Project EXCEL-UO Summer Institute 2011 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Project EXCEL-UO Summer Institute 2011


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Project EXCEL-UO Summer Institute2011
Expanding Cultural Awareness of Exceptional
Learners at the University of Oregon
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Project EXCEL-UO Overview
CULTURE CHANGE
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Training Activities
Day Theme
1 AwarenessDefining and Understanding
2 History, Laws, Accommodations, University Supports
3 Universal Design, Planning, Delivering, Evaluating Instruction
4 Developing Goals and Spreading Information
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Day 1 Agenda
  • Concept of Normality
  • Terminology/Communication
  • Children and Youth
  • College Students and Disability Types
  • LUNCH
  • Universal/Inclusive Design
  • Student Panel

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Concept of Normality
  • Brief Overview of Normal Distribution
  • Defining normality and abnormality (Testing)
  • Social Construction of Disability
  • Why categories exist?

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Constructs of Disability (based on the work of
Carol Gill, Chicago Institute of Disability
Research)
  • Medical
  • Sociopolitical
  • Disability is a deficiency or abnormality
  • Disability resides in the individual
  • The remedy for disability-related problems is
    cure or normalization of the individual
  • The agent of remedy is the professional who
    affects the arrangements between the individual
    and society
  • Disability is a difference
  • Disability derives from interaction between
    individual and society
  • The remedy for disability-related problems is a
    change in the interaction between the individual
    and society
  • The agent of remedy can be the individual, an
    advocate, or anyone who affects the arrangements
    between the individual and society

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Terminology
  • People first language students with
    disabilities
  • Ask, dont make assumptions
  • Talk directly
  • Speak normally
  • Be aware of personal space
  • Avoid offensive terms, such as restricted to a
    wheelchair, victim of, suffers from, retarded,
    deformed, crippled.
  • If you are unsure, ask the person with a
    disability what terminology is preferred.

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Facts About Children Youth
  • Approximately 10-12 of students aged 6-21 are
    receiving special education services in public
    elementary, middle, and high schools
  • (U.S. Department of Education, 2005)

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Range of Disabilities Among Children Youth
  • High Incidence Categories
  • Learning Disabilities (LD)
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Speech Language Disorders (SLD)
  • Emotional Behavioral (EBD)/Psychological
  • Mild Mental Retardation (MMR)
  • Low Incidence Categories
  • Visual/Blind
  • Hearing Impair/Deaf
  • Physical/Orthopedic Disabilities
  • Traumatic Brain Injured
  • Autism
  • Moderate Severe Mental Retardation
  • Multiple Disabilities

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Major Differences between K-12 and University
Settings
  • K-12
  • IDEA Mandates Free Appropriate Public Ed
  • Child Find
  • Zero Reject
  • 15 federally defined
  • Categories
  • Mandated Supports and Services including major
    modifications as needed
  • Funding
  • College/University
  • Civil rights law (to prevent discrimination)
  • Self-Disclosure
  • Qualify for admission
  • Broad definition, (record of impairment or
    substantial limitations in major life activity
  • Reasonable Accommodations that do NOT
    fundamentally alter program requirements
  • Limited Funding

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Basic facts about College University
  • Approximately 60 of students without
    disabilities attend some form of postsecondary
    school following high school (NCES, 2006)
  • Approximately 42 of students with disabilities
    report having been enrolled (2 years prior to
    interview, NLTS2)
  • Students with disabilities that do attend are
    approximately 5X more likely to be attending
    2-year community colleges or vocational/technical
    schools rather than 4-year universities.
  • In contrast, students without disabilities are
    most likely to attend 4 year colleges (3 xs)
    rather than 2-year or vocational.

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Percentage of Students With Disabilities in
Universities
  • Approximately 9 of students at 4-year doctorate
    degree granting (public private) institutions
    report having some form of a disability (NCES,
    2006).
  • Definition in university context is broader than
    in K-12
  • At the University of Oregon, approximately 4 of
    students report having a disability.
  • Disclosure in university context vs. disclosure
    in a survey.

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Disabilities In The University Context
  • Were going to talk about disabilities by
    providing an overview with medical labels, common
    characteristics, and typical college student
    experiences.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Learning Disabilities (LD)
  • Brain Injury
  • Health Conditions
  • Psychological/ Mental Health
  • Aspergers Syndrome
  • Mobility
  • Hearing/Deafness
  • Vision/Blindness

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Defining
  • Inattention
  • Hyperactivity
  • Impulsivity
  • Age of OnsetExplicit age-of-onset requirement
    evidence of impairment before 7 years of age.
  • Impairment present in two or more settings
  • Clear evidence of clinically significant
    impairment from symptoms in social, academic or
    occupational functioning


  • (DSM-IV TR )

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ADHD Challenges in College
  • Taking notes
  • Maintaining attention and focus
  • Meeting deadlines
  • Organization (study strategies, writing)
  • Time Management
  • Processing speed (especially reading)
  • Interpersonal relationships (roommate issues)

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ADHD Activity
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/experie
    nces/attexp1a.html
  • Question/Discussion on ADHD?

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Learning Disability
  • Definition
  • A disorder in one or more of the basic
    psychological processes involved in understanding
    or in using language, spoken or written, that may
    manifest itself in an imperfect ability to
    listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do
    mathematical calculations, including such
    conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain
    injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and
    developmental aphasia.
  • The term does not include learning problems that
    are primarily the result of visual, hearing or
    motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of
    emotional disturbance, or of environmental,
    cultural, or economic disadvantage

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Learning Disability--Identification
  • Identification
  • Traditionally LD has been identified as a
    discrepancy between IQ or capacity and
    achievement performance in one or more areas,
    reading, written language, mathematics.
  • By far, the largest proportion of students with
    LD are identified due to difficulties in
    processing written language in the area of
    reading.
  • Increasingly identified by Response to
    Intervention (RTI)
  • Age of Onset-Primarily Childhood

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Learning Disabilities Potential Challenges in
College
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Reading Speed
  • Spelling in class writing
  • Quick responses on exams
  • Organization of writing
  • Comprehending and using spoken language
  • Technical vocabulary
  • MathematicsLesser extent
  • By the time enrolled in college, Students with LD
    may have developed compensatory strategies to
    deal with challenges.

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Oral Language the embedded curriculum
  • Activity
  • Tell a round robin story. Each participant add a
    sentence. The first sentence isYesterday I
    went to the grocery store to buy some vegetables
  • Now we are going to retell the story (with a
    twist). N

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Simulations
  • Other Simulations
  • Perception
  • Figure (Perception)
  • Color/Word (Processing Conflict)
  • Auditory Information
  • Decoding (Reading processing)

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Group Activity
  • In pairs, discuss what you expect of students
  • How might your course design/requirements create
    barriers for students with LD or ADHD?
  • Memory
  • Organization or Time Management
  • Oral Language
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Math
  • Attention Hyperactivity

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Brain Injury and Concussion
  • Disturbance in brain function caused by a blow or
    jolt to the head
  • Usually period of altered consciousness (amnesia
    or coma) from very brief (minutes) to very long
    (months/indefinitely)
  • May impact visual, aural, neurologic,
    perceptive/cognitive, orthopedic, or
    mental/emotional areas
  • Severity ranges from "mild," (a brief change in
    mental status or consciousness) to "severe
    (extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia)

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Brain Injury Some Potential Areas of Difficulty
  • Depends on location and severity of injury
  • Processing speed
  • Reasoning/calculation
  • Judgment
  • Memory/Concentration
  • Speech
  • Physical functions/Motor skills
  • Personality changes, mood swings
  • Organizational abilities may be impacted
  • Sleep

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Brain Injury What you can do
  • Be consistent - helps improve memory, reduce
    confusion, promote emotional control
  • Provide structure - Give step by step
    instructions
  • Allow response time
  • Frequent repetition
  • Avoid overstimulation

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Health Conditions-Defining
  • Includes a range of medical conditions that can
    have a temporary or chronic impact on academic
    performance, i.e. Arthritis, Cancer, Multiple
    Sclerosis, Asthma, AIDS, Cerebral Palsy,
    Diabetes, Fibromyalgia, and heart disease.
  • Medication side effects and the secondary effects
    of chronic illness can impact memory, attention,
    strength, endurance, and energy levels.

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HealthPotential College Challenges
  • Fatigue
  • Pain
  • Concentration
  • Memory
  • Maintaining consistent class attendance due to
    fluctuations in health condition and need for
    treatments
  • Limited mobility
  • Diminished stamina for long writing or reading
    assignments.
  • Tolerance of stress

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Psychological/Mental Health
  • Covers a broad range including Bipolar disorder,
    depression, anxiety, chronic mental illness
  • Often functioning can be greatly improved with
    medication, therapy, and social support

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Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Symptoms of bipolar disorder are more severe than
    the normal ups and downs that everyone goes
    through from time to time.
  • Age of Onset Adolescence/Early Adulthood - At
    least half of all cases start before age 25. Some
    people have their first symptoms during
    childhood, while others may develop symptoms late
    in life.
  • NIMH (2009)

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Depression--Definition
  • People with depressive illnesses do not all
    experience the same symptoms. The severity,
    frequency and duration of symptoms will vary
    depending on the individual and his or her
    particular illness.
  • Symptoms include
  • Persistent sad, anxious or "empty" feelings
  • Feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness and/or
    helplessness
  • Irritability, restlessness
  • Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once
    pleasurable, including sex
  • Fatigue and decreased energy
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering details and
    making decisions
  • Insomnia, earlymorning wakefulness, or excessive
    sleeping
  • Overeating, or appetite loss
  • Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts
  • Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps or
    digestive problems that do not ease even with
    treatment
  • Age of OnsetBetween the ages of 30-40

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Bipolar and/or Depression Potential
College Challenges Cont.
  • Attendance
  • Concentration
  • Adjustment to Medications
  • Meeting Deadlines
  • Tolerance for Stress
  • Financial Stresses
  • Processing Speed

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Anxiety DisorderDefined
  • Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress. It helps
    one deal with a tense situation in the office,
    study harder for an exam, keep focused on an
    important speech. In general, it helps one cope.
    But when anxiety becomes an excessive, irrational
    dread of everyday situations, it has become a
    disabling disorder.
  • Five major types of anxiety disorders are
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD,
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD,
  • Panic Disorder
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Social Phobia (or Social Anxiety Disorder)
  • (NIMH, 2009)

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Anxiety Disorders Potential College Challenges
Cont.
  • Being comfortable in a classroom environment
  • Engagement and participation
  • High stress situations - Taking examinations,
    answering questions, group or individual
    presentations. Meeting deadlines.
  • Course content, such as war or domestic violence
    images or discussions can be triggers

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Psychological College Challenges
  • Poor concentration, fatigue, anxiety,
    irritability, apathy, problems with perception,
    physical symptoms
  • Medications can cause undesirable side effects,
    ie. disorientation, drowsiness, lack of
    creativity
  • When treatment is effective periods of active
    symptoms may be infrequent

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Psychological What you can do
  • Listen to students needs or concerns
  • Engage student in conversation if invited by
    student
  • Invite student to meet with you if you have
    concerns about performance, attendance, etc..
  • Be aware of campus resources Disability
    Services, Counseling Center, Office of Student
    Life
  • Take seriously any reference to suicidal ideation
  • Recognize that getting to class and/or engaging
    with academic work may be a huge undertaking

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Asperger's Syndrome
  • Social Interactions challenge understanding
    obvious and subtle social cues and rules failure
    to develop developmentally appropriate peer
    relationships
  • Communication Skills very literal and concrete,
    may blurt out thoughts, limited use of gestures,
    precocious speech, may have restricted interests,
    repetitive behaviors (especially when stressed)
  • Change is very hard- inflexible adherence to
    non-functional routines or behaviors. Likes
    rules!
  • Needs to find interest or relevance to be
    motivated.
  • Sensory sensitivities smell, textures light,
    sound

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Aspergers - What you can do
  • Provide very concrete and specific instructions
    rules to follow
  • When possible relate to area of interest
  • Make any changes as predictable and structured as
    possible
  • Be aware of hypersensitivities to light, noise,
    smell etc.

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Mobility Impairment--Define
  • Orthopedic or neuromuscular conditions can impact
    mobility and/or hand functions.
  • Spinal Cord Injury (paraplegia or quadriplegia),
    Cerebral Palsy, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis,
    amputation, Muscular Dystrophy, cardiac
    conditions, Arthritis, and respiratory diseases
  • Movement and function may be facilitated by
    canes, walkers, prostheses, or wheelchairs , as
    well as splints or braces
  • Very wide range of experiences, specific
    diagnoses, prognoses, and severity

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Mobility Possible Challenges and College
  • Manipulation of objects grasping, writing, or
    typing
  • Turning pages, retrieving research materials
  • Physical access to classrooms, offices, and
    programs -Identifying accessible seating
  • Increased time to travel between classes
  • Decreased endurance for extended activity

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Mobility - Non-classroom Challenges
  • Heavy doors
  • Cracks in sidewalks
  • Steep ramps/ pathways
  • Crowds
  • Inaccessible restrooms
  • Inattentiveness of others while walking
  • Power outages no elevator access
  • Slick sidewalks due to rain or ice and snow
  • Difficulty transporting books and equipment due
    to needing arms and hands free

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Hearing Impairments DeafnessDefinition
Frank Bender
  • Hearing impairment is a broad term used to
    describe the loss of hearing in one or both ears.
    There are different levels of hearing impairment
  • Hearing impairment refers to complete or partial
    loss of the ability to hear from one or both
    ears. Can be mild, moderate, severe or profound
  • Deafness refers to the complete loss of ability
    to hear from one or both ears.
  • There are two types of hearing impairment
  • Conductive hearing impairment - a problem in the
    outer or middle ear. This is often medically or
    surgically treatable, if there is access to the
    necessary services. Childhood middle ear
    infection is a common cause
  • Sensorineural hearing impairment - usually due to
    a problem with the inner ear, and occasionally
    with the hearing nerve going from there to the
    brain. This type of hearing problem is usually
    permanent and requires rehabilitation, such as
    with a hearing aid. Common causes are excessive
    noise, aging and trauma.
  • (World Health Organization, 2009)

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Degrees of Hearing Loss
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College Challenges for Students with Hearing
Impairment and Those Who are Deaf
  • Unaware of the degree of their hearing loss
  • Following lecture materials, taking effective
    notes, working in groups, and physical and
    emotional challenges associated with fatigue.
  • Emotional barriers impeding requests for support,
    utilizing campus resources, or open to using
    technology supports.
  • A feeling of both ability level and cultural
    isolation frustration.

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Supports for Students with Hearing Impairments or
those Who are Deaf
  • Communication may be enhanced via speech, hearing
    aids, lip reading, or use of an interpreter
    utilizing sign language.
  • FM or infrared amplification systems may be used
    (amplifies sound from microphone to receiver)
  • Many people who are Deaf learn American Sign
    Language (ASL) as their first language, and
    English as their second language.
  • ASL is a distinct language with unique
    characteristics
  • When utilizing an interpreter speak to the
    student.
  • This could also impact writing skills.

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Strategies to Support Students with Hearing
Impairments or those Who are DeafWhat You Can Do
  • When communicating with student, always face the
    student.
  • Facial expressions, gestures, and body language
    will help convey your message.
  • Use visual aids (PPT, Notes, etc.)
  • Try to avoid writing on the white/chalk board and
    talking at the same time if so, repeat
    paraphrase your message to the class.
  • Be aware of your speech volume and pace
  • Check for comprehension A good strategy for
    entire class.
  • Be open to the use of FM technology

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Current Hearing Technology
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Visual Impairments Blindness--Definition
  • Three categories
  • 1) Restricted Central Visual Acuity
  • 2) Visual Field Loss -Restricted Peripheral
    Vision
  • 3) Difficulty with focusing and eye movements
    (Focusing or binocular coordination)
  • "Low vision" a severe visual impairment applied
    to individuals with sight who are unable to read
    the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even
    with the aid of eyeglasses or contact lenses.
    They use a combination of vision and other senses
    to learn, although they may require adaptations
    in lighting or the size of print, and, sometimes,
    Braille.
  • Legally blind" person has less than 20/200
    vision in the better eye or a very limited field
    of vision (20 degrees at its widest point)
  • Totally blind students have no vision and often
    learn via Braille and/or auditory

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Blindness or Low Vision Potential College
Challenges
  • Reading Course material
  • Following visual information presented in class
  • Becoming oriented to campus, and traveling
    throughout campus
  • Taking notes during class
  • Writing papers
  • Responding to written exams
  • Lack of accessibility of some web pages, pdfs,
    and other electronic resources
  • Technology failures
  • Effectively studying visually based concepts

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VisionWhat You Can Do
  • Determine reading materials far in advance (when
    possible make available in electronic format)
  • Describe visually presented information, be aware
    of print size in lectures
  • Minimize non-text content in exam/quizzes
  • Advance copies of lecture notes, slides, etc..

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Student Veterans
  • Wounded Warriors
  • Head injury (different than past wars higher
    survival rate, head trauma often resulting from
    reverberations of loud blasts, as opposed to
    direct impact to the head)
  • Mobility
  • Hearing
  • Psychological

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Universal and Inclusive Design
  • Molly Sirois
  • Advisor, Disability Services
  • 164 Oregon Hall
  • 541-346-1073
  • sirois_at_uoregon.edu

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Constructs of Disability (based on the work of
Carol Gill, Chicago Institute of Disability
Research)
  • Medical
  • Sociopolitical
  • Disability is a deficiency or abnormality
  • Disability resides in the individual
  • The remedy for disability-related problems is
    cure or normalization of the individual
  • The agent of remedy is the professional who
    affects the arrangements between the individual
    and society
  • Disability is a difference
  • Disability derives from interaction between
    individual and society
  • The remedy for disability-related problems is a
    change in the interaction between the individual
    and society
  • The agent of remedy can be the individual, an
    advocate, or anyone who affects the arrangements
    between the individual and society

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Human Variation Model
  • Disability defined as a mismatch between physical
    and mental attributes and the ability of social
    institutions to incorporate those attributes
    Shriner Scotch, 2001

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Universal Design (UD)
  • The design of products and environments to be
    usable by as many people as possible regardless
    of age, ability, or situation without the need
    for adaptation or accommodation

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Universal Design in Education
  • The design of instructional materials and
    activities that makes learning goals achievable
    by individuals with wide differences in their
    abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write,
    understand English, attend, organize, engage, and
    remember.
  • continued


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Universal Design in Education
  • Universal design for learning is achieved by
    means of flexible curricular materials and
    activities that provide alternatives for students
    with differing abilities.
  • These alternatives are built into the
    instructional design and operating systems of
    educational materials. They are not added on
    after-the-fact.
    (Research Connections, Number 5,
    Fall 1999, p. 2)

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Student Panel
  • Undergraduate and Graduate students with
    disabilities share their experiences as college
    students.

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Final Activity
  • Take a few minutes to write
  • Three things you learned and
  • One thing you would like to know.
  • Things to REMEMBER!! Please bring one of your
    course syllabi on Day 3!!!

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Day 2 Agenda
  • History and Laws
  • Special Education
  • Federal Legislation
  • Law and Universities
  • How it Works on College Campuses
  • General Resources
  • Documentation and Notification
  • Accommodations and Other Strategies

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History and Laws
  • History of Special Education
  • IQ testing
  • Civil rights movement
  • State initiatives
  • University of Oregon

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Historical Current Outcomes
  • Employment
  • Earnings
  • Independent Living
  • Post-Secondary
  • Training, 2 Year, 4 year
  • Attendance vs. graduation
  • Increasing numbers
  • Potential causes of poor outcomes

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Legal Issues
  • Heidi von Ravensberg, JD, MBA
  • Adjunct Instructor
  • School of Law
  • University of Oregon
  • (541) 346-2472
  • hvr_at_uoregon.edu

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Federal Legislation Overview
  • 1973 Vocational Rehabilitation Act (Sec. 504)
  • 1974 Educational Amendments Act
  • 1974 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
    (FERPA)
  • 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    (EAHCA)
  • 1986 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments
  • 1990 and 2008 Americans with Disabilities Act
    (ADA)
  • 1990 1997 Individuals with Disabilities
    Education Act (IDEA)

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Law and Universities
  • Non-Discrimination
  • Section 504 (1973 Voc. Rehab. Act) mandates that
    any public institution of higher education that
    receives federal funding including financial aid
    can not discriminate against otherwise qualified
    students with disabilities.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990 ADA)
    mandates that any public or private institution
    with 15 or more employees can not discriminate
    against otherwise qualified individuals with
    disabilities.
  • Admissions
  • Education
  • Exit Requirements

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Admissions
  • Students must be qualified - meet academic and
    technical standards required for admission
  • No quotas on admission
  • Confidentiality - Cannot inquire about a
    disability

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The Enrolled Student
  • Reasonable accommodations
  • Modifications to policies, practices and
    procedures
  • Architectural barrier removal
  • Provision of auxiliary aids and services
  • The institution must make only reasonable
    accommodations or modifications
  • To students who have disclosed and documented
    their disability
  • No undue financial or administrative burden
  • Does not fundamentally or substantially alter
    major program or degree requirements
  • Is not a direct threat to health or safety

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Appropriate educational adjustments INCLUDE
  • Accommodations must be made to allow meaningful
    access to education.
  • Requires one to distinguish between thinking and
    learning processes that are affected by LD or
    ADHD and thinking or learning processes that are
    essential to the academic integrity of a program.
  • Sec. 504 provides examples -- taped texts,
    substitution of required courses, adapting the
    manner in which something is taught or assessed
    -- but provides no guidance on how to apply these
    accommodations.

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Academic Standards
  • Institutions are not required to make
    accommodations that would lower academic
    standards or compromise integrity of programs or
    schools.
  • However, important to be able to justify how an
    alteration would lower the academic standards.

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Legal Decisions
  • Determining Reasonableness of the Requested
    Accommodation
  • Courts will defer to the institutions
    determination where the facts add up to a
    professional academic judgment
  • Courts want to make sure institution goes through
    specific process (did relevant officials consider
    the range of accommodations, feasibility, cost
    and effect on the academic program and come to a
    rationally justifiable conclusion that the
    available alternatives would result either in
    lowering academic standards or requiring
    substantial program alteration.)
  • Wynne v. Tufts University School of medicine, 932
    F.2d 19 (1st Cir. 1991).

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Types of Accommodations
  • Auxiliary aids and services
  • Assistance animals
  • Barrier removal
  • Reduced course loads
  • Incompletes
  • Refrain from academic suspension or termination
  • Substitution of courses
  • Waiver of courses
  • Exam accommodations
  • Excuse or accommodate behavior or conduct

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Legal Decisions
  • Requested accommodations were ordered or found
    reasonable
  • Extra time to take exam or complete course of
    study
  • Retake examinations or courses
  • Modified curriculum or course substitutions
  • Receive incomplete in course
  • Refrain from suspending from academic program

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How it Works on College Campuses
  • Typically one office is responsible for
    determining eligibility and coordinating the
    provision of accommodations
  • The entire institution is responsible for making
    sure the campus is inclusive and welcoming to all
    students

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University of Oregon Disability Services
  • 164 Oregon Hall
  • (541) 346-1155
  • disabsrv_at_uoregon.edu

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College Disability Resource Offices
  • Determine eligibility for accommodations, and
    coordinate as needed
  • Facilitate removal of barriers architectural,
    curricular, attitudinal
  • Empower students to articulate their needs and
    self-advocate
  • Provide guidance on academic issues/decisions
  • Work with faculty and others to increase access
    for all students, and to provide individual
    student accommodations when needed
  • Serve as a resource to university community
  • Develop disability related institutional policies
    and procedures

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Other Support
  • Time management/organizational skills
  • Specific study strategies
  • Academic Planning
  • Teaching self-advocacy/ self-determination
  • Conferencing

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Other UO Resources
  • University Counseling Center
  • Academic Advising
  • Teaching and Learning Center
  • Office of Dean of Students
  • Career Center
  • University Health Center

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Sample Syllabus Statement
  • The University of Oregon is working to create
    inclusive learning environments. Please notify
    me if there are aspects of the instruction or
    design of this course that result in barriers to
    your participation. You may also wish to contact
    Disability Services in 164 Oregon Hall at
    346-1155 or disabsrv_at_uoregon.edu

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Course Syllabi
  • Procedural Considerations
  • Adding a disability statement
  • Working in pairs develop a statement for students
    with disabilities that could be included in your
    course outline.
  • Report Out

84
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85
How you Invite Students to Discuss
Barriers/Needs
  • In pairs, think about the first day of class.
  • Do you think you could say or do something that
    would make students with disabilities more
    comfortable disclosing and talking with you?
  • Write a brief example.

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Documentation
  • Students identify disability and provide
    documentation.
  • Meet with student and review all info, including
    history, report of experience, other sources
    (parent/teacher reports)
  • Substantial limitation in a major life activity
  • Diagnosis, Functional Limitations
  • Impact in academic environment

86
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Confidentiality of Documentation
  • Disability related information is confidential.
    The DS office is charged with maintaining this
    confidentiality.
  • Typically students will want to discuss
    accommodation needs directly with instructors,
    and often will share specific relevant
    information.
  • However, it is the students choice whether or
    not to disclose information, such as the type of
    disability.

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Determination of Accommodations
  • One of the ways that we meet our legal
    obligations and support students is through the
    accommodation process.
  • Enable an otherwise qualified individual to
    have an equal opportunity to participate.
  • Focus of all accommodations is to mitigate the
    effects of disability
  • Designed on an individual basis, may vary from
    class to class for the same person, i.e.
    notetaker in one setting, lab assistant in
    another.

88
89
Proactive Considerations for Determining
Appropriate Accommodations
  • Is the individual Otherwise Qualified?
  • Is the requested accommodation an appropriate or
    reasonable academic adjustment?
  • Would the accommodation require a substantial
    modification to an essential element of a
    program?

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Other Accommodation Considerations
  • Reasonable accommodations should not result in
    the lowering of academic standards or alteration
    of the fundamental nature of a course or program.
  • Denying an accommodation must only be done after
    careful consideration by qualified professionals
    who are knowledgeable about disability and legal
    implications. It is never appropriate for faculty
    or staff to deny a requested accommodation
    without documented consultation.

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Discussion Are These Reasonable Accommodations?
  • A student with visual processing challenges
    requests to not have to write a required paper
  • Student with a learning disability in writing
    asks to spell check quiz
  • Student with a serious documented illness misses
    four weeks of your class
  • Elevator malfunctions and as a result a student
    misses a midterm

92
Notification Letters
  • Outlines recommended accommodations
  • May be individualized for a specific class or
    situation, or may be very generic and stable over
    time (i.e. extra time on all exams)
  • Appropriate to have a private discussion with
    student about their needs and perceptions of any
    barriers in a particular course
  • The student chooses how much personal information
    to share

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Notification Activity
  • Imagine that Kevin comes to you at the beginning
    of the first class, hands you his notification
    letter and then goes back to his seat.
  • OR Kevin sends you an email letting you know that
    he has a notification letter.
  • In pairs, discuss how this process of
    notification could be improved

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Typical Accommodations
  • Electronic Formats of Readings
  • Class Relocation
  • Tests and Quizzes
  • Separate Testing Environment
  • Additional Time On Exams
  • Modified Exam Format
  • Assistive Technology
  • Notetaking
  • Sign Language Interpreters
  • Flexible Attendance Policies
  • Course Substitutions
  • Decelerated program

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Alternate Print Formats
  • Most appropriate for students
  • who are unable to or have difficulty with reading
    standard print (blindness low vision visual
    focusing/tracking attention problems)
  • Who have difficulty with reading speed and/or
    reading comprehension
  • Most commonly electronic formats are prepared for
    access to speech output, enlarged font, and
    Braille formats.

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Alternate Print Formats What you can do
  • Order textbooks or course packets early
  • Ask publishers if they have an accessible
    electronic version available before you commit to
    a particular text
  • Identify the order of readings early, especially
    if using excerpts or partial textbooks.
  • Be aware of access when posting online

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Class Relocation
  • Necessary in cases where
  • a student is unable to physically get into the
    building or classroom
  • The distance or terrain between classes is not
    able to be navigated, so they may need to be
    clustered closer together

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Class Relocation and Mobility Challenges what
you can do
  • Be sensitive to the fact that some students may
    have difficulty traveling between classes
    quickly.
  • If a class or class related activity is held in
    an alternate location, ie. Library, Museum, be
    aware of possible transportation challenges
  • Be aware of the layout of the classroom and any
    need for adjustable desks, etc..
  • Report unsafe or hazardous conditions

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Tests/Quizzes
  • When test accommodations cannot be provided by
    the instructor, students may request that
    Disability Services coordinate this process
  • The student submits an online request AFTER the
    student has met with the instructor, and
    discussed accommodations and test parameters
  • The request should be made early, but no later
    than 5 working days before the test. Disability
    Services works in collaboration with the Testing
    Center to facilitate this process.

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Separate Testing Environment
  • Most appropriate for students
  • who have difficulty with
  • Visual distractions
  • Any type of noise
  • Extreme anxiety around performance
  • Perceptions that others are watching them
  • Need to verbalize questions or move around

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Testing Environments- What you can do
  • Discuss accommodation needs privately with
    student
  • Respond in a timely manner if tests are being
    proctored by Disability Services and information
    or confirmation is requested
  • Minimize test scheduling changes whenever
    possible
  • Consider whether you or your department has
    access to an appropriate quiet place for students
    to take exams/quizzes
  • For larger classes, consider offering an
    alternate administration in a smaller room with a
    proctor, ie. GTF who can respond to questions

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Additional Time on Exams
  • Most appropriate for students who
  • Experience slower processing speed (i.e. ability
    at 97, processing speed 3)
  • Experience memory/retention problems
  • Need more time to write and organize thoughts
  • Experience slow reading speed
  • Need a scribe, reader, computer assisted, or
    modified format
  • Experience panic or an inability to think through
    problems when under intense time pressure

103
Additional Time on Exams What you can do
  • Some students prefer to take exams with their
    class, but need additional time. Consider
    allowing such a student to start the exam
    earlier, or move to an alternate location at the
    end of the exam for additional time.
  • Consider designing tests so that there is
    additional time built in to the structure for all
    students

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Modified Exam Format
  • Most appropriate for students who have difficulty
    or are unable to demonstrate their knowledge in
    certain formats.
  • For example
  • A student may need a Braille version of an exam,
    a reader, or to utilize speech technology.
  • A student who is not able to accurately fill in
    the bubbles on a scantron sheet may need to mark
    off answers .
  • A student unable to write may need to respond to
    questions on a computer or to a scribe
  • For performance or studio based courses, an
    alternate format may be reasonable, i.e.
    videotaped presentation, oral in front of
    instructor instead of entire class

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Modified Exam Format What you can do
  • Consider the feasibility of offering more than
    one exam format for all students, ie. take home
    version or in class version.
  • Prepare exams in Word with simple text (limited
    graphics). This format is the easiest for
    creating other formats, ie. Braille.

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Modifications to Course Requirements
  • In many cases small adjustments to existing
    course requirements may be appropriate. For
    example, a student who experiences panic attacks,
    or stutters, or has great difficulty with speech
    fluency, may be allowed to write a paper in place
    of giving a presentation. Alternatives to group
    work may be appropriate in some classes.

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Discussion Question
  • What are some strategies to minimize the need for
    individualized test format accommodations or
    modifications to course requirements in your
    course?

108
Assistive Technology
  • Scanned materials to speech. Most commonly used
    by students who either are unable to read
    standard print (low vision, or blind) or have
    significant difficulty with reading speed or
    comprehension, and learn more effectively through
    auditory input
  • Voice recognition
  • Enlarged text
  • Alternate formats
  • Range of different inputs (puff switch,
    alternative keyboards, etc)
  • .

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Notetaking
  • Most appropriate for students who have difficulty
  • Writing (fine motor movement, paralysis, pain in
    hand, fingers, or wrist)
  • Processing auditory information
  • With focus and concentration trouble listening
    and writing at the same time
  • Hearing clearly enough to accurately take notes
  • Seeing visual material presented, or seeing well
    enough to write or type notes, switching eye
    focus from paper to screen or instructor

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Notetaking What you can do
  • Consider making outlines and/or notes available
    to all students (rotate volunteers)
  • Allow students to record lectures to supplement
    notes
  • Allow students to use laptops
  • Present new or technical vocabulary visually, use
    in context
  • Prepare lecture outline and make available in
    advance
  • Respond quickly to requests to help identify a
    volunteer notetaker

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Sign Language Interpreters
  • Provided when American Sign Language is the most
    effective form of communication
  • Classes, meetings with instructors, study groups,
    any class related activity
  • When requested, campus events and programs

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Sign Language Interpreters What you can do
  • Make sure that any video clips, movies, etc. are
    captioned, provide scripts when available
  • Provide an additional copy of the textbook or
    other materials to the sign language interpreter
  • Be aware that lighting can be a challenge
    especially in darker rooms

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Flexible Attendance Policies
  • It may be appropriate to be more flexible with
    strict attendance criteria in cases where a
    student is experiencing significant medical
    challenges, and unavoidably misses classes, i.e.
    surgery, chronic illness flare up, manic episode,
    chemotherapy treatment, serious depression, or
    blood transfusions

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Activity
  • Sierra is going through chemotherapy treatments
    and misses 3 consecutive weeks of class.
  • Working in pairs, think about one of your
    classes.
  • Describe two or three accommodations that might
    be reasonable for this student.

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Decelerated Program
  • Some students need to complete their
    undergraduate or graduate degrees over a longer
    than typical period of time.
  • A student may need to reduce their per term
    course load because of medical conditions.
  • There can be financial aid and scholarship
    implications.

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Course Substitutions
  • May be considered for students who are unable to
    meet specific academic requirements due to the
    impact of a disability. These may occur at the
    departmental level with academic major
    requirements, or at the institutional level with
    general education.
  • For example, a student who is deaf may be allowed
    to meet reading competency requirements and have
    a cultural component substitute for an oral
    component of meeting the BA language requirement.
    A student with a severe math disability may be
    allowed to substitute computer based, or logic
    courses.

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Many Accommodations Occur Outside of
Classroom/Lab Settings
  • Housing
  • Recreational
  • Programs/events
  • Student Union
  • Libraries
  • Museums
  • Student Employment
  • Tutoring/Support Programs

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118
Scenario Activity
  • Sarah contacts you by email to report that she
    has just been released from two days in the
    hospital due to stress, and has been unable to
    attend class for the past 5 days. She has a
    midterm exam tomorrow.
  • How might you respond, what other information
    would you want to have? What would you do?

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Scenario Considerations
  • Separate the immediate issue of the exam tomorrow
    from the medical situation that may or may not be
    an ongoing concern.

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What if you found out that
  • She is a freshman who just broke up with her
    boyfriend of 2 years
  • OR
  • She has Bipolar Disorder and stopped taking her
    medications last week
  • OR
  • She is a returning veteran and a tire blow out
    (like a bomb blast) on the freeway triggered a
    full panic attack she felt safer at the VA
    hospital

120
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Final Activity
  • If you wanted to tell other faculty members in
    your department two important things about
    accommodating students with disabilities what
    would they be?
  • Please bring a syllabus tomorrow

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Day 3 Practice - Agenda
  • Universal Design an Overview
  • Adaptive Technology Center
  • Creating an Accessible PDF and Syllabus
    Considerations
  • Demonstration of Kurzweil 3000
  • Universal Design and Blackboard
  • Universal Design Designing, Delivering and
    Evaluating Instruction

123
Day 3 Practice
  • Today we want to focus on Instruction. In doing
    so, we want to spend time thinking about the
    following
  • Designing InstructionSyllabi, Course
    Planningcontinuation of yesterday afternoon
  • Delivering Instruction-Teaching strategies
  • Evaluating Students
  • Rather than thinking about these issues as
    pertaining ONLY to students with disabilities, we
    want to think about strategies that are good for
    students with disabilities but also good for all
    students.

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Universal Design An Overview
  • What is Universal Design?
  • The philosophy comes from the disciplines of
    engineering and urban planning based upon the
    premise of universal access for all individuals.
  • In terms of developing and building a community,
    the core value would be to permit the optimal
    accessibility for all individuals without having
    to make special accommodations by the nature of
    the pre-planned design.
  • The following factors would be considered
    Safety, engineering options, environmental
    issues, aesthetics, and cost (North Carolina
    Center for Universal Design).

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Whats UDs Connection to Education and the UO?
  • Principles of UD are now being incorporated
    within the educational continuum.
  • Why? With such student diversity, using a UD
    preplanned approach will provide access to
    learning to a greater number of students and will
    potentially reduce the need for individual
    accommodations.
  • A pre-planned UD approach to learning and
    instruction will benefit both the student and the
    professor/instructor.

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126

Universal Design for Learning and Instruction
  • Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Developed by
    Center for Applied Technology (CAST). UDL is a
    student-focused method that provides strategies
    and advocacy skills to students to help improve
    their access and understanding of the course
    material.
  • Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) Developed
    by researchers from University of Connecticut.
    UDI is an approach to college instruction that
    anticipates diversity of learners and provides a
    framework for university faculty to incorporate
    inclusive strategies into their teaching.
  • Websites
  • CAST www.cast.org
  • University of Connecticut www.facultyware.uconn.e
    du

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Examples of UDI
  • Planning for Instruction
  • Physical Characteristics of Class Room Setting
  • Syllabi
  • Delivery Instruction Curriculum
  • Interaction
  • Material/Information Delivery
  • Informational Resources and technology
  • Environment Class Climate
  • Evaluating Instruction Assessment
  • Feedback Mechanisms
  • Clear Communication and Expectations
  • Assessment Administration and Rubrics

127
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128
Adaptive Technology CenterJames Bailey,
Adaptive Technology Access Adviser 140 Knight
Library1299 University of Oregon Eugene, OR
97403-1299541-346-1076 jbailey_at_uoregon.edu
129
Adaptive Technology Center Purpose
  • Support adaptive technology across campus
  • Support students using adaptive technology
  • Provide alt-text conversion to students
  • Advise on accessible electronic documents
  • Advise on accessible web

130
Alternative Texts
  • A very critical area for student success
  • Required by students who are blind or low-vision
  • Required by students with reading LD
  • Faculty have great impact on this area

131
Alternative Texts - 2
  • Texts that can be read by assistive technology
  • Paper text requires conversion
  • Electronic texts may be accessible

132
What is an Accessible Alternative Text?
  • Braille
  • Large print
  • Electronic files gt text files audio files

133
Focus On Accessible PDF Files
134
Rationale
  • PDF is the most common document file on Moodle or
    Blackboard
  • May be structured for accessibility
  • This helps students with low vision, blindness
    and reading learning disabilities

135
Tools
  • MS Word
  • Acrobat Pro

136
Types of PDF Files
  • Picture only
  • Searchable text
  • Tagged

137
Ways to Create PDF Files
  • Scan a document into PDFthe least accessible
    product
  • Convert from a picture filesimilar to a
    scanned document
  • Create from word processing file more accessible

138
Examples of Poor PDF files
  • Very poor initial copy
  • Poor copy and a marked original

139
Poor Scanning Example One
140
Poor Scanning Example Two
141
Identifying a Picture Only PDF
142
Identifying an Editable PDF
143
The Select Button
144
Converting image-only to text
  • Convert within Acrobat pro

145
Reading converted text
  • Recheck with select and try to read it

146
Creating an Accessible PDF with MS Word
  • Using correct document structure in Word
    makes for a very accessible PDF.
  • It essentially takes no more time than ignoring
    document structure.

147
Sample Syllabus
148
Sample Syllabus
  • Columns
  • Headers
  • Table

149
Sample Syllabus page two
  • Table
  • Headers
  • Image

150
Exercises2. Creating PDF from MS word
  • Software
  • MS Office 2000 (or later) on Windows platform
  • Adobe Acrobat 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, or 8
  • Office 2007 requires Acrobat 8.1 (may also use
    Save as PDF plug-in from Microsoft)

151
Creating PDF from MS word
  • Sample Workflow
  • Create your content in MS Word
  • Use "Styles" to provide document structure and
    modify content presentation
  • Use the Column tool in MS Word to display
    multi-column layout
  • Add appropriate descriptions for any images

152
Creating PDF from MS word - headers
  • Use Headers instead of just Bold

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154
Creating PDF from MS word columns Use
Columns instead of just tabs
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156
Note Ruler
157
Creating PDF from MS word - tables
  • Use headers in tables
  • Expand abbreviationsi.e. Tuesday instead of Tue

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159
Exercises2. Creating PDF from MS word - images
  • Use alternative text descriptions

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Creating PDF from MS word - conversion
162
Check Reading Order One
163
Check Reading Order Two
164
Summary Accessible PDF
  • Start with clean well copied original matter
  • Create text-based or editable text
  • Create new documents in Word
  • Use header styles rather than BOLD
  • Create true columns
  • Put in Table headers
  • Use alt-text for images

165
  • Demonstration of Kurzweil 3000

166
UNIVERSAL DESIGN BLACKBOARD
  • Robert Voelker-Morris
  • Teaching Effectiveness Program (TEP)
  • Teaching and Learning Center
  • 68 PLC (The Teaching and Learning Center)
  • 541-346-1934
  • rmorris1_at_uoregon.edu

167
Blackboard
  • Create File Name Conventions
  • Provide File Extensions
  • Construct Navigational Consistency
  • Designate Essential Content
  • Provide Support Resources
  • Consider Multiple Media Types

168
I. Planning for Instruction
  • Designing Your Course
  • Working in groups, create a list of important
    issues to consider when designing your course.
    These issues should be relevant to students with
    disabilities but might also be important for all
    learners.
  • Try to incorporate issues into your own course
    planning (examples, list of assignments, choices,
    timing of reading, strategies for instruction,
    calendar of topics, due dates, homework,
    assessment, grading options, etc.)

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II. Delivering InstructionInstructional
Techniques
  • Multi-sensory or multi-format instructional
    approaches (Visual, verbal, auditory,
    practice/hands on)
  • Auditory output redundant with info on visual
    displays
  • Visual output redundant with auditory displays
  • Opportunities for group work to verbalize and
    apply understanding
  • Challenge!!
  • Balancing the need to cover a lot of content
    while delivering it in a variety of instructional
    formats!

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Delivering InstructionInstructional Techniques
continued
  • Grouping Strategies (Peer-tutoring, Cooperative
    learning).
  • The importance of clearly defined roles
  • Individual Group Accountability
  • Can be implemented for projects or classroom
    activities

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Delivering Instruction
  • Individually, think of a commonly taught lesson/
    activity in your area. Write down the topic and
    the typical approach you use to deliver
    instruction.
  • Working in pairs, discuss each approach and
    generate a list of strategies that might enhance
    the instruction for students with disabilities
    AND all students--REPORT

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III. Evaluating Students/ Assessment
  • Providing options and choice
  • Rubrics
  • Curriculum-based Assessment

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Providing Options Choice
  • Different assessments for different content
    throughout the course.
  • Choice of assessment using alternatives for each
    content area (multiple choice, or essay).
  • Pr
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Project EXCEL-UO Summer Institute 2011

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Title: Project EXCEL-UO Summer Institute 2011


1
Project EXCEL-UO Summer Institute2011
Expanding Cultural Awareness of Exceptional
Learners at the University of Oregon
1
2
Project EXCEL-UO Overview
CULTURE CHANGE
2
3
Training Activities
Day Theme
1 AwarenessDefining and Understanding
2 History, Laws, Accommodations, University Supports
3 Universal Design, Planning, Delivering, Evaluating Instruction
4 Developing Goals and Spreading Information
3
4
Day 1 Agenda
  • Concept of Normality
  • Terminology/Communication
  • Children and Youth
  • College Students and Disability Types
  • LUNCH
  • Universal/Inclusive Design
  • Student Panel

5
Concept of Normality
  • Brief Overview of Normal Distribution
  • Defining normality and abnormality (Testing)
  • Social Construction of Disability
  • Why categories exist?

5
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7
Constructs of Disability (based on the work of
Carol Gill, Chicago Institute of Disability
Research)
  • Medical
  • Sociopolitical
  • Disability is a deficiency or abnormality
  • Disability resides in the individual
  • The remedy for disability-related problems is
    cure or normalization of the individual
  • The agent of remedy is the professional who
    affects the arrangements between the individual
    and society
  • Disability is a difference
  • Disability derives from interaction between
    individual and society
  • The remedy for disability-related problems is a
    change in the interaction between the individual
    and society
  • The agent of remedy can be the individual, an
    advocate, or anyone who affects the arrangements
    between the individual and society

7
8
Terminology
  • People first language students with
    disabilities
  • Ask, dont make assumptions
  • Talk directly
  • Speak normally
  • Be aware of personal space
  • Avoid offensive terms, such as restricted to a
    wheelchair, victim of, suffers from, retarded,
    deformed, crippled.
  • If you are unsure, ask the person with a
    disability what terminology is preferred.

8
9
Facts About Children Youth
  • Approximately 10-12 of students aged 6-21 are
    receiving special education services in public
    elementary, middle, and high schools
  • (U.S. Department of Education, 2005)

9
10
Range of Disabilities Among Children Youth
  • High Incidence Categories
  • Learning Disabilities (LD)
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Speech Language Disorders (SLD)
  • Emotional Behavioral (EBD)/Psychological
  • Mild Mental Retardation (MMR)
  • Low Incidence Categories
  • Visual/Blind
  • Hearing Impair/Deaf
  • Physical/Orthopedic Disabilities
  • Traumatic Brain Injured
  • Autism
  • Moderate Severe Mental Retardation
  • Multiple Disabilities

10
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11
11
12
Major Differences between K-12 and University
Settings
  • K-12
  • IDEA Mandates Free Appropriate Public Ed
  • Child Find
  • Zero Reject
  • 15 federally defined
  • Categories
  • Mandated Supports and Services including major
    modifications as needed
  • Funding
  • College/University
  • Civil rights law (to prevent discrimination)
  • Self-Disclosure
  • Qualify for admission
  • Broad definition, (record of impairment or
    substantial limitations in major life activity
  • Reasonable Accommodations that do NOT
    fundamentally alter program requirements
  • Limited Funding

13
Basic facts about College University
  • Approximately 60 of students without
    disabilities attend some form of postsecondary
    school following high school (NCES, 2006)
  • Approximately 42 of students with disabilities
    report having been enrolled (2 years prior to
    interview, NLTS2)
  • Students with disabilities that do attend are
    approximately 5X more likely to be attending
    2-year community colleges or vocational/technical
    schools rather than 4-year universities.
  • In contrast, students without disabilities are
    most likely to attend 4 year colleges (3 xs)
    rather than 2-year or vocational.

13
14
Percentage of Students With Disabilities in
Universities
  • Approximately 9 of students at 4-year doctorate
    degree granting (public private) institutions
    report having some form of a disability (NCES,
    2006).
  • Definition in university context is broader than
    in K-12
  • At the University of Oregon, approximately 4 of
    students report having a disability.
  • Disclosure in university context vs. disclosure
    in a survey.

14
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18
Disabilities In The University Context
  • Were going to talk about disabilities by
    providing an overview with medical labels, common
    characteristics, and typical college student
    experiences.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Learning Disabilities (LD)
  • Brain Injury
  • Health Conditions
  • Psychological/ Mental Health
  • Aspergers Syndrome
  • Mobility
  • Hearing/Deafness
  • Vision/Blindness

18
19
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Defining
  • Inattention
  • Hyperactivity
  • Impulsivity
  • Age of OnsetExplicit age-of-onset requirement
    evidence of impairment before 7 years of age.
  • Impairment present in two or more settings
  • Clear evidence of clinically significant
    impairment from symptoms in social, academic or
    occupational functioning


  • (DSM-IV TR )

19
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ADHD Challenges in College
  • Taking notes
  • Maintaining attention and focus
  • Meeting deadlines
  • Organization (study strategies, writing)
  • Time Management
  • Processing speed (especially reading)
  • Interpersonal relationships (roommate issues)

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ADHD Activity
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/experie
    nces/attexp1a.html
  • Question/Discussion on ADHD?

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Learning Disability
  • Definition
  • A disorder in one or more of the basic
    psychological processes involved in understanding
    or in using language, spoken or written, that may
    manifest itself in an imperfect ability to
    listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do
    mathematical calculations, including such
    conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain
    injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and
    developmental aphasia.
  • The term does not include learning problems that
    are primarily the result of visual, hearing or
    motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of
    emotional disturbance, or of environmental,
    cultural, or economic disadvantage

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Learning Disability--Identification
  • Identification
  • Traditionally LD has been identified as a
    discrepancy between IQ or capacity and
    achievement performance in one or more areas,
    reading, written language, mathematics.
  • By far, the largest proportion of students with
    LD are identified due to difficulties in
    processing written language in the area of
    reading.
  • Increasingly identified by Response to
    Intervention (RTI)
  • Age of Onset-Primarily Childhood

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Learning Disabilities Potential Challenges in
College
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Reading Speed
  • Spelling in class writing
  • Quick responses on exams
  • Organization of writing
  • Comprehending and using spoken language
  • Technical vocabulary
  • MathematicsLesser extent
  • By the time enrolled in college, Students with LD
    may have developed compensatory strategies to
    deal with challenges.

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Oral Language the embedded curriculum
  • Activity
  • Tell a round robin story. Each participant add a
    sentence. The first sentence isYesterday I
    went to the grocery store to buy some vegetables
  • Now we are going to retell the story (with a
    twist). N

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Simulations
  • Other Simulations
  • Perception
  • Figure (Perception)
  • Color/Word (Processing Conflict)
  • Auditory Information
  • Decoding (Reading processing)

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Group Activity
  • In pairs, discuss what you expect of students
  • How might your course design/requirements create
    barriers for students with LD or ADHD?
  • Memory
  • Organization or Time Management
  • Oral Language
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Math
  • Attention Hyperactivity

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Brain Injury and Concussion
  • Disturbance in brain function caused by a blow or
    jolt to the head
  • Usually period of altered consciousness (amnesia
    or coma) from very brief (minutes) to very long
    (months/indefinitely)
  • May impact visual, aural, neurologic,
    perceptive/cognitive, orthopedic, or
    mental/emotional areas
  • Severity ranges from "mild," (a brief change in
    mental status or consciousness) to "severe
    (extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia)

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Brain Injury Some Potential Areas of Difficulty
  • Depends on location and severity of injury
  • Processing speed
  • Reasoning/calculation
  • Judgment
  • Memory/Concentration
  • Speech
  • Physical functions/Motor skills
  • Personality changes, mood swings
  • Organizational abilities may be impacted
  • Sleep

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Brain Injury What you can do
  • Be consistent - helps improve memory, reduce
    confusion, promote emotional control
  • Provide structure - Give step by step
    instructions
  • Allow response time
  • Frequent repetition
  • Avoid overstimulation

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Health Conditions-Defining
  • Includes a range of medical conditions that can
    have a temporary or chronic impact on academic
    performance, i.e. Arthritis, Cancer, Multiple
    Sclerosis, Asthma, AIDS, Cerebral Palsy,
    Diabetes, Fibromyalgia, and heart disease.
  • Medication side effects and the secondary effects
    of chronic illness can impact memory, attention,
    strength, endurance, and energy levels.

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HealthPotential College Challenges
  • Fatigue
  • Pain
  • Concentration
  • Memory
  • Maintaining consistent class attendance due to
    fluctuations in health condition and need for
    treatments
  • Limited mobility
  • Diminished stamina for long writing or reading
    assignments.
  • Tolerance of stress

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Psychological/Mental Health
  • Covers a broad range including Bipolar disorder,
    depression, anxiety, chronic mental illness
  • Often functioning can be greatly improved with
    medication, therapy, and social support

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Bipolar Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Symptoms of bipolar disorder are more severe than
    the normal ups and downs that everyone goes
    through from time to time.
  • Age of Onset Adolescence/Early Adulthood - At
    least half of all cases start before age 25. Some
    people have their first symptoms during
    childhood, while others may develop symptoms late
    in life.
  • NIMH (2009)

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Depression--Definition
  • People with depressive illnesses do not all
    experience the same symptoms. The severity,
    frequency and duration of symptoms will vary
    depending on the individual and his or her
    particular illness.
  • Symptoms include
  • Persistent sad, anxious or "empty" feelings
  • Feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness and/or
    helplessness
  • Irritability, restlessness
  • Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once
    pleasurable, including sex
  • Fatigue and decreased energy
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering details and
    making decisions
  • Insomnia, earlymorning wakefulness, or excessive
    sleeping
  • Overeating, or appetite loss
  • Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts
  • Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps or
    digestive problems that do not ease even with
    treatment
  • Age of OnsetBetween the ages of 30-40

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Bipolar and/or Depression Potential
College Challenges Cont.
  • Attendance
  • Concentration
  • Adjustment to Medications
  • Meeting Deadlines
  • Tolerance for Stress
  • Financial Stresses
  • Processing Speed

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Anxiety DisorderDefined
  • Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress. It helps
    one deal with a tense situation in the office,
    study harder for an exam, keep focused on an
    important speech. In general, it helps one cope.
    But when anxiety becomes an excessive, irrational
    dread of everyday situations, it has become a
    disabling disorder.
  • Five major types of anxiety disorders are
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD,
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD,
  • Panic Disorder
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Social Phobia (or Social Anxiety Disorder)
  • (NIMH, 2009)

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Anxiety Disorders Potential College Challenges
Cont.
  • Being comfortable in a classroom environment
  • Engagement and participation
  • High stress situations - Taking examinations,
    answering questions, group or individual
    presentations. Meeting deadlines.
  • Course content, such as war or domestic violence
    images or discussions can be triggers

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Psychological College Challenges
  • Poor concentration, fatigue, anxiety,
    irritability, apathy, problems with perception,
    physical symptoms
  • Medications can cause undesirable side effects,
    ie. disorientation, drowsiness, lack of
    creativity
  • When treatment is effective periods of active
    symptoms may be infrequent

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Psychological What you can do
  • Listen to students needs or concerns
  • Engage student in conversation if invited by
    student
  • Invite student to meet with you if you have
    concerns about performance, attendance, etc..
  • Be aware of campus resources Disability
    Services, Counseling Center, Office of Student
    Life
  • Take seriously any reference to suicidal ideation
  • Recognize that getting to class and/or engaging
    with academic work may be a huge undertaking

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Asperger's Syndrome
  • Social Interactions challenge understanding
    obvious and subtle social cues and rules failure
    to develop developmentally appropriate peer
    relationships
  • Communication Skills very literal and concrete,
    may blurt out thoughts, limited use of gestures,
    precocious speech, may have restricted interests,
    repetitive behaviors (especially when stressed)
  • Change is very hard- inflexible adherence to
    non-functional routines or behaviors. Likes
    rules!
  • Needs to find interest or relevance to be
    motivated.
  • Sensory sensitivities smell, textures light,
    sound

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Aspergers - What you can do
  • Provide very concrete and specific instructions
    rules to follow
  • When possible relate to area of interest
  • Make any changes as predictable and structured as
    possible
  • Be aware of hypersensitivities to light, noise,
    smell etc.

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Mobility Impairment--Define
  • Orthopedic or neuromuscular conditions can impact
    mobility and/or hand functions.
  • Spinal Cord Injury (paraplegia or quadriplegia),
    Cerebral Palsy, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis,
    amputation, Muscular Dystrophy, cardiac
    conditions, Arthritis, and respiratory diseases
  • Movement and function may be facilitated by
    canes, walkers, prostheses, or wheelchairs , as
    well as splints or braces
  • Very wide range of experiences, specific
    diagnoses, prognoses, and severity

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Mobility Possible Challenges and College
  • Manipulation of objects grasping, writing, or
    typing
  • Turning pages, retrieving research materials
  • Physical access to classrooms, offices, and
    programs -Identifying accessible seating
  • Increased time to travel between classes
  • Decreased endurance for extended activity

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Mobility - Non-classroom Challenges
  • Heavy doors
  • Cracks in sidewalks
  • Steep ramps/ pathways
  • Crowds
  • Inaccessible restrooms
  • Inattentiveness of others while walking
  • Power outages no elevator access
  • Slick sidewalks due to rain or ice and snow
  • Difficulty transporting books and equipment due
    to needing arms and hands free

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Hearing Impairments DeafnessDefinition
Frank Bender
  • Hearing impairment is a broad term used to
    describe the loss of hearing in one or both ears.
    There are different levels of hearing impairment
  • Hearing impairment refers to complete or partial
    loss of the ability to hear from one or both
    ears. Can be mild, moderate, severe or profound
  • Deafness refers to the complete loss of ability
    to hear from one or both ears.
  • There are two types of hearing impairment
  • Conductive hearing impairment - a problem in the
    outer or middle ear. This is often medically or
    surgically treatable, if there is access to the
    necessary services. Childhood middle ear
    infection is a common cause
  • Sensorineural hearing impairment - usually due to
    a problem with the inner ear, and occasionally
    with the hearing nerve going from there to the
    brain. This type of hearing problem is usually
    permanent and requires rehabilitation, such as
    with a hearing aid. Common causes are excessive
    noise, aging and trauma.
  • (World Health Organization, 2009)

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Degrees of Hearing Loss
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College Challenges for Students with Hearing
Impairment and Those Who are Deaf
  • Unaware of the degree of their hearing loss
  • Following lecture materials, taking effective
    notes, working in groups, and physical and
    emotional challenges associated with fatigue.
  • Emotional barriers impeding requests for support,
    utilizing campus resources, or open to using
    technology supports.
  • A feeling of both ability level and cultural
    isolation frustration.

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Supports for Students with Hearing Impairments or
those Who are Deaf
  • Communication may be enhanced via speech, hearing
    aids, lip reading, or use of an interpreter
    utilizing sign language.
  • FM or infrared amplification systems may be used
    (amplifies sound from microphone to receiver)
  • Many people who are Deaf learn American Sign
    Language (ASL) as their first language, and
    English as their second language.
  • ASL is a distinct language with unique
    characteristics
  • When utilizing an interpreter speak to the
    student.
  • This could also impact writing skills.

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Strategies to Support Students with Hearing
Impairments or those Who are DeafWhat You Can Do
  • When communicating with student, always face the
    student.
  • Facial expressions, gestures, and body language
    will help convey your message.
  • Use visual aids (PPT, Notes, etc.)
  • Try to avoid writing on the white/chalk board and
    talking at the same time if so, repeat
    paraphrase your message to the class.
  • Be aware of your speech volume and pace
  • Check for comprehension A good strategy for
    entire class.
  • Be open to the use of FM technology

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Current Hearing Technology
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Visual Impairments Blindness--Definition
  • Three categories
  • 1) Restricted Central Visual Acuity
  • 2) Visual Field Loss -Restricted Peripheral
    Vision
  • 3) Difficulty with focusing and eye movements
    (Focusing or binocular coordination)
  • "Low vision" a severe visual impairment applied
    to individuals with sight who are unable to read
    the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even
    with the aid of eyeglasses or contact lenses.
    They use a combination of vision and other senses
    to learn, although they may require adaptations
    in lighting or the size of print, and, sometimes,
    Braille.
  • Legally blind" person has less than 20/200
    vision in the better eye or a very limited field
    of vision (20 degrees at its widest point)
  • Totally blind students have no vision and often
    learn via Braille and/or auditory

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Blindness or Low Vision Potential College
Challenges
  • Reading Course material
  • Following visual information presented in class
  • Becoming oriented to campus, and traveling
    throughout campus
  • Taking notes during class
  • Writing papers
  • Responding to written exams
  • Lack of accessibility of some web pages, pdfs,
    and other electronic resources
  • Technology failures
  • Effectively studying visually based concepts

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VisionWhat You Can Do
  • Determine reading materials far in advance (when
    possible make available in electronic format)
  • Describe visually presented information, be aware
    of print size in lectures
  • Minimize non-text content in exam/quizzes
  • Advance copies of lecture notes, slides, etc..

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Student Veterans
  • Wounded Warriors
  • Head injury (different than past wars higher
    survival rate, head trauma often resulting from
    reverberations of loud blasts, as opposed to
    direct impact to the head)
  • Mobility
  • Hearing
  • Psychological

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Universal and Inclusive Design
  • Molly Sirois
  • Advisor, Disability Services
  • 164 Oregon Hall
  • 541-346-1073
  • sirois_at_uoregon.edu

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Constructs of Disability (based on the work of
Carol Gill, Chicago Institute of Disability
Research)
  • Medical
  • Sociopolitical
  • Disability is a deficiency or abnormality
  • Disability resides in the individual
  • The remedy for disability-related problems is
    cure or normalization of the individual
  • The agent of remedy is the professional who
    affects the arrangements between the individual
    and society
  • Disability is a difference
  • Disability derives from interaction between
    individual and society
  • The remedy for disability-related problems is a
    change in the interaction between the individual
    and society
  • The agent of remedy can be the individual, an
    advocate, or anyone who affects the arrangements
    between the individual and society

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Human Variation Model
  • Disability defined as a mismatch between physical
    and mental attributes and the ability of social
    institutions to incorporate those attributes
    Shriner Scotch, 2001

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Universal Design (UD)
  • The design of products and environments to be
    usable by as many people as possible regardless
    of age, ability, or situation without the need
    for adaptation or accommodation

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Universal Design in Education
  • The design of instructional materials and
    activities that makes learning goals achievable
    by individuals with wide differences in their
    abilities to see, hear, speak, move, read, write,
    understand English, attend, organize, engage, and
    remember.
  • continued


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Universal Design in Education
  • Universal design for learning is achieved by
    means of flexible curricular materials and
    activities that provide alternatives for students
    with differing abilities.
  • These alternatives are built into the
    instructional design and operating systems of
    educational materials. They are not added on
    after-the-fact.
    (Research Connections, Number 5,
    Fall 1999, p. 2)

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Student Panel
  • Undergraduate and Graduate students with
    disabilities share their experiences as college
    students.

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Final Activity
  • Take a few minutes to write
  • Three things you learned and
  • One thing you would like to know.
  • Things to REMEMBER!! Please bring one of your
    course syllabi on Day 3!!!

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Day 2 Agenda
  • History and Laws
  • Special Education
  • Federal Legislation
  • Law and Universities
  • How it Works on College Campuses
  • General Resources
  • Documentation and Notification
  • Accommodations and Other Strategies

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History and Laws
  • History of Special Education
  • IQ testing
  • Civil rights movement
  • State initiatives
  • University of Oregon

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Historical Current Outcomes
  • Employment
  • Earnings
  • Independent Living
  • Post-Secondary
  • Training, 2 Year, 4 year
  • Attendance vs. graduation
  • Increasing numbers
  • Potential causes of poor outcomes

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Legal Issues
  • Heidi von Ravensberg, JD, MBA
  • Adjunct Instructor
  • School of Law
  • University of Oregon
  • (541) 346-2472
  • hvr_at_uoregon.edu

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Federal Legislation Overview
  • 1973 Vocational Rehabilitation Act (Sec. 504)
  • 1974 Educational Amendments Act
  • 1974 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
    (FERPA)
  • 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    (EAHCA)
  • 1986 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments
  • 1990 and 2008 Americans with Disabilities Act
    (ADA)
  • 1990 1997 Individuals with Disabilities
    Education Act (IDEA)

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Law and Universities
  • Non-Discrimination
  • Section 504 (1973 Voc. Rehab. Act) mandates that
    any public institution of higher education that
    receives federal funding including financial aid
    can not discriminate against otherwise qualified
    students with disabilities.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990 ADA)
    mandates that any public or private institution
    with 15 or more employees can not discriminate
    against otherwise qualified individuals with
    disabilities.
  • Admissions
  • Education
  • Exit Requirements

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Admissions
  • Students must be qualified - meet academic and
    technical standards required for admission
  • No quotas on admission
  • Confidentiality - Cannot inquire about a
    disability

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The Enrolled Student
  • Reasonable accommodations
  • Modifications to policies, practices and
    procedures
  • Architectural barrier removal
  • Provision of auxiliary aids and services
  • The institution must make only reasonable
    accommodations or modifications
  • To students who have disclosed and documented
    their disability
  • No undue financial or administrative burden
  • Does not fundamentally or substantially alter
    major program or degree requirements
  • Is not a direct threat to health or safety

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Appropriate educational adjustments INCLUDE
  • Accommodations must be made to allow meaningful
    access to education.
  • Requires one to distinguish between thinking and
    learning processes that are affected by LD or
    ADHD and thinking or learning processes that are
    essential to the academic integrity of a program.
  • Sec. 504 provides examples -- taped texts,
    substitution of required courses, adapting the
    manner in which something is taught or assessed
    -- but provides no guidance on how to apply these
    accommodations.

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Academic Standards
  • Institutions are not required to make
    accommodations that would lower academic
    standards or compromise integrity of programs or
    schools.
  • However, important to be able to justify how an
    alteration would lower the academic standards.

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Legal Decisions
  • Determining Reasonableness of the Requested
    Accommodation
  • Courts will defer to the institutions
    determination where the facts add up to a
    professional academic judgment
  • Courts want to make sure institution goes through
    specific process (did relevant officials consider
    the range of accommodations, feasibility, cost
    and effect on the academic program and come to a
    rationally justifiable conclusion that the
    available alternatives would result either in
    lowering academic standards or requiring
    substantial program alteration.)
  • Wynne v. Tufts University School of medicine, 932
    F.2d 19 (1st Cir. 1991).

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Types of Accommodations
  • Auxiliary aids and services
  • Assistance animals
  • Barrier removal
  • Reduced course loads
  • Incompletes
  • Refrain from academic suspension or termination
  • Substitution of courses
  • Waiver of courses
  • Exam accommodations
  • Excuse or accommodate behavior or conduct

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Legal Decisions
  • Requested accommodations were ordered or found
    reasonable
  • Extra time to take exam or complete course of
    study
  • Retake examinations or courses
  • Modified curriculum or course substitutions
  • Receive incomplete in course
  • Refrain from suspending from academic program

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How it Works on College Campuses
  • Typically one office is responsible for
    determining eligibility and coordinating the
    provision of accommodations
  • The entire institution is responsible for making
    sure the campus is inclusive and welcoming to all
    students

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University of Oregon Disability Services
  • 164 Oregon Hall
  • (541) 346-1155
  • disabsrv_at_uoregon.edu

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College Disability Resource Offices
  • Determine eligibility for accommodations, and
    coordinate as needed
  • Facilitate removal of barriers architectural,
    curricular, attitudinal
  • Empower students to articulate their needs and
    self-advocate
  • Provide guidance on academic issues/decisions
  • Work with faculty and others to increase access
    for all students, and to provide individual
    student accommodations when needed
  • Serve as a resource to university community
  • Develop disability related institutional policies
    and procedures

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Other Support
  • Time management/organizational skills
  • Specific study strategies
  • Academic Planning
  • Teaching self-advocacy/ self-determination
  • Conferencing

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Other UO Resources
  • University Counseling Center
  • Academic Advising
  • Teaching and Learning Center
  • Office of Dean of Students
  • Career Center
  • University Health Center

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Sample Syllabus Statement
  • The University of Oregon is working to create
    inclusive learning environments. Please notify
    me if there are aspects of the instruction or
    design of this course that result in barriers to
    your participation. You may also wish to contact
    Disability Services in 164 Oregon Hall at
    346-1155 or disabsrv_at_uoregon.edu

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Course Syllabi
  • Procedural Considerations
  • Adding a disability statement
  • Working in pairs develop a statement for students
    with disabilities that could be included in your
    course outline.
  • Report Out

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How you Invite Students to Discuss
Barriers/Needs
  • In pairs, think about the first day of class.
  • Do you think you could say or do something that
    would make students with disabilities more
    comfortable disclosing and talking with you?
  • Write a brief example.

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Documentation
  • Students identify disability and provide
    documentation.
  • Meet with student and review all info, including
    history, report of experience, other sources
    (parent/teacher reports)
  • Substantial limitation in a major life activity
  • Diagnosis, Functional Limitations
  • Impact in academic environment

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Confidentiality of Documentation
  • Disability related information is confidential.
    The DS office is charged with maintaining this
    confidentiality.
  • Typically students will want to discuss
    accommodation needs directly with instructors,
    and often will share specific relevant
    information.
  • However, it is the students choice whether or
    not to disclose information, such as the type of
    disability.

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Determination of Accommodations
  • One of the ways that we meet our legal
    obligations and support students is through the
    accommodation process.
  • Enable an otherwise qualified individual to
    have an equal opportunity to participate.
  • Focus of all accommodations is to mitigate the
    effects of disability
  • Designed on an individual basis, may vary from
    class to class for the same person, i.e.
    notetaker in one setting, lab assistant in
    another.

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Proactive Considerations for Determining
Appropriate Accommodations
  • Is the individual Otherwise Qualified?
  • Is the requested accommodation an appropriate or
    reasonable academic adjustment?
  • Would the accommodation require a substantial
    modification to an essential element of a
    program?

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Other Accommodation Considerations
  • Reasonable accommodations should not result in
    the lowering of academic standards or alteration
    of the fundamental nature of a course or program.
  • Denying an accommodation must only be done after
    careful consideration by qualified professionals
    who are knowledgeable about disability and legal
    implications. It is never appropriate for faculty
    or staff to deny a requested accommodation
    without documented consultation.

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Discussion Are These Reasonable Accommodations?
  • A student with visual processing challenges
    requests to not have to write a required paper
  • Student with a learning disability in writing
    asks to spell check quiz
  • Student with a serious documented illness misses
    four weeks of your class
  • Elevator malfunctions and as a result a student
    misses a midterm

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Notification Letters
  • Outlines recommended accommodations
  • May be individualized for a specific class or
    situation, or may be very generic and stable over
    time (i.e. extra time on all exams)
  • Appropriate to have a private discussion with
    student about their needs and perceptions of any
    barriers in a particular course
  • The student chooses how much personal information
    to share

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Notification Activity
  • Imagine that Kevin comes to you at the beginning
    of the first class, hands you his notification
    letter and then goes back to his seat.
  • OR Kevin sends you an email letting you know that
    he has a notification letter.
  • In pairs, discuss how this process of
    notification could be improved

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Typical Accommodations
  • Electronic Formats of Readings
  • Class Relocation
  • Tests and Quizzes
  • Separate Testing Environment
  • Additional Time On Exams
  • Modified Exam Format
  • Assistive Technology
  • Notetaking
  • Sign Language Interpreters
  • Flexible Attendance Policies
  • Course Substitutions
  • Decelerated program

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Alternate Print Formats
  • Most appropriate for students
  • who are unable to or have difficulty with reading
    standard print (blindness low vision visual
    focusing/tracking attention problems)
  • Who have difficulty with reading speed and/or
    reading comprehension
  • Most commonly electronic formats are prepared for
    access to speech output, enlarged font, and
    Braille formats.

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Alternate Print Formats What you can do
  • Order textbooks or course packets early
  • Ask publishers if they have an accessible
    electronic version available before you commit to
    a particular text
  • Identify the order of readings early, especially
    if using excerpts or partial textbooks.
  • Be aware of access when posting online

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Class Relocation
  • Necessary in cases where
  • a student is unable to physically get into the
    building or classroom
  • The distance or terrain between classes is not
    able to be navigated, so they may need to be
    clustered closer together

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Class Relocation and Mobility Challenges what
you can do
  • Be sensitive to the fact that some students may
    have difficulty traveling between classes
    quickly.
  • If a class or class related activity is held in
    an alternate location, ie. Library, Museum, be
    aware of possible transportation challenges
  • Be aware of the layout of the classroom and any
    need for adjustable desks, etc..
  • Report unsafe or hazardous conditions

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Tests/Quizzes
  • When test accommodations cannot be provided by
    the instructor, students may request that
    Disability Services coordinate this process
  • The student submits an online request AFTER the
    student has met with the instructor, and
    discussed accommodations and test parameters
  • The request should be made early, but no later
    than 5 working days before the test. Disability
    Services works in collaboration with the Testing
    Center to facilitate this process.

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Separate Testing Environment
  • Most appropriate for students
  • who have difficulty with
  • Visual distractions
  • Any type of noise
  • Extreme anxiety around performance
  • Perceptions that others are watching them
  • Need to verbalize questions or move around

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Testing Environments- What you can do
  • Discuss accommodation needs privately with
    student
  • Respond in a timely manner if tests are being
    proctored by Disability Services and information
    or confirmation is requested
  • Minimize test scheduling changes whenever
    possible
  • Consider whether you or your department has
    access to an appropriate quiet place for students
    to take exams/quizzes
  • For larger classes, consider offering an
    alternate administration in a smaller room with a
    proctor, ie. GTF who can respond to questions

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Additional Time on Exams
  • Most appropriate for students who
  • Experience slower processing speed (i.e. ability
    at 97, processing speed 3)
  • Experience memory/retention problems
  • Need more time to write and organize thoughts
  • Experience slow reading speed
  • Need a scribe, reader, computer assisted, or
    modified format
  • Experience panic or an inability to think through
    problems when under intense time pressure

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Additional Time on Exams What you can do
  • Some students prefer to take exams with their
    class, but need additional time. Consider
    allowing such a student to start the exam
    earlier, or move to an alternate location at the
    end of the exam for additional time.
  • Consider designing tests so that there is
    additional time built in to the structure for all
    students

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Modified Exam Format
  • Most appropriate for students who have difficulty
    or are unable to demonstrate their knowledge in
    certain formats.
  • For example
  • A student may need a Braille version of an exam,
    a reader, or to utilize speech technology.
  • A student who is not able to accurately fill in
    the bubbles on a scantron sheet may need to mark
    off answers .
  • A student unable to write may need to respond to
    questions on a computer or to a scribe
  • For performance or studio based courses, an
    alternate format may be reasonable, i.e.
    videotaped presentation, oral in front of
    instructor instead of entire class

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Modified Exam Format What you can do
  • Consider the feasibility of offering more than
    one exam format for all students, ie. take home
    version or in class version.
  • Prepare exams in Word with simple text (limited
    graphics). This format is the easiest for
    creating other formats, ie. Braille.

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Modifications to Course Requirements
  • In many cases small adjustments to existing
    course requirements may be appropriate. For
    example, a student who experiences panic attacks,
    or stutters, or has great difficulty with speech
    fluency, may be allowed to write a paper in place
    of giving a presentation. Alternatives to group
    work may be appropriate in some classes.

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Discussion Question
  • What are some strategies to minimize the need for
    individualized test format accommodations or
    modifications to course requirements in your
    course?

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Assistive Technology
  • Scanned materials to speech. Most commonly used
    by students who either are unable to read
    standard print (low vision, or blind) or have
    significant difficulty with reading speed or
    comprehension, and learn more effectively through
    auditory input
  • Voice recognition
  • Enlarged text
  • Alternate formats
  • Range of different inputs (puff switch,
    alternative keyboards, etc)
  • .

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Notetaking
  • Most appropriate for students who have difficulty
  • Writing (fine motor movement, paralysis, pain in
    hand, fingers, or wrist)
  • Processing auditory information
  • With focus and concentration trouble listening
    and writing at the same time
  • Hearing clearly enough to accurately take notes
  • Seeing visual material presented, or seeing well
    enough to write or type notes, switching eye
    focus from paper to screen or instructor

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Notetaking What you can do
  • Consider making outlines and/or notes available
    to all students (rotate volunteers)
  • Allow students to record lectures to supplement
    notes
  • Allow students to use laptops
  • Present new or technical vocabulary visually, use
    in context
  • Prepare lecture outline and make available in
    advance
  • Respond quickly to requests to help identify a
    volunteer notetaker

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Sign Language Interpreters
  • Provided when American Sign Language is the most
    effective form of communication
  • Classes, meetings with instructors, study groups,
    any class related activity
  • When requested, campus events and programs

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Sign Language Interpreters What you can do
  • Make sure that any video clips, movies, etc. are
    captioned, provide scripts when available
  • Provide an additional copy of the textbook or
    other materials to the sign language interpreter
  • Be aware that lighting can be a challenge
    especially in darker rooms

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Flexible Attendance Policies
  • It may be appropriate to be more flexible with
    strict attendance criteria in cases where a
    student is experiencing significant medical
    challenges, and unavoidably misses classes, i.e.
    surgery, chronic illness flare up, manic episode,
    chemotherapy treatment, serious depression, or
    blood transfusions

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Activity
  • Sierra is going through chemotherapy treatments
    and misses 3 consecutive weeks of class.
  • Working in pairs, think about one of your
    classes.
  • Describe two or three accommodations that might
    be reasonable for this student.

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Decelerated Program
  • Some students need to complete their
    undergraduate or graduate degrees over a longer
    than typical period of time.
  • A student may need to reduce their per term
    course load because of medical conditions.
  • There can be financial aid and scholarship
    implications.

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Course Substitutions
  • May be considered for students who are unable to
    meet specific academic requirements due to the
    impact of a disability. These may occur at the
    departmental level with academic major
    requirements, or at the institutional level with
    general education.
  • For example, a student who is deaf may be allowed
    to meet reading competency requirements and have
    a cultural component substitute for an oral
    component of meeting the BA language requirement.
    A student with a severe math disability may be
    allowed to substitute computer based, or logic
    courses.

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Many Accommodations Occur Outside of
Classroom/Lab Settings
  • Housing
  • Recreational
  • Programs/events
  • Student Union
  • Libraries
  • Museums
  • Student Employment
  • Tutoring/Support Programs

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Scenario Activity
  • Sarah contacts you by email to report that she
    has just been released from two days in the
    hospital due to stress, and has been unable to
    attend class for the past 5 days. She has a
    midterm exam tomorrow.
  • How might you respond, what other information
    would you want to have? What would you do?

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Scenario Considerations
  • Separate the immediate issue of the exam tomorrow
    from the medical situation that may or may not be
    an ongoing concern.

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What if you found out that
  • She is a freshman who just broke up with her
    boyfriend of 2 years
  • OR
  • She has Bipolar Disorder and stopped taking her
    medications last week
  • OR
  • She is a returning veteran and a tire blow out
    (like a bomb blast) on the freeway triggered a
    full panic attack she felt safer at the VA
    hospital

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Final Activity
  • If you wanted to tell other faculty members in
    your department two important things about
    accommodating students with disabilities what
    would they be?
  • Please bring a syllabus tomorrow

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Day 3 Practice - Agenda
  • Universal Design an Overview
  • Adaptive Technology Center
  • Creating an Accessible PDF and Syllabus
    Considerations
  • Demonstration of Kurzweil 3000
  • Universal Design and Blackboard
  • Universal Design Designing, Delivering and
    Evaluating Instruction

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Day 3 Practice
  • Today we want to focus on Instruction. In doing
    so, we want to spend time thinking about the
    following
  • Designing InstructionSyllabi, Course
    Planningcontinuation of yesterday afternoon
  • Delivering Instruction-Teaching strategies
  • Evaluating Students
  • Rather than thinking about these issues as
    pertaining ONLY to students with disabilities, we
    want to think about strategies that are good for
    students with disabilities but also good for all
    students.

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Universal Design An Overview
  • What is Universal Design?
  • The philosophy comes from the disciplines of
    engineering and urban planning based upon the
    premise of universal access for all individuals.
  • In terms of developing and building a community,
    the core value would be to permit the optimal
    accessibility for all individuals without having
    to make special accommodations by the nature of
    the pre-planned design.
  • The following factors would be considered
    Safety, engineering options, environmental
    issues, aesthetics, and cost (North Carolina
    Center for Universal Design).

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Whats UDs Connection to Education and the UO?
  • Principles of UD are now being incorporated
    within the educational continuum.
  • Why? With such student diversity, using a UD
    preplanned approach will provide access to
    learning to a greater number of students and will
    potentially reduce the need for individual
    accommodations.
  • A pre-planned UD approach to learning and
    instruction will benefit both the student and the
    professor/instructor.

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Universal Design for Learning and Instruction
  • Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Developed by
    Center for Applied Technology (CAST). UDL is a
    student-focused method that provides strategies
    and advocacy skills to students to help improve
    their access and understanding of the course
    material.
  • Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) Developed
    by researchers from University of Connecticut.
    UDI is an approach to college instruction that
    anticipates diversity of learners and provides a
    framework for university faculty to incorporate
    inclusive strategies into their teaching.
  • Websites
  • CAST www.cast.org
  • University of Connecticut www.facultyware.uconn.e
    du

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Examples of UDI
  • Planning for Instruction
  • Physical Characteristics of Class Room Setting
  • Syllabi
  • Delivery Instruction Curriculum
  • Interaction
  • Material/Information Delivery
  • Informational Resources and technology
  • Environment Class Climate
  • Evaluating Instruction Assessment
  • Feedback Mechanisms
  • Clear Communication and Expectations
  • Assessment Administration and Rubrics

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Adaptive Technology CenterJames Bailey,
Adaptive Technology Access Adviser 140 Knight
Library1299 University of Oregon Eugene, OR
97403-1299541-346-1076 jbailey_at_uoregon.edu
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Adaptive Technology Center Purpose
  • Support adaptive technology across campus
  • Support students using adaptive technology
  • Provide alt-text conversion to students
  • Advise on accessible electronic documents
  • Advise on accessible web

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Alternative Texts
  • A very critical area for student success
  • Required by students who are blind or low-vision
  • Required by students with reading LD
  • Faculty have great impact on this area

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Alternative Texts - 2
  • Texts that can be read by assistive technology
  • Paper text requires conversion
  • Electronic texts may be accessible

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What is an Accessible Alternative Text?
  • Braille
  • Large print
  • Electronic files gt text files audio files

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Focus On Accessible PDF Files
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Rationale
  • PDF is the most common document file on Moodle or
    Blackboard
  • May be structured for accessibility
  • This helps students with low vision, blindness
    and reading learning disabilities

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Tools
  • MS Word
  • Acrobat Pro

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Types of PDF Files
  • Picture only
  • Searchable text
  • Tagged

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Ways to Create PDF Files
  • Scan a document into PDFthe least accessible
    product
  • Convert from a picture filesimilar to a
    scanned document
  • Create from word processing file more accessible

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Examples of Poor PDF files
  • Very poor initial copy
  • Poor copy and a marked original

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Poor Scanning Example One
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Poor Scanning Example Two
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Identifying a Picture Only PDF
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Identifying an Editable PDF
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The Select Button
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Converting image-only to text
  • Convert within Acrobat pro

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Reading converted text
  • Recheck with select and try to read it

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Creating an Accessible PDF with MS Word
  • Using correct document structure in Word
    makes for a very accessible PDF.
  • It essentially takes no more time than ignoring
    document structure.

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Sample Syllabus
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Sample Syllabus
  • Columns
  • Headers
  • Table

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Sample Syllabus page two
  • Table
  • Headers
  • Image

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Exercises2. Creating PDF from MS word
  • Software
  • MS Office 2000 (or later) on Windows platform
  • Adobe Acrobat 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, or 8
  • Office 2007 requires Acrobat 8.1 (may also use
    Save as PDF plug-in from Microsoft)

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Creating PDF from MS word
  • Sample Workflow
  • Create your content in MS Word
  • Use "Styles" to provide document structure and
    modify content presentation
  • Use the Column tool in MS Word to display
    multi-column layout
  • Add appropriate descriptions for any images

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Creating PDF from MS word - headers
  • Use Headers instead of just Bold

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Creating PDF from MS word columns Use
Columns instead of just tabs
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Note Ruler
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Creating PDF from MS word - tables
  • Use headers in tables
  • Expand abbreviationsi.e. Tuesday instead of Tue

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Exercises2. Creating PDF from MS word - images
  • Use alternative text descriptions

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Creating PDF from MS word - conversion
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Check Reading Order One
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Check Reading Order Two
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Summary Accessible PDF
  • Start with clean well copied original matter
  • Create text-based or editable text
  • Create new documents in Word
  • Use header styles rather than BOLD
  • Create true columns
  • Put in Table headers
  • Use alt-text for images

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  • Demonstration of Kurzweil 3000

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UNIVERSAL DESIGN BLACKBOARD
  • Robert Voelker-Morris
  • Teaching Effectiveness Program (TEP)
  • Teaching and Learning Center
  • 68 PLC (The Teaching and Learning Center)
  • 541-346-1934
  • rmorris1_at_uoregon.edu

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Blackboard
  • Create File Name Conventions
  • Provide File Extensions
  • Construct Navigational Consistency
  • Designate Essential Content
  • Provide Support Resources
  • Consider Multiple Media Types

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I. Planning for Instruction
  • Designing Your Course
  • Working in groups, create a list of important
    issues to consider when designing your course.
    These issues should be relevant to students with
    disabilities but might also be important for all
    learners.
  • Try to incorporate issues into your own course
    planning (examples, list of assignments, choices,
    timing of reading, strategies for instruction,
    calendar of topics, due dates, homework,
    assessment, grading options, etc.)

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II. Delivering InstructionInstructional
Techniques
  • Multi-sensory or multi-format instructional
    approaches (Visual, verbal, auditory,
    practice/hands on)
  • Auditory output redundant with info on visual
    displays
  • Visual output redundant with auditory displays
  • Opportunities for group work to verbalize and
    apply understanding
  • Challenge!!
  • Balancing the need to cover a lot of content
    while delivering it in a variety of instructional
    formats!

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Delivering InstructionInstructional Techniques
continued
  • Grouping Strategies (Peer-tutoring, Cooperative
    learning).
  • The importance of clearly defined roles
  • Individual Group Accountability
  • Can be implemented for projects or classroom
    activities

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Delivering Instruction
  • Individually, think of a commonly taught lesson/
    activity in your area. Write down the topic and
    the typical approach you use to deliver
    instruction.
  • Working in pairs, discuss each approach and
    generate a list of strategies that might enhance
    the instruction for students with disabilities
    AND all students--REPORT

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III. Evaluating Students/ Assessment
  • Providing options and choice
  • Rubrics
  • Curriculum-based Assessment

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Providing Options Choice
  • Different assessments for different content
    throughout the course.
  • Choice of assessment using alternatives for each
    content area (multiple choice, or essay).
  • Pr
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