu al-Abbas dinner party-slaughtered
Umayyads. Nickname al-Saffah meaning the blood
shedder! 786-809 Reign of Harun al-Rashid
(thousand and one nights) Excesses! 777
-Independent dynasty in Algeria, 788- Morocco,
800- Tunisia 809 -First war between Abbasid
princes over succession after death of Harun,
idea of body guards and personal armies developed
? 846 slaves mercenaries murdered the caliph and
ruled through the Abbasid caliph.
3
945- Persian Buyids (Shia) capture Baghdad
(remember they had advised various Abbasid
caliphs). Abbasid rule became weak b/c of slave
armies and taxes so independent kingdoms formed
in former lands. Called themselves
sultans. 1055-Seljuk Turks (Sunnis) ruled in
name of Abbasid caliphs like the Buyids 1096-1099
First Christian Crusade, 1099 Jerusalem taken and
Muslim/ Jewish inhabitants massacred. 12th
century Muslims united under Saladin
(Salah-ud-Din) and they reconquered. Last
crusader kingdom fell with fall of Acre in
1291 1206 Delhi sultanate in India Mahmud of
Ghazni (Turkish slave dynasty who seized
Afghanistan in 962) led expeditions and Muhammad
of Ghur who conquered (assassinated 1206 by
Qutb-ud-din Aibak who took power) 1258- Mongols
(Hulegu) captured Abbasid capital of Baghdad and
killed the 37 caliph. 1260- Ain Jalut-Mongols
defeated by Mamluks (Turkish slave army that
ruled Egypt) 1281 Ottoman dynasty
founded 1453-Ottomans capture Constantinople
4
1402- Timur the lames invasions
5
The Tiger
  • Babur became the 1st Mughal emperor of India!
  • He claimed heritage to rule parts of central Asia
    from Chinggis Khan (mothers side) and Timur
    (fathers side). However, his empire was quite
    small and realistically they kept losing many
    battles! ?
  • He also lost some lands to the powerful Muslim
    Safavid dynasty in the early 1500s!
  • He set his eyes on taking control of northern
    India which had been controlled by various Muslim
    dynasties out of Delhi. He was outnumbered 10 to
    1, plus the Lodi sultan (Ibrahim) had war
    elephants! Babur won by using cannons which
    panicked the elephants causing them to trample
    their own warriors! He also had superior
    firepower which allowed him great advantage too.
  • By the end of 1530 Tiger was the ruler of
    northern India and was the founder of a new
    dynasty, the Mughal dynasty of India. They ruled
    various parts of India for some 300 years!

6
  • Three major Muslim dynasties of this time
    Ottoman Empire, the Safavid Empire, and the
    Mughal Empire
  • They came to power after the fall of the Mongols
    and the harsh rule of Timur (power vacuum), they
    were created by warrior leaders, and were
    Turkish-speaking nomadic groups.
  • The Mughals were successful because they relied
    on cannons and muskets whereas other armies were
    not as skilled yet in that technology!
  • However the Mughals differed in that their
    conquest were not launched out of religious
    desires like the Ottoman and Safavid Empires
  • Rival dynasties-sunni and shia split
  • Science declined, but art/ architecture
    flourished! Exchange between the 3 Muslim empires

7
Ottoman Empire (13-14 century)
  • Prior to the rise of the Ottoman Empire Turkish
    peoples had played key roles in Abbasid Empire as
    soldiers and administrators
  • Able to seize power because of the fall of the
    Seljuk Turks and invasion of Mongols starting in
    1243
  • Eastern Anatolia turned into a chaotic state with
    warring Seljuk sultans and people fleeing
    Mongolian raids. One such group, Ottomans, began
    building a new empire in the western part of the
    Anatolia. They were named after their leader,
    Osman.
  • By 1350s expanded beyond the Bosporus straits
    and in 1453 Ottoman sultan Mehmed II conquered
    Constantinople. Pillaged and looted for 3 days!
    Other sultans extended into Syria and Egypt while
    also expanding into Europe in the Balkan
    peninsula and Hungary! Ottomans captured major
    Mediterranean cities and began to control
    Mediterranean trade Rhodes, Crete, and Cyprus
    were all captured. The Ottomans also drove the
    Venetians and Genoese from Eastern Mediterranean
    and even threatened southern Italy with invasion.

8
Fall of Constantinople Mehmed II

9
Great Ottoman leaders
  • Mehmed II (1432-1481) one of the greatest
    military geniuses of world history. He
    consolidated the expansion of the Ottoman Empire
    in Asia Minor and in 1453 organized the siege of
    Constantinople. He personally directed the
    combined land and naval assault and brilliantly
    improvised the tactics that led to the fall of
    the city. The fall of Constantinople to the
    Ottomans was a watershed.
  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) Dynastic
    Wars of Europe He entered into an alliance with
    Francis I of France to control the powers of
    Charles V of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. He
    then captured places like Budapest and and really
    threatened Europe! The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
    in 1559 ended the conflict. The Habsburgs
    couldnt dislodge the Ottomans from Hungary while
    they fueled their New World wars. 1557 Spain and
    France declared bankruptcy ? Francis I son, Henry
    II, never forgave his father for abandoning him
    in France and sought to make Charles V (his
    jailer pay). He celebrated the treaty as a great
    victory and had a big feast and entertainment
    including a jousting tournament in which he
    died!!!!

10
A State geared to warfare
  • Importance of military leaders directly affected
    the economy. A warrior aristocracy developed
    where warriors were granted control over lands
    and peasants in order to support their households
    and military retainers
  • Warrior aristocracy began to compete with
    religious leaders, administrators, and even the
    sultan for power (revenue and labor control)
  • mid 15th century imperial forced made up of
    infantry divisions called Janissaires (many
    conscripted in conquered areas as adolescents).
    The boys were legally slaves even though they
    were well educated and converted to Islam. Some
    even served in palaces but the majority became
    Janissaries. (there when Constantinople was
    sacked)
  • Controlled the artillery and firearms of the
    Ottoman war machine and became the most powerful
    component of the military. Began to want
    political influence and by the 16th century could
    depose the sultan and name which son would
    succeed him!

11
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12
Sultans and court
  • Caliph was an absolute monarch, but realistically
    needed to work with the various fractions within
    the state and pit them against each other
    warrior elite, Janissaries, religious scholars,
    legal experts, traders- both Muslim and dhimmis
    people of the book-Christian and Jewish.
    Sultans were often capable rulers who had
    effective administration and gave tax relief to
    peoples
  • As wealth and empire grew so too did the sultans
    lavish lifestyle with many wives and a large
    harems. The day to day administration was
    carried out by the large bureaucracy headed by
    the wazir (vizier). The vizier was the head of
    the administration and held more real power than
    the sultan. However, early sultans did like to
    lead their men into battle!
  • Inherited succession problems like other Muslim
    empires (vague principles over succession ?) This
    could and did led to warfare! Muhammads lack of
    naming an heir would still plague Muslim empires
    well into the early modern period

13
Constantinople Restored
  • After Mehmed II sacked Constantinople in 1453 he
    then moved to restore the city to its former
    position of splendor. Specifically the Hagia
    Sophia. Improved the city via Muslim advancements
    in architecture. Each sultan created beautiful
    mosques and palaces like Suleymaniye built by
    Sulieman (Suleyman) the Magnificent.
  • Schools, hospitals, mansions, rest houses, and
    gardens were built around the city to make it
    beautiful
  • Built coffeehouses where men would come to
    gossip, read, and debate. These men like to smoke
    tobacco coming out of America. Merchants and
    artisans were members of guilds and the Ottoman
    regime regulated business, weights and
    measurements, and commercial exchange.
  • Language switch from Arabic to Persian to Turkish
  • Ottoman Empire combined European, African, and
    Asian peoples

14
Problem of Ottoman Decline
  • The decline of the Ottoman Empire was somewhat
    slow and went by in stages, however, the Ottoman
    Empire is a story of great success. The dynasty
    ruled for more than 600 years!!!! They ruled
    until the 20th century with internal revolts and
    pressures from Russia (Crimean War), Austria,
    Spain, and even the Safavid empires just to name
    a few.
  • By 17th century the main power of the Ottoman
    Empire was in decline. As conquest diminished and
    lands were lost to enemies the Ottomans couldnt
    maintain its oversized bureaucracy and military ?
    Corruption followed and local officials began to
    retain more and more revenue from the sultan ?
    local officials also squeezed the peasants more
    for labor and taxes which cause peasant
    rebellions and peasants to flee! ? Changed how
    they treated potential princes where princes were
    kept like hostages instead of given military and
    political positionsmade them weak and
    inexperienced ? Decline of the caliber of the
    Ottoman rulers had devastating effects on
    governmentno more warrior/ rulers and the
    discipline of the government and armies decline
    while weak rulers gave into the pleasures of the
    palace drinking, drugs, and their harems!
  • Battle of Lepanto in 1571 when the Spanish under
    King Philip II defeated them! Christian victory
    and marked the beginning of the Ottoman decline
    in European power politics ?

15
Military Reverses
  • Along with the political decline the military
    began to decline too. The Janissaries didnt want
    to give their power up and continued to control
    artillery and firearms, but failed to develop and
    keep up with the technology of their European
    counterparts ?
  • West- light field artillery
  • 1571 Battle of Lepanto ? -lost power on the sea
    in Eastern Mediterranean. Still launched an
    assault into N.Africa to preserve Islam there.
    Also, the Europeans were increasing ship
    technologies for Atlantic trade like galleons.
  • Also failed to defeat the Portuguese from the
    Indian Ocean and the coast of Africa ? (worked
    with Indian allies)
  • Portugal also imported from Africa directly into
    Portugal and thus cut out the middle man of the
    Muslim empire. The Ottomans no longer could tax
    the trade and make their critical revenue because
    Europeans made direct trade links to Africa and
    India
  • The economy was only further set into decline
    because of the large amount of bullion that
    started to flow into the country from the
    Americas. The influx of bullion effected all
    countries including the Ottoman Empire and caused
    long term inflation in the already slow and
    declining economy ?
  • The idea that what happened in Europe was of
    little consequence also negative effected the
    Ottomans. They failed to recognize the
    revolutionary advances going on in Europe as such
    the Ottomans didnt develop a strong country that
    could resist European dominance ?

16
Battle of Lepanto 2nd painting obviously a
Christian perspective!
17
Shia Challenge of the Safavids
  • First years of the 16th century the Safavids
    founded a dynasty that ruled in modern day Iran
    restoring the Persian empire. They became the
    political power, culturally creative, and the
    center of Shiism! (Remember the Buyids from
    Persia were Shia)
  • They were frontier warriors that spread a
    militant form of Islam. They were also Turkish
    nomadic peoples who took advantage of the power
    vacuum created after the Mongols and Timur (much
    like the Ottomans)
  • Safavids were Shia while Ottomans were Sunni!!
  • Sunni believed the 1st 3 caliphs (Bakr, Umar,
    and Uthman) vs. Shia ( Ali Mohammads cousin/
    son-in law succession)
  • Over time the difference between Sunni and Shia
    became much more than just succession, but also
    doctrine, ritual, and law disagreements!
  • Also, division started within the different sects
    too
  • The Ottoman vs. Safavid became one of the most
    sectarian struggles in the history Islam
    (sectarian related to sect)

18
  • Safavid dynasty (Red Heads) were created from
    Sufi mystics and religious preachers
  • Sail al-Din (leader and where name comes from)
    led a militant campaign to reform and spread
    Islam. Participated in fierce local fighting that
    killed the first 3 leaders.
  • 1501 victory at TabrizIsmail named shah (or
    emperor) of Safavids
  • The Safavids later conquered Persia and advanced
    into Iraq. They drove out the Ozbegs (their
    enemy) and even found success along the Ottoman
    border with conversion from Sunni to Shia!
  • Chaldiran (Aug. 1514) epic battle between the
    Ottoman Sunni vs. Safavid Shia. This was fueled
    by Safavid persecution of Sunni and borderland
    support of Shia. While the Ottoman sultan called
    for the open slaughter of all Shias in the
    empire.
  • Ismails forces were busy fighting in the east
    and therefore his full forces werent at the
    battle. While the Ottoman sultan, Selim, had
    muskets and cannons and his full forces were at
    the battle.
  • Huge Safavid defeat!!! But the Ottomans were not
    able to conquer so the Safavids recovered.
    However, Safavid expansion westward stopped along
    with the expansion of Shiism too.

19
Safavid ruler Shah Esmail(Ismail) killingUzbek
leader in battle, 1510
20
Politics and War Under Safavid Shahs
  • Ismail retreated to his palace after his defeat
    at Chaldiran to escapethis led to turmoil within
    the empire ? He was overthrown by Shah Tahmasp I
    (1534-1576) who moved to restore power and check
    the Turkish chiefs and Ozbegs (which he
    subsequently did).
  • Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) (the great) was the shah
    during the height and prosperity of the Safavid
    empire. He created a warrior nobility out of the
    Turkish chiefs and allowed them control over
    villages with peasants providing food and labor
    for their needs. Powerful warriors also held key
    posts in the administration. They were seen as a
    threat so the Safavid leaders started to recruit
    Persian to work in court and imperial
    administration.
  • Safavid leaders also start a similar practice to
    Ottomans with Janissaries. They have a slave army
    of young boys from southern Russia which they
    educate and convert. They hold power over
    firearms in the military and gain power. They
    begin to also hold political powers over time
    like the Janissaries.
  • The Safavid also called on Europe for assistance
    against the Ottomans. The Sherley brothers from
    England taught the Safavids about cannons and
    muskets and the Safavids created special slave
    infantry and a special regiment of musketeers
    with the knowledge. This helps the Safavids to
    become stronger and promised security to its
    people.

21

Shah Abbas I and Isfahan
22
State and Religion-Safavids
  • Turkish language gave way to use of Persian
    language.
  • Safavid leaders took on Persian titles like
    padishah or king of kings
  • Claimed to be divine or Shia imams descents of
    Ali
  • Shia ideology modified to be a pillar of society
    and was upheld by the state
  • -relied on Persian scholars
  • -Mullahs- state supported mosque leaders who
    went along with the planned and direct state
    religion
  • -Holy day of the weekFriday and they had to
    give sermons cursing the first 3 caliphs each
    Friday!
  • Most Iranians converted to Shiism during the
    Safavid rule. Safavids also pressured other
    religions like Christians and Jews to convert.
  • Religion- ideological and institutional support
    of Safavid dynasty. Religion became part of the
    Safavid peoples identity and culture had Shia
    religious celebrations and festivals that were
    only found in Safavid Shiism like the pilgrimage
    to Karbala in Iraq. These difference set Safavid
    Shiims apart for other Arab and Turkish
    neighbors.

23
Elite Affluence and Artistic Splendor
  • Safavid rulers built and restored the land and
    great cities. The greatest patron of art/
    architecture/ restoration was Shah Abbas I
  • Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) created great mosques,
    public bath, gardens, roads, rest houses for
    merchants/ travelers, and even workshops where
    manufactured goods like silk and carpets were
    made. Abbas I also encouraged the economy by
    making trade and travel safer. He encouraged
    trade within the Safavid empire and also
    international trade with India, China, and Europe
    (Portuguese and later the Dutch and English
    became increasing familiar in the Persian Gulf
    and Arabian sea)
  • Abbas I greatest projects were found in his
    capital at Isfahan.

24
Society and Gender (Ottoman and Safavid)
  • Both ruled by absolute monarchs and both had
    warrior aristocracy along with powerful slave
    armies! In both societies the demands by the
    warrior aristocracy on peasants created many
    problems and abuses. This led to banditry,
    peasant uprisings, and peasants fleeing.
  • Both dynasties established imperial workshops
    were products like weapons, rugs, and silks were
    manufactured. Both created policies to encourage
    international trade. The Ottomans here proved
    more successful in the short run because they had
    more access (location and people with overseas
    trade links). The Safavid economy was not as
    developed as the Ottoman economy and remained
    backward.
  • Both dynasties patronized the arts and
    architecture
  • In both dynasties, women were disadvantaged
    legally and socially subordinate to fathers,
    husbands, no real political or religious power.
    In settled areas patriarchal and restrictive
    practices like seclusion and veiling were imposed
    on women, especially the elite! Evidence of a
    struggle where some women were found not to cover
    and to wear brightly colored garments. Many women
    active in trade and even money-lending. Wives and
    concubines influences rulers and princes. Court
    records reveal that women had Islam laws that
    protected their rights to inheritance, decent
    treatment by spouse, and divorce in extreme
    cases. However, these are exceptions and most
    women lived lives of low contact and full of
    domestic chores and hobbies. Women during these
    great Islamic civilizations disappeared from
    history ? ? ?

25
The Rapid Demise of Safavids
  • Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) reflected the Safavid
    Empire at its height. But the Safavid Empire
    would rapidly fall from powerdue in part to this
    great and wise shah ?
  • Abbas I fear was to be overthrown (usurped) by
    his sons. With conspiracy theories feed to him
    like honey from his advisors, Abbas I reacted
    with violence. He killed or blinded all who could
    legitimately succeed him (remind of you of
    perhaps Ivan IV???)
  • Abbas I had a very weak grandson who was placed
    on the throne after his death b/c it was thought
    that he could be easily manipulated ? Princes
    started to kept in the court much like in the
    Ottoman Empire which led to the decline in the
    quality of ruler! There were other able shahs
    like Abbas II (1642-1666) but they were too few
    of them to halt the decline of the empire!
    Factional disputes, rebellions within in empire
    while nomadic raiders, Ottomans, and Mughals
    armies took lands!
  • March 1722 Isfahan attacked by Afghani tribes. By
    October 80,000 people in the city died ? With the
    fall of Isfahan the Safavid Empire ended.
  • Nadir Khan Afshar tried to restore the Safavid
    Empire and proclaimed himself shah in
    1736short-lived though. The area of the Safavid
    Empire became a battleground for neighbors!

26
Mughals and Apex of Muslim India
  • India was a very diverse area and much larger
    than we think of it today. There were many, many
    kingdoms controlled by local princes.
  • Muslims started their advance in 711 with the
    conquest under the Umayyads of the Sind Kingdom
  • Then during the time period of the Abbasid Empire
    an Afghani slave army broke free of Abbasid
    control and began raiding into north India
  • From 1206-1526 these Afghani Muslim leaders
    established a kingdom in north India Delhi
    Sultanate
  • Under the Delhi Sultanate Islam continued
    progressing well into India and South East Asia.
    However, India had a much longer and very complex
    society and religion. Hinduism continued to be
    the main religion of India and from time to time
    conflict occurred between the two religions.
  • The last century of the Delhi Sultante the sultan
    began to lose much power and many territories
    broke free of their control to form independent
    territories both Hindu and Muslim kingdoms
    formed (Gujerat, Malwa, Bengal muslim kingdoms)

27
Mughal Dynasty
  • Islam reached its peak in South Asia under the
    Mughal dynasty created by Babur in 1526
  • Babur was a Turkish chieftain who was driven out
    of his lands by rival chieftains. His goal was
    always to retake Ferghana. However, as he tried
    to take back the kingdom, the Safavid Empire
    expanded cutting off his advance ?
  • Babur expanded into N. Indian in order to gain
    booty to finance various campaigns to retake his
    lost kingdom, Ferghana. But they wars to retake
    Ferghana were unsuccessful so Babur decided to
    focus on India and to expand there. He defeated
    the Lodi Sultan of Delhi Delhi Sultanate. The
    Lodi Sultan had many more men and a large
    elephant force. He should have easily conquered
    Babur. However, Babur had firearms and during the
    conflict the sound scared the elephants who ended
    up actually getting confused and turning on their
    own army!
  • Babur then conquered the Indus/ Ganges plains and
    began the Mughal dynasty in India that would rule
    parts of India for over 300 years!
  • Babur was dynamic he was a fierce soldier/ great
    military strategist/ musician/ patron of art/
    even wrote histories and designed garden!
  • Humayan-in 1530 Humayan the son of Babur took
    over rule at 18. Babur unexpectedly died at 48
    (he fell ill and died within days). With a very
    young son on the throne enemies quickly began to
    strike at the kingdom (Brothers, rajputs, and
    even Afghanis)! By 1540 Humayan was force to flee
    his empire and lived in the Safavid court in
    Persia. From there he began fighting his enemies.
    By 1556 Humayan restored Mughal rule in India in
    Delhi. He then started a campaign of expansion,
    but it was cut short! He fell down the steps of
    his library with books in hand on his way to
    prayer. He hit his head on the steps and died
    within days!

28
Babur Akbar
29
Akbar
  • Ruled India at the same time that Elizabeth I
    ruled England, Philip II ruled Spain, and
    Suleyman the Magnificent ruled the Ottoman
    Empire! Akbar was one of the greatest rulers of
    all world history and fit within the other rulers
    of time.
  • Akbar succeeded his father Humayan at 13 years
    after his unexpected fall. Being so young the
    Mughal enemies again fixes themselves to pounce!
    However, even at a young age Akbar proved to be a
    genius commander.
  • Known for territorial and political
    centralization
  • Akbar slept only about 3 hrs a night and worked
    constantly on improving the Mughal Empire
  • -mission to unite India under 1 rule
  • -personally oversaw building of military and
    administrative systems that were more effective ?
    Divided Empire into provinces, districts, and
    subdistricts. Started to pay some officials in
    money instead of land. Reformed the revenue
    collection of the country
  • - patron of the arts
  • -made important social reforms like encouraging
    intermarriage between Muslims and Indians,
    abolished the jizya or head tax on non-believers,
    made Muslims respect the scared Hindu cow, and
    promoted Hindus to higher offices in government.
  • -policy of reconciliation and cooperation with
    Hindu princes and people. Would conquer Muslim
    kingdoms and depose leaders, but worked with
    rajputs who submitted to his power. He could pit
    the rajputs against powerful Turkish commanders
    and balance the powers of the empire better!

30
Akbar
  • Conquered the Muslim kingdoms of Gujerat,
    Malwa, and Bengal
  • Akbar also married various rajput Hindu
    princesses to make alliance stick.
  • New faith, Din-i-Ilahi, wasnt accepted by either
    Muslims nor Hindus ? Akbar thought it would unite
    his people and end conflict especially dealing
    with religion
  • Mughals also had a warrior aristocracy given land
    grants with peasants forced to support them in
    return for loyalty and cavalry
  • Revenue was gained via tribute and taxes
  • Hindus held power if they swore allegiance to
    Mughals

31
Social Reforms and Change
  • Akbar Public works projects, improved the
    calendar, created living quarters for beggars/
    vagabonds, regulated consumption of alcohol (son
    alcoholic)
  • Encouraged women to remarry if they were widows,
    prohibited the sati (?), was against child
    marriages (no law b/c it was so popular with
    elite), tried to work against the purdah or
    seclusion of women
  • Akbar died in 1605 and outlived friends and
    family to see his sons fighting over the throne
    and the failture of Din-i-Ilahi. His successors
    (Jahangir/ Shah Jahan) were alive during the peak
    of the Mughal Empire, but were more interested in
    the pleasures of life and art rather than leading
    well (more poverty, less innovation/ science,
    less discipline esp. with soldiers!

32
Jahangir and Shah Jahan
  • Under their leadership the massive expansion of
    the Mughal dynasty and the centralization of the
    government continued.
  • They conquered Muslim kingdoms of the Deccan AND
    made the powerful Muslim kingdoms of Bijapurt and
    Golkunda vassals to the Mughal Empire.
  • They were best known for their love of art and
    architecture. There were many famous buildings
    constructed during their reigns.

33
Mughal Splendor and Early European Contacts
  • Developed trade during the 17th century with
    Europe! Remember the 7 Years War and the Black
    Hole of Calcutta
  • India became known for its various industries,
    especially cotton! They made the best cotton in
    the world and our names for fabric are related
    directly to India
  • Calico-(1494-1505) (a printed cotton cloth)
    Indian city of Calicut cloth
  • Chintz-(1605-1615) (printed or glazed cotton
    fabric, typically bright
  • Muslin-(1600) loosely woven cotton fabric
  • Pajamas- (1870-1875) India loose fitting
    trouser
  • Cotton was popular in Europe because it was
    cheap, colorful, and easy to wash.

34
Artistic Achievement-Mughals
  • Jahangir/ Shah Jahan continued with government
    and fought enemies while expanding the
    empire-much due to what Akbar had established.
    However, they were more interested in the good
    like drinking, female dancers, pleasure gardens,
    polo matches (Indian), ox, tiger, elephant
    fights, pachisi (life size version), fashion, and
    court ceremonies
  • Jahangir and Shah Jahan were some of the greatest
    patron of art/ architecture in history of the
    world. They expanded painting workshops, build
    the Taj Mahal, Red Fort at Delhi, Akbars tomb at
    Sikandra blended Persian and Indian traditions
    with a fuse of Islamic traditions. They desired
    to created a paradise on Earth.

35
Taj Mahal
36
Red Fort at Delhi
37
Akbars Tomb Sikandra
38
Court Politics and Position of Elite/ Women
  • Jahangir/ Shah Jahan did not handle the day to
    day administration of the Mughal government
    instead they left this to their bureaucrats.
    While they were focused on the pleasures of life
    their wives strove to influence their reigns and
    gain power.
  • -Nur Jahan (light of the world) married
    Jahangir. She was a widow who later moved to the
    court and he noticed her beauty and decided she
    should be one of his wives. She was very
    intelligent and capable and became the true
    leader behind the powers of the sultan. Jahangir
    had became addicted to wine and opium and Nur
    Jahan took power in the court by placing
    relatives in important positions. She was a great
    patron to the arts and charity.
  • -Mumtaz Mahal (Shah Jahans wife) He loved her
    and was so devoted that he built the Taj Mahal
    for her. In 1631 Mumtaz died around the age of 40
    giving birth to her 19th child! Shah Jahan said
    Empire has no sweetness and life has no relish
    for me now. To enshrine his wives memory, he
    ordered a tomb be built as beautiful as she was
    beautiful. Fine white marble and fabulous jewels
    were gathered from all over Asia while a
    workforce of 20,000 individuals worked for 22
    years to build the famous tomb called the Taj
    Mahal! Shah Jahan also built the Red Fort at
    Delhi and the Peacock Throne (priceless seat of
    gold encrusted with diamonds, rubies, emeralds,
    and pearls).
  • Status of women declined lower age for child
    marriage (9), sati back, seclusion for elite
    women increased, Muslim women had to be veiled,
    and negative effects of dowry caused female birth
    to be looked down upon whereas boys were
    celebrated ?

39
Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal (moom-tahz)
  • Nur Jahan the wife of Jahangir was basically
    ruling the state. She didnt have sons so
    Jahangirs other male children began to fight for
    the powers of the state. One son, Khusrau, even
    tried to usurp his father and take the throne by
    force. He unsuccessfully tried to murder his
    father. When Khusrau rebelled against his father,
    he turned to the Sikhs. This was a nonviolent
    religious group whose doctrines blended Buddhism,
    Hinduism, and Sufism (Islamic mysticism). Their
    leader, Guru Arjun, sheltered Khusrau and
    defended him. In response, the Mughal rulers had
    Arjun arrested and tortured to death. The Sikhs
    thus became the target of the Mughals particular
    hatred! Later, Khusrau was partially blinded by
    his father as punishment for the rebellion. Then,
    Shah Jahan won favor to with the help of his Nur
    Jahan. All possible rivals were assassinated. Nur
    Jahan then changed her support which led to Shah
    Jahan imprisioning her once he ascended to the
    throne.
  • Shan Jahan built the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort at
    Delhi, and the Peacock Throne (priceless seat of
    gold encrusted with diamonds, rubies, emeralds,
    and pearls). While Shah Jahan built these
    magnificent buildings his people suffered. When
    Shah Jahan became ill in 1657 his four sons
    fought for the throne, Aurangzeb executed his
    older brother (his most serious rival), arrested
    and imprisoned his father, and seized power. Shah
    Jahan died a few years later in prison where it
    was said that he had a mirror in his cell that he
    would angle so that he could gaze upon the Taj
    Mahal.

40
Taj Mahal
41
Imperial Decline-Mughals
  • Shah Jahan and Jahangir neglected the Mughal
    state
  • -bureaucracy became bloated and corrupt
  • -productivity and standard of living declined
  • Aurangzeb (awr-uhng-zehb) seized power and
    imprisoned his father. He extended the empire and
    built the empire to its greatest size, but power
    weakened too! Aurangzeb oppressed the people by
    rigidly enforcing Islamic laws-outlawing
    drinking, gambling, and other vices ? He
    appointed censors to police his subjects morals
    and make sure they prayed at the appointed times.
    He tried to erase all Hindu gains, banned new
    construction of Hindu temples, and had Hindu
    monuments destroyed! He brought back the hated
    jizya (tax) on non-Muslim ? ? This pretty much
    outraged most Hindus around India.
  • Hindu Rajputs, whom Akbar converted from enemies
    to allies rebelled against him! Aurangzeb
    defeated them repeatedly, but never completely.
    In the southwest, militant Hindus, called
    Marattas founded their own breakaway state.
    Aurangzeb captured their leader, but the Marattas
    turned to guerrilla warfare. Aurangzeb could
    never conquer them. Meanwhile the Sikhs
    transformed themselves into a militant
    brotherhood. They began building a state in the
    Punjab (northwest India). Aurangzeb had to levy
    heavy burdening taxes on the people to pay for
    these wars. He had abolished all taxes not
    authorized by Islamic law so he ended up doubling
    the taxes on Hindu merchants. This increased
    bitterness and led to further rebellions.
    Aurangzeb need ever increasing funds for his
    army. The more land he conquered the more
    desperate his situation became!

42
Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
  • Closest to achieving chakravartin (bringing all
    of India under one king)
  • Problems constant warfare, which led to
    increases of taxes, and he was away fighting
    instead of being in the capital to make sure
    everything was done correctly. Main problems were
    social and economic issues!
  • Rajputs of Marwar rebelled against Aurangzeb over
    issue of Aurangzeb annexing their lands. Punjab
    sikhs rebelled over land and independence, and
    the Marathas also fought the Mughals.
  • Aurangzeb didnt loses any territory and was able
    to contain these rebellions like with the
    Marathas in the battle of Panipat in 1761 were he
    defeated them just north of Delhi.
  • 30 years after his reign independent states start
    to break off the Mughal Empire (1) governors had
    too many powers from the state and no longer
    listen to the sultan and became independent (2)
    entire provinces started to break free like
    Deccan, Oudh, and Bengal.
  • Also, around this time the French and British
    show up in India to make commercial claims. The
    British East India Company works with local
    rajputs and gains grounds that way. So as the
    Mughal dynasty was receding, the local rajputs
    were growing in power, and the British were
    forging powerful alliances and building up their
    presence in India. Black Hole of Calcutta

43
Global Connections
  • Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires were similar
    to the growth of Russia and China (they too had
    Muslim populations, absolute rule, centralized
    state, and expansion based on new military
    techniques
  • Muslim empire retained active trade from Middle
    East, Africa, India, to Asia (slaves, spices,
    etc)
  • Silver from the Americas flowed into areas like
    Asia to pay for luxury goods
  • Europe became increasingly assertive by
    establishing merchant groups with their own laws
    not subject to state law!
  • Technology and science slowed in Muslim empires
  • Muslim empires didnt feel that Europe was a
    threat! The lack of meeting the growth of Europe
    led to their destruction and the weakening of
    their economies.
  • Muslim empires couldnt compete politically or
    militarily with Europe
  • Mughal decline opened the door for European
    control in India (British/ French Black Hole of
    Calcutta)
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